Take medicine to become addicted to drugs, strong loquat dew is the first addiction2017-03-19 06:10:09 177 ℃
3Police seized the immortal water or shake head water, was part of the domestic young people's favorite disco. Cough syrup containing codeine or ephedrine ingredients, mixed with coke. (Vision China / chart)
This is one of the 3.15 articles in the southern weekend. If you want to read the full project, please buy "Southern Weekend" in March 16, 2017.
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Ten years ago, the Southern Weekend disclosure of federal cough syrup addiction. Ten years later, non prescription drugs strong loquat dew, the first case of addiction.
Cough water addiction patients are more likely to make impulsive decisions, the most terrible consequences, is to commit suicide.
2015, codeine containing cough water upgrade to the second category of psychotropic drugs". Illegal trafficking, transportation of such cough water, like drug trafficking.
Limp, swollen feet, can not continue. In February 16, 2017, Huang Jun down, into the addiction and psychotherapy center.42 year old body, is aging every day. Stomach becomes fragile, every meal can not eat a few mouthfuls, will spit out. Huang Jun said he was going to die, "more like a wreck". The nurse measured his heart rate, only 30 times per minute, while the normal person was between 60 and 100 times per minute.
Real life has long gone, and even who they are, is a very difficult question to answer. There are two "Huang Jun", a born in Guangzhou, long-distance truck drivers; the second in 2014 because of illness. That year, he was very ill and had a cough attack. He bought a bottle of the most common "strong loquat syrup" in a pharmacy". According to the normal dose, three times a day, each time 15 ml. He is eager to seek treatment of 100 ml, three times to drink up the potion.
Drink six bottles of water in one breath. He also fell in love with strong loquat dew.
An endless stream of liquid medicine makes the body produce euphoria. When awake, he warned himself not to drink again, but the withdrawal of less than 10 hours, he felt chest tightness, headache, cold sweats, bones itch, such as ants bite pulp. He unscrewed the bottle and the whole body was trembling.
This is a devil body and constantly nightmares, but also the memory is damaged, spirit of being torn -- ten years ago, the southern weekend was the presence of phi delta dew Anticol addiction problem (see "December 18, 2007" Anticol "underground sales chain survey"); ten years later in February 2017, Guangdong No.2 People's Hospital (hereinafter referred to as the Guangdong Province Medical Research) and the South China Normal University confirmed that the cough water will really change the structure and function of the brain, let the brain "is not normal".
But for once in the office of the Guangdong No.2 People's Hospital, addiction and psychological treatment center for the day Hui, Huang Jun, to his surprise, still engaged in drug addiction treatment for 13 years, members of the society of toxicology toxicology Specialized Committee Chinese drug dependence, or the first encounter Qiangli pipalu addiction patients. As a non prescription drugs, most likely, but also the first case.
Food and drug administration official website shows that there are a total of 118 domestic enterprises to produce strong loquat dew, many of whom are Huarun's 39, magic pharmaceutical and other listed companies. The main efficacy of drugs for cough expectorant, attention to the column will usually be marked: This product should not be taken for a long period of time, 3 days of medication without symptoms, should go to hospital for treatment.When you see Hui Hui, Huang Jun has been unemployed for a year. The long-distance truck driver, every time out, will carry a bag, filled with 10 bottles of strong loquat dew.
In the past, he was able to drive for five or six hours. But after drinking drug addiction, sleepy, eyelids always fight. Along the way, he kept talking: adhere to the service area to rest, sleep a while."
Once open, the sign in front of the service area of the past, told him to consciousness. He fell asleep. Actually, it's just a trailer. When he woke up, just arrived at the entrance to the service area - in the case of sleep, he opened two km.
Wake up after a cold sweat. He quit his job and sold the car.
For three years, Huang Jun ignored the alarm at least for the two time. The first to drink strong loquat dew, he felt a strange light". The body's response to upset him, but then he thought: This is probably the cough symptom better soon.
A few days later, he was one of six bottles of liquid bottle will be able to finish two times. Again he felt something was wrong: the brain is disorderly, "sleep like fish, toss about, always miss the potion."
Weakness, loss of appetite...... Can not stand the side effects of suffering, Huang Jun had to continue to take, the dose increased to three bottles a day, once every two hours. He did not want to talk with his people around the sudden distress, each drink, put the medicine bottles and packaging into a plastic bag, set a certain amount, secretly taken to the river to throw away.
Strong loquat dew is not expensive, a bottle of ten yuan. Seems to spend little, but Huang Jun had a bill: he drank a total of 5000 bottles, spent nearly $fifty thousand.
Huang Jun heard of the harm of the abuse of cough water, but a strong loquat syrup will be addicted to drink, but he did not expect. "This kind of non prescription drugs can be bought in any drugstore. What's the problem?"
February 16th, He Rihui and Huang Jun met. Took the medicine bottle, the composition of a column poppy shell.
The pharmacological action of poppy shell is similar to that of morphine." I understand the core ingredient Hui, its main role is to cough and expectoration. After entering the human body, poppy shell acts in the body of opioid receptors, so that the brain produces euphoria, similar to heroin addiction. With the prolongation of the time of administration, opioid receptor produced tolerance to the poppy seed, and the dose should be increased gradually to achieve the original effect. Once a sudden withdrawal, withdrawal reactions occur, very painful.
And because of medical treatment and drug addiction, Huang Jun, in the same ward on the same floor, Hu Hu, who belongs to a typical cough friends, three friends were lured into the circle.
The vast majority of "cough friends" encounter similar: most of them are less than 20 years old, lack of judgment and self-protection awareness. With the same drug, from the initial attempt, to a bottle, two bottles a day, until the same as usual not eat French fries.
"Federal" "Pavilion" "Li Jian Ting", which is a few brands favored by hu. They do not contain poppy seeds, but there is a component called codeine, the intensity of about 1/4 of morphine, the dose is less, codeine has a very good antitussive effect, increase the dose can cause central nervous system excitement. "Federal" "Health Pavilion" also contains ephedrine, refined can be used for the manufacture of methamphetamine.
The longer you drink, the simple cough water has been unable to meet the "high" desire. So, cough water mixed with cola, red bull or iced tea - known as the circle of fairy water, came into being.
This drug addicts are not in the minority. Since 2008, Guangdong Province medical addiction medicine treated a number of CLOU continued cough syrup addiction patients. An average of 5 years of addiction history, the amount of the daily dose of 500 ml, physical symptoms of a variety of symptoms: love fantasy, confusion.
"Has the brain structure and function changed before the exception? Can it be observed by noninvasive imaging?" This caused the Guangdong Provincial Medical Imaging Department of interest. In the past, chronic diseases such as drug addiction and mental illness, doctors rely mainly on the scale to make judgments, subjectivity is strong.
The study team screened 80 patients, each receiving an "impulse scale" and "Iowa gambling task". "This review is a special assessment of the patient's behavior patterns." Team members, Guangdong Province Department of Radiology medical doctor Ma Xiaofen explained. The results showed that patients with cough water addiction is more likely to make impulsive decisions. The most terrible consequences of this impulse is suicide.
At the same time, there were 60 heroin addicts. "What are the two kinds of drug effects on brain structure and brain function, affecting the pros and cons?" Ma Xiaofen said that these are interested in the research team.
After scanning imaging, the research team found that, like heroin addiction patients cough syrup addiction patients also appeared signs of active brain abnormalities; play the role of signal transduction of nerve fibers appeared abnormal, which explains why they perform memory loss; control network also have abnormal functional connectivity, which explains why the execution the control ability of patients addicted to less than ordinary people.
The longer the abuse of cough water, the higher the degree of abnormality." Guangdong Province medical imaging department director Jiang Guihua told the Southern Weekend reporter, research reveals the physiological mechanism of chronic drug addiction.
In May 2015, the food and drug administration order, containing codeine cough syrup upgrade from normal prescription drugs "Second Kind Psychotropic drugs". This means that illegal trafficking, transportation of such cough water, will be regarded as drug trafficking.
Unknown flow is one of the reasons for the escalation of management. There are media reports, 2010, domestic manufacturers of cough syrup produced a total of two thousand million bottles of cough water, most of the flow to the Guangdong area, and then the medical institution in Guangdong area less than the amount of 40 thousand bottles.
However, now a number of pharmacies in Guangzhou, have made it clear that there is no purchase and sale. I listen to a friend said in Shenzhen, there are pharmacies in 2015 when the notice just down, not seriously, continue to sell, the results were directly revoked the drug business license, and then detention, fines." A clerk told the Southern Weekend reporter, there is no second categories of sales of psychotropic drugs pharmacy, almost no one dare to steal to sell.
According to our grasp of the situation, Shenzhen Jun, Zhuhai Federation of the two local production companies, cough water production decreased by 50% compared to the previous row, sales decreased by 80%." Guangdong food and drug administration responded to the Southern Weekend reporter said that since September 1, 2015, enterprises in the production workshop, warehouse entrance and other key parts of the installation of camera devices, monitoring production activities.
In January 2017, the food and drug administration again issued a notice requiring manufacturers to add the following content in codeine based drug instructions: "children under 12 years old disabled; with chronic respiratory disease in children and adolescents aged 12-18 should not be used."
But management upgrades, does not seem to return the equivalent. Close the door, pull the curtains, Hu's friends became the mysterious brown green liquid. These codeine containing cough water is packaged in 60 or 120 ml plastic bottle, after the hand came to this small town north of where they are, the last stop is the Hu family. As for the home, Hu himself has not seen, make a phone call, and then wrapped around.
On the Internet, the Southern Weekend reporter easily added a few wholesale cough water QQ group. Some people just get the goods to upload pictures, bottles and cans with a table in Las Vegas, as winners in the off chip.
"Federal, Dali, or bag Austria?" Ask him. This is the circle line, "Dali" refers to the red package "Li Jian Ting", "Olympic" bag "refers to bags of cofetol".
Southern Weekend reporter pretending to buy, and then politely asked the source, was kicked out of the group - reselling cough water can not make public, which is never touch taboo.
At present, there are a total of 13 codeine containing compound oral liquid preparations available, including 9 domestic varieties and imported varieties of 4. The latest data China Market Research Center is the whole industry in 2012 sales revenue of 378 million yuan, Nanchang Li Jian pharmaceutical "Li Jian Ting, Shenzhen Zhijun pharmaceutical" Anticol "and" Hongkong aumei pharmaceutical cofetol ", established the leading position in the industry.
For the direction of drug inquiries, Shenzhen Jun pharmaceutical marketing center staff replied, I do not know anything."
"Drugs flow into illegal channels, that is the problem of operating companies." Nanchang Li Jian pharmaceutical administrative department official said, cough water is not how much we want to produce how much production. We strictly implement the production plan issued by the state, and sell it to the business units with legal qualifications." But for the sales channels, the official refused to disclose.
According to our grasp and investigation of the situation, the market is the main source of circulation in May 2015 before the production, and no 'psychotropic drugs' identification of the stock of products." Guangdong food and drug administration responded that these illegal products into the illegal channels of confidentiality, regulatory difficulty.
Cough water is indeed purchased from the legitimate channels of production enterprises, but some companies know that the flow is unknown, but open one eye closed one eye." Southern food and drug administration system, a staff member said.
Southern Weekend reporter mastered a number of judicial documents confirmed this point. In 2012, for profit, Jian Nanchang pharmaceutical Chongqing office clerk Yao Qihui without obtaining the "drug license" situation, borrow Chongqing Zhonggui pharmaceutical company name, the company purchased several times from "Li Jian Ting", increase sales to three of logistics Chongqing branch staff ai. AI again, Li Jian Pavilion transfer to Nanchang sales, the final flow does not have the hands of qualified sales.
In accordance with the requirements of the State Drug Administration: the sale of such goods must be cough water, transfer of the library list issued by the sellers, the seller's sales staff to send the goods to the warehouse for goods, buy goods issued by the storage list. To circumvent the rules, your fake "Li Jian Ting" import and export list.
169 thousand years, Yao Qihui signed a contract for the 19 time, from the establishment of the health care industry to buy Li Ting Ting, the bottle, priced at more than 435 yuan. Only from AI somewhere, it will be illegal profit of more than 70 yuan. March 2015, Yao Qihui was convicted of illegal business, was sentenced to imprisonment in five years and six months.
Southern Weekend reporter found that in May 2015 after the upgrade control, similar cases have been designated as transport, trafficking in drugs".
Access to the food and drug administration, the National Narcotics Control Commission released the annual report of the national drug abuse monitoring, the abuse of psychotropic substances in our country does not seem serious. In 2014, the report shows that the "stability" as the representative of the abuse of medical drugs is still at a low level (1.3%), far below the heroin (56.1%) and methamphetamine (36.8%). However, there are few reports of unregulated prescription drug abuse in public reports, only in the 2009 report, the figure is basically stable at 3.1%-3.3%.
Lu Lin told the Southern Weekend reporter, in 1992, the establishment of a domestic drug abuse monitoring system, the formation of a nationwide monitoring network, but the data are mainly from the drug, drug clinics and other drug agencies.
More than three thousand drug abuse patients treated He Rihui, have never counted in the statistics. March 1st, the Guangdong Provincial Center for adverse drug reaction monitoring center visited He Rihui's treatment center, to understand the strong loquat dew addiction case.
Enterprise initiative report is more extravagant. "Companies know that the abuse of cough water addiction, but just want to make a fortune." He Rihui knew a top of a factory, is recommended to take a sum of money to help treat patients addicted to each other, not to say yes or no.
The current survey of drug abuse is one of the work of the China Institute for drug dependence. But he admits that the epidemiological investigation of juvenile cough water abuse has not been carried out nationwide. In 2008, the Guangdong Provincial Center for drug abuse monitoring conducted a survey of middle school students in some areas of the province, the prevalence was 0.54%. In the second phase of the survey in 2009, the figure fell to 0.09%. 2012, and in 2016, province food and drug administration has carried out a large sample of the three phase of epidemiological investigation, the number decreased year by year, the abuse of cough in the middle school students in low prevalence or distribution of the situation of the state of the world, the food and Drug Administration of Guangdong province".
But He Rihui was not happy. May 2015, codeine containing cough water management upgrade, the black market to carry a high price, the hospital is not normal to sell 20, outside to be more than more than and 200, more expensive than methamphetamine. Some people simply 'skate' (meth)."
Hongkong purchasing as a cough friend another choice. "Cough syrup with codeine content of less than 0.1%, pharmacies need to be present in order to supervise the sale of pharmacists; content in 0.1%-0.2%, to fill in the sales volume on the poison book." Hongkong health department drug Office official told the southern weekend reporter. But in any case, buy Mrs. Pei this kind of codeine containing cough water, far easier than the mainland.
"Teenagers take so much of the psychoactive drugs and over-the-counter drugs, mainly to experience the special mental effects." Liu Zhimin, former director of the National Center for drug abuse monitoring, stressed that the abuse of this "non-medical use" could easily lead to mental and physical dependence.
"The next step, the country is not going to the right, dextromethorphan Qiangli pipalu beauty management upgrade?" He Rihui is a bit of a contradiction. Cough water abuse is a common problem in the world, but into the "second kinds of psychotropic drugs" management, but the mainland. Medicine is a good medicine, according to the dose will not be a problem, he also understand the original intention of the regulatory authorities, but I think, can not solve the problem across the board.
"How much of a prescription drug is sold by prescription? How many doctors are aware of the dangers of iatrogenic drug dependence?" He Rihui said that this is not just the work of the pharmaceutical sector.
For the abuse of prescription drug addiction, the industry's most recognized to the number of Canada issued a "deal with the prescription drug abuse crisis" national strategy. Anti drug agencies, education departments, drug administration, public security and medical institutions to cooperate with each other to jointly implement the prevention, education, supervision and monitoring, implementation and treatment of the five pillars of action, the formation of a closed loop.
Liu Zhimin said that in the social transformation of the special period, in addition to strengthening Anti Doping on science education should be to inculcate the correct outlook on life and value of education.
As a father, Hu had reported a local trafficking cough water dens, it is a street small grocery store, cut the door. Local food and Drug Administration's answer is: private sale of cough water, do not belong to us, to find the public security departments." The public security departments, it seems that the sale of heroin, methamphetamine, the big child is more interested in.
Hu said not so much. He only hoped that the son of Hu's drug addiction can be cured quickly.
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