How to treat heavy metals in edible fungi

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How to treat heavy metals in edible fungi

2018-11-13 20:25:36 212 ℃

Original title: How to treat heavy metals in edible fungi

Editor's note

The rumor that heavy mushrooms contain heavy metals has never stopped. Consumers often get a stunned look at the words “heavy metal”, and there are so many kinds of fungi on the market that they can’t be identified one by one. Sometimes they want to buy fungi to go home. When I look at the table, I feel that I can't start. So, is there really so much heavy metal in the edible fungus? Do all fungi contain excess heavy metals? To this end, we invite industry experts to give professional answers, hoping to help consumers to scientifically identify the fungus on the market, and to obtain health protection while harvesting delicious and nutritious.

When it comes to heavy metals in food, many people will jump out of the concept of "rich heavy metals in edible fungi". So, is heavy metal exclusive to fungi? What kind of fungus is safe?

Heavy metals are everywhere

In fact, all foods contain more or less heavy metals, and heavy metals are ubiquitous in all foods. Edible mushrooms are no exception. Because heavy metals are an environmental pollutant, they are ubiquitous in the environment, such as the presence of heavy metals in air, water, and soil. And our food can not be separated from the environment in the process of planting, breeding, production and processing, transportation and storage, and it is naturally difficult to eliminate heavy metals.

In general, the heavy metal content of wild mushrooms is higher than that of artificially cultivated edible fungi, and the edible fungi that need to be cultivated by soil cover, such as Agaricus bisporus, Coprinus comatus, and Shimeji, are susceptible. Heavy metal pollution in the soil. Relatively speaking, the content of heavy metals in the mushrooms cultivated with straw is smaller.

The enrichment of heavy metals by edible fungi is only a self-protection mechanism of edible fungi for adverse growth environment, and is not the inevitable result of the growth of edible fungi. Edible fungi produce proteins that can complex with heavy metals. They are detoxified by complexing with heavy metals to form non-toxic complexes, so that edible fungi are “not afraid of” heavy metals; in environments, especially in polluted environments, they often exist. A certain amount of heavy metals, so the edible bacteria will "carelessly" eat these heavy metals into their stomachs, and accumulate more and more. This is directly related to environmental pollution.

Although edible fungi have the ability to enrich heavy metals, they also need to have enough heavy metals in the medium or soil for it to be enriched, and the consequences of exceeding the standard will occur. The edible fungi itself will not Produce heavy metal elements out of thin air. The level of heavy metals in edible fungi has a lot to do with the environment. The environment is good and there are few heavy metals. In other words, in a good environment, edible fungi are safer. Therefore, when artificially cultivating edible fungi, the heavy metal content in the edible fungus can also be reduced by controlling heavy metals in the environment. In the artificial cultivation process, we can effectively reduce the heavy metal content through fertilizer control, soil optimization and water quality control. Usually, you don't have to worry too much. From some tests and experiments on the content of heavy metals in edible fungi, artificially cultivated edible fungi in non-polluted soils were hardly enriched with heavy metals.

China's "GB2762-2017 National Food Safety Standards for Contaminants in Foods" has strict limits on common heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in edible fungi, and the specific limit values ​​are also in the standard. Very clear. For the mushroom products sold in the market, the regulatory authorities will carry out residue testing of heavy metals in strict accordance with the limits of the pollutants in the food to ensure the safety of consumers.

Select safe fungus consumption

Heavy metals are generally invisible and intangible, so for consumers, only the person’s facial features are It is difficult to judge whether the edible fungus you bought has any heavy metals. So how do ordinary consumers avoid the risk of heavy metals exceeding the standard? The best way is to go to the regular market, supermarkets to buy fungi products, because the products in these places usually have stricter quality control, the risk will be smaller. If you collect your own fungus in the wild, you will not only have the possibility of picking up poisonous mushrooms, but also because you have not tested it by professional institutions, you may have collected edible fungi with excessive heavy metals. Once you eat it, it will affect your health. Therefore, consumers are advised not to eat fresh and edible mushrooms in the wild.

According to the test results in the regular market, the heavy metals in most edible fungi have not exceeded the standard. Even if the heavy metals in the edible fungi exceed the standard, most people should eat a few kilograms of dried mushrooms every day to produce Actual hazard. Therefore, the normal diet is not too worried.

But if you are from a balanced diet, it is recommended that healthy people should not exceed 50 grams of bacteria per day after eating water. Edible fungi are not the main source of nutrients in the diet, the main role is to provide some fungal polysaccharides. Although the dietary fiber content of the fungus is high, it cannot completely replace the nutritional effects of fresh vegetables such as green leafy vegetables.

Director of Business Unit of Kexin Food Nutrition and Information Exchange Center 阮光锋