Several perpetual motions for human design, the last one is completely served!2018-12-24 00:25:37 19 ℃
Perpetual motion machines are a type of machinery that does not require external input of energy, energy, or the ability to continuously move and perform external work under conditions of only one heat source.
History has been keen on developing various types of perpetual motion machines, including academics like Da Vinci and Joule. Grandmaster. After the establishment of the thermodynamic system, the academic community determined that the perpetual motion machine is contrary to the basic principles of thermodynamics, and excluded it from the orthodox academic circles.
However, the perpetual motion researcher has never been interrupted. From one side, it can also be argued that human enthusiasm for perpetual motion and the practice of creating perpetual motion have promoted the establishment of thermodynamic systems and advances in mechanical manufacturing technology.
In 1775, the French Academy of Sciences passed a resolution declaring that it never accepts perpetual motion. It is now strictly forbidden for the US Patent and Trademark Office to grant a patent certificate to a perpetual motion application.
A machine that does not consume energy and can work forever, it violates the law of conservation of energy, so it is called "first Class perpetual motion machine".
Continuously extracting heat from seawater or air in nature without a temperature difference A machine that transforms into mechanical energy, which violates the second law of thermodynamics, is called the "second type of perpetual motion machine." These two types of perpetual motion machines are concepts that violate the current objective scientific laws and can never be manufactured.
The most famous first-class perpetual motion in history is the "magic" proposed by the Frenchman Henneco in the thirteenth century. "Wheel", the magic wheel realizes perpetual motion by a series of movable cantilever arms placed on the runner, and the cantilever in the downward direction will fall downward under the action of gravity, away from the center of the runner, so that the downward direction torque is increased, and the upward direction The cantilever is close to the center of the wheel under the action of gravity, the torque is reduced, and the imbalance of the torque drives the rotation of the magic wheel.
When energy changes from one form to another, absolutely It is impossible to convert 100% into this form. For example, the heat generated by the friction between materials.
He designed that the heavy ball on the right is farther from the center of the wheel than the heavy ball on the left, not on either side. Under the action of the balance, the wheel will rotate in the direction of the arrow, but the experimental result is negative.
▲Da Vinci designed by Leonardo da Vinci
Da Vinci is keenly Conclusion: Perpetual motion is impossible to achieve. In fact, from the principle of leverage balance, in the above two designs, although the weight of each weight applied to the wheel on the right side is large, the number of weights is small.
▲The perpetual motion of gravity
The exact calculation can prove that there will always be a proper The position, the rotations (torques) in the opposite direction of the weight applied to the wheels on the left and right sides are exactly equal, cancel each other out, and the wheels reach equilibrium and stand still.
The first second type of perpetual motion device in history was the 1881 American John Tomji for the United States. The zero-engine designed by the Navy, which uses the heat of seawater to vaporize liquid ammonia and promote mechanical operation. However, this device cannot be continuously operated because the liquid ammonia after vaporization cannot be reliquefied in the absence of a low-temperature heat source, and thus the circulation cannot be completed.
In the 1820s, French engineer Nikola Kano designed an ideal heat engine to work between two heat sources— - Carnot heat engine, Carnot heat machine theoretically proves that the working efficiency of the heat engine is related to the temperature difference between the two heat sources. The German Rudolf Clausius and the Englishman Kelvin proposed the second law of thermodynamics after studying the Carnot cycle and the first law of thermodynamics.
▲ Schematic diagram of the Carnot heat engine
This law states that it is impossible to draw from a single heat source The heat makes it completely useful and does not have other effects. The second law of thermodynamics proposes to invalidate the second type of perpetual motion, and one of the expressions of this law is that the second type of perpetual motion cannot be realized.
▲The perpetual motion of gravity
▲Permanence of the capillary action of thin tubes
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