Mysterious signals in the depths of the universe? This blockbuster article about aliens has been brushed on the screen, but scientists are crazy about it.

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Mysterious signals in the depths of the universe? This blockbuster article about aliens has been brushed on the screen, but scientists are crazy about it.

2019-01-13 09:03:31 95 ℃
< p > < strong > Produced: Popular Science China

< strong > Produced: Zuo Wenwen

< strong > Supervised by Shanghai Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences: Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences

A telescope in Canada captured 13 fast radio storms in two months, including one very unusual repetitive radio wave, which came from 1.5 billion light years. Outside. The two papers were also published in the world's top academic journal and the British Journal Nature in the early morning of Beijing time.

In a few moments, I believe that everyone must have been bombarded by articles with titles like "Foreign Media Cracking", "Aliens" and "Mysterious Signals of the Universe". Yesterday, the author was shocked by such Wechat articles. As soon as I looked at them in the morning, I had already seen 100,000 +. The interesting and unreliable process of opinions and arguments is beyond description.

On the one hand, I lament Xiaobian's rich imagination and succeeded in attracting the public's attention. On the other hand, I also reflect on how scientists and media should cooperate to transmit correct information to the public in the new media era, and how our public should have the golden eyes to recognize false news and not to disseminate false news. People.

Of course, there is no basis for oral expression. Take one of the Wechat articles as an example (hereinafter replaced by "Wechat A"). Please come with the author to see it.

The title of the article A of Weixin is "Foreign Media Cracking!" It's really aliens: Do the mysterious signals in the depths of the universe need to be answered? "

Wechat A: First of all, show your attitude, friends, the following views are not what I said, I also get information from other reliable media and papers; I don't understand, so I twist what I understand, don't blame me me me.

Wechat A: After wearing a safety helmet, foreign media like "BBC News" began to pour out reports on a scientific progress, which showed keywords: deep space, radio signals, rapid radio bursts, repetition, and "could be aliens", possibly aliens. The article also shows the headline of the American Council for the Promotion: "Canadian scientists discover mysterious radio signals from the depths of the universe".

Author: Up to now, the feeling is quite normal. It's good to introduce the background before writing an article. Clicking on the reports and papers of the American Association for the Promotion of Radio Sciences, I think the reliable title should be "Canadian Scientists Discovered the Second Repeated Rapid Radio Storm with the CHIME Radio Telescope" or "CHIME Radio Telescope Discovered the Second Repeated Radio Storm". But apparently these titles are less attractive. So instead of talking about fast radio storms, the American Association for the Advancement of Science is talking about "mysterious radio signals in the depths of the universe". This shows the importance of the title, the key is to ensure that there is no error and misleading situation to attract attention.

Wechat A: Put forward the key word --"Rapid Radio Storm", and point out that it is difficult to understand. We gathered a bunch of evidence, listed as follows:

1. Until 2007, scientists first discovered FRB signals.

Rapid radio storms, as the name implies, are objects that emit intense radio radiation in a very short period of time, usually referring to the total energy released by the sun in several milliseconds or even decades in various bands. Please confirm the order of magnitude.

Wechat A:

2.The first complete FRB was discovered in 2011 and published in the Journal Nature in 2015. Attempt to emphasize the point: FRB110523 signal arrived on May 23, 2011, it is 6 billion light years away from us.

Author: Yes. The comment is "How difficult it is to determine the FRB signal in 2011 after four years of research". In addition to scientific facts, express subjective feelings, so that readers have a sense of substitution, this writing method is worth learning when writing popular science articles in the future.

Wechat A:

3. Another article published in 2017 indicated the discovery of FRB121102. Emphasis: The signal arrives on November 2, 2012, 3 billion light-years away from us. The signal is a repetitive FRB signal.

Here are some screenshots of the papers, which are concise, such as "Single signals may be produced by cosmic bodies, but how do you explain repeated signals?" "

Author: The screenshots posted in the article are all right, and most of the information points can be seen alone. From these information deduced point of view, there is a bit of intentional misleading, forcible input suspicion.

For example, "Single signals may be generated by cosmic bodies, but how do you explain repeated signals? "It seems to be telling you a certain fact that repeated FRB signals cannot be generated by cosmic objects, so it is easy to introduce the"sending signal of intelligent alien civilization"by boat. Is that true?

Please allow me to continue reading:

Because FRB is difficult to predict, it was not until 2007 that the first FRB was discovered. Up to now, more than 60 cases of FRB have been recorded by human beings, and they usually disappear once. However, on November 2, 2012, astronomers first discovered a recurring FRB, FRB 121002, which was discovered through the Arecibo radio telescope. According to data analysis, the source is located in a dwarf galaxy about 3 billion light-years away from Earth. According to the theory of

, fast radio storms occur in highly magnetized environments, which may be caused by collisions between black holes and neutron stars, or by supernova explosions, as well as by strong magnetic fields and fast rotating neutron stars and black holes.

Delta Figure 1: Artist's Phenomenon Diagram of FRB, which shows that FRB may originate from neutron stars. Photo Source: L. Calada / ESO < br >

< p > The focus has come. Because the current theoretical model can explain the instantaneous FRB, but it is not clear about the repetitive FRB signal. After all, the repetitive FRB signal has been found, which will give astronomers time to study. This does not mean that repeated signals are not produced by cosmic bodies, does it? Of course, the wisdom of extraterrestrial civilization can not be ruled out in theory, which is the final option of astronomers.

Figure 2: FRB 121102 frequency-time chart, photo source: cnet.com

Next, I would like to invite readers to go down with two thoughts, one following the train of thought of Wechat A, "must be done by extraterrestrial civilization". The second is following the train of thought, "repeating FRB is interesting, but in the future it is likely to get a more scientific explanation based on current knowledge and new observations. Alien civilization is the last option to face the unknown, not the only or the first option.

Wechat A:

and then by pasting screenshots to prove that not only Xiaobian think so, but also scientists think so. Moreover, the new data took scientists six months to observe using high-end equipment.

raises everyone's doubts higher and higher, and does not forget to go back and ask, "Don't forget the 6 billion light-years FRB 110523 ahead. At that time, 6 billion light-years, and now this signal is sent from a region 3 billion light-years away, "continue to comment," It's hard to explain, right? The only possibility is that somewhere in the universe there's a'person'sending you repetitive signals.

Author: Generally speaking, if readers read here without discrimination, they will have a sense of identity, maybe there are real aliens. However, as previously analyzed, the physical mechanism of repeating FRB is not clear. What other possibilities? Are all unknowns caused by aliens? Wait a minute. Take a sip of water and calm down. Wechat A will continue to press ahead later. Haha, before presenting you with the next evidence, I will introduce the new telescope used in this progress slowly, in short, the word "cow". Can you not believe my introduction if the equipment of such a cow is put here? Progress has come, according to an article published in Nature magazine. As soon as the telescope was put on line, 13 new FRB signals were taken, and a second repetitive FRB, FRB 180817, was found. It was closer to us, about 1.5 billion light-years away.

Author: This style of writing wants to catch up and make the reader relaxed.

Not much gossip. Let me introduce to you the new progress of the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME), the observation band is 400M to 800MHz. It looks like this.

Figure 3: What CHIME looks like at the moment. Image source: CHIME

It is located at Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory. It is a new type of radio telescope without moving parts. Its goal is far-reaching. Within its observation frequency range of 400M-800MHz (1MHz = 1 million Hz), it draws a three-dimensional density map of hydrogen, the richest element in the observable universe, which is used to study the expansion history of the universe. At the same time, these signals can also be used in the research of fast transient radio radiation. Its wide field of view and wide frequency range make it a master of discovering new FRB and monitoring pulsar signals every day. After CHIME finds the FRB signal, it will quickly warn and inform other bands of telescopes for follow-up observation. From July to August 2018, 13 FRBs were found in CHIME which is still in the debugging stage, and the second repetitive rapid radio burst FRB 180814 was also found. The signal source of FRB 180814 is located in a galaxy about 1.5 billion light-years away from Earth.

Figure 4: The distribution map of 13 newly discovered FRBs

Wechat A:

Next, we began to simplify the above evidence as follows: in 2012, 3 billion light-years; in 2018, 1.5 billion light-years, and give you enough time to think. When you think about it, insert the background music, "All the writers on Earth can't interpret these signals. The only thing that's clear is the repeated FRB information from the same place! "

seems to feel everyone's anxiety and continue to add fuel to the fire. Don't think it's over. Not yet. You know what? These signals have very low frequencies, ranging from 400 to 800 MHz. Throw you another message for acceptance: "According to our human experience," less than 800, or even less than 400M, is often not the signal from ground equipment, but the signal from aircraft. Once you know the information, let the reader judge for himself. In other words, don't you believe that alien civilization is responsible for it?

Author: It is also true that the frequency band of 400 MHz is used for radio communication on the ground. But is it too exaggerated to apply the range of radio communication on the ground to the whole universe? The frequency of these signals is very low, ranging from 400 to 800 MHz, which is also true. Additionally, most FRBs have been found at higher frequencies up to 8 GHz. One of the main reasons is that the frequency band used in radio communication has a great influence on low-frequency astronomical observation, so low-frequency observation itself is less. Now in the low-frequency band, we can see that it is a new discovery, so an article on this new development is talking about this matter. Before the telescope went into operation, some scientific colleagues were worried that its detection frequency range of 400M-800M was too low to detect FRB signals. But it turns out that there are signals even at 400M, and FRB signals can be found at lower frequencies.

Wechat A:

5. After that, the previous information is repeatedly extracted and their so-called "many experts believe that, apart from alien civilization, it is almost impossible to explain these repeated and identical signals".