A frozen person frozen at minus 196 degrees Celsius may never be able to resurrect.2019-02-09 09:18:24 95 ℃
Birth, age, illness and death are natural laws, and no one can escape.Robert Nelson
But Robert Nelson, the world's first doctor to perform "human cryosurgery" with a knife, believes that this is not entirely correct. If the patient has just died and loses his heart rate and breath for 15 minutes, he can be frozen immediately and thawed to cure the patient until the medical technology is developed enough in the future, then the death can be avoided.
Over 350 people, mostly terminally ill patients, have been frozen by the seemingly insane technology of
. For example, Du Hong, the first frozen person in China. On May 30, 2015, Du Hong died of pancreatic cancer. Although his heart had just stopped beating, human cells did not die. Two long-awaited American doctors injected Du Hong with antibiotics and anticoagulants in two minutes to prevent blood coagulation, maintained cardiopulmonary function with respirators and compression equipment, maintained blood patency, and then kept the body temperature at zero through physical cooling. Celsius, then transported to the site of the operation.
completed the preliminary body treatment, followed by blood exchange and pumping, replacing the blood and water in the body with a special biological antifreeze protector "dimethyl sulfoxide". This is because when the human body temperature drops to minus 5 degrees Celsius, the water in the body will freeze, and the volume of the process from water to ice will expand by 10%. The ice crystals formed will penetrate the cell membrane, leading to irreversible physical damage.
The whole replacement process lasted for five hours, and then the doctor separated the body from the head. The head was kept in a liquid nitrogen container of minus 196 degrees Celsius in the United States, and the body was buried in China. When the technology was developed enough, the head was thawed and connected to another body donor to achieve rebirth. This is the case.
Because of the high cost of human body freezing, Alcor Company of the United States has the lowest cost of frozen head of $80,000 and the lowest cost of frozen whole body of $200,000 for 50 years. After more than 50 years, it pays 5% of the total amount of liquid nitrogen usage fee every year. For those who are not wealthy in most households but are eager for their loved ones to live, freezing their heads alone is the only hope.
However, since Dr. Robert Nelson completed his first cryosurgery in 1967, people have never stopped questioning human cryosurgery. When Robert took over the nine frozen patients, they had to return nine frozen people to their families for burial because their families couldn't afford the subsequent high cost of cryopreservation. Many people think it's just a scam. First, they freeze a patient to propagate for themselves, and then they charge a high fee for the follow-up patients to make a profit.James Bedford
Even in 2019, cryosurgery can only promise you to freeze, not to guarantee thawing and revival. There has never been any research to prove that human cells can not be damaged under long-term freezing conditions. James Bedford, the world's first frozen man, has not been revived for 52 years.
More importantly, human freezing is carried out on newly dead people. At this time, cells are gradually losing their activity. It is difficult for the whole human body to freeze these cells to keep their potential activity alive for as long as 50 years so as to ensure non-destructive freezing and non-destructive rewarming. This is the case.
Some biologists believe that if nanorobots are invented in the future, it may be feasible to repair damage at the cellular level, but this technology is at least several hundred years ahead of the current technology, and it is far away.
If the head is frozen alone, we still need to consider how to transplant the head. Current medical technology has been able to connect the skeleton, blood vessel, muscle and other structures of the head and body. The only difficulty is the repair and reconstruction of the nerve center and spinal cord. This location is related to the heartbeat and respiration of the human body, and the spine on both sides of the spinal cord. Nerves are distributed to organs and tissues throughout the body. Each nerve has thousands of axons. It is much more difficult to connect all axons correctly and control immune rejection and ischemia.Wood frog
Human beings can not revive frozen human beings at present, but there are animals in nature that can realize pseudo-death and revival in frozen state. When animals hibernate, they reduce their metabolism rate and energy consumption. Alaska wood frogs can stop metabolism, stop heart beating, freeze for 8 months at minus 20 degrees Celsius, and then recover when the temperature warms up.
This is because there is an ice crystal nucleoprotein in the frog. When the temperature drops below 0 degrees Celsius, the protein starts to express, which can prevent water from turning into ice crystal expansion and penetrate the cell membrane, and protect the whole body cells from injury. At the same time, urea in the body enters the blood as an antifreeze.
Whether human cryosurgery can revive human beings or not, we should also maintain the spirit of exploration for new things and break through the shackles of traditional concepts.
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