What tree is so special? Men were sentenced to 3 years'imprisonment of 2,000 yuan for picking 3 privately, and 30 additional plants were needed.

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What tree is so special? Men were sentenced to 3 years'imprisonment of 2,000 yuan for picking 3 privately, and 30 additional plants were needed.

2019-04-01 11:25:51 242 ℃

In order to beautify the courtyard, a man in Lueyang County, Hanzhong City, Shaanxi Province, in the absence of a collection certificate, excavated three trees from other villagers'self-retaining mountains, two of which survived, and one young tree was washed away by the flood. As a result, not only 30 plants were replanted, but also they were sentenced to three years'imprisonment, three years' probation and a fine of 2,000 yuan. How serious is the consequence of digging three trees privately?

What the man dug was not a common plant, but a key protected plant at the national level, Taxus chinensis. Taxus is a Tertiary relic plant, known as the "living fossil" and "plant giant panda" in the plant kingdom. It has a history of 2.5 million years on Earth. As a rare and endangered natural anti-cancer plant, Taxus chinensis grows slowly and regenerates poorly under natural conditions. In 1994, Taxus chinensis was designated as the first-class rare and endangered protected plant in China. At the same time, it was called "national treasure" by 42 countries with Taxus chinensis in the world. The United Nations explicitly prohibited logging. Is Taxus

very common and has a high probability of misuse? How about the survival and protection of Taxus chinensis at present?

"Taxus belongs to the first-class key protected plants listed in the List of China's National Key Protected Wild Plants. Taxus in China includes five species: Northeast Taxus, Yunnan Taxus, Tibetan Taxus, Chinese Taxus and South Taxus, all of which belong to the first-class key protected plants." Li Bin, an associate researcher at the Forestry Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Forestry Sciences, said in an interview with the Sci-tech Daily, "In China, wild Taxus chinensis belongs to the first-class protection, but cultivated Taxus chinensis does not belong to the protection".

Taxus Mandiyaensis is a hybrid cultivar cultivated artificially. Its female parent is Taxus cuspidata, and its male parent is Taxus cuspidata. It has a long history in the United States and Canada. In 1996, the State Forestry Administration introduced it from Canada, and now it has been planted in many provinces of China.

Li Bin said, "Taxus is an evergreen tree species. If it is not a professional and seldom contacts Taxus in peacetime, the possibility of misharvesting still exists, because it looks a little like other parts of Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae plants."

Li Bin stressed that the state attaches great importance to the protection of taxus. "There are fewer wild yew trees in our country, which were destroyed too much in the past. Especially after the discovery that taxol can be extracted from Taxus chinensis, the economic value of Taxus chinensis has greatly increased. Some criminals intentionally dig and steal taxus, and even peel it, resulting in large-scale death of wild Taxus chinensis.

Studies in the 1990s found that taxol existed in the roots, stems, leaves, barks and fruits of Taxus chinensis, with the highest content in bark. Paclitaxel was sold for $1,000 a gram at the highest price because of its special efficacy in treating breast and ovarian cancer. However, for Taxus chinensis, this medicinal value brings about the "disaster of extinction". According to the data of

in the early 1990s, 80% of the wild Taxus in China were concentrated in Yunnan, and there were about 5 million Taxus plants in Yunnan Province. In addition, a part of the surrounding provinces and cities accounted for 50% of the world's Taxus resources. After the medicinal value of taxol was determined, in April 2002, Yunnan Forestry Public Security organized a sampling survey. It was concluded that 92.5% of the original forests in Lijiang and Diqing of Yunnan were cut down or peeled, and the precursors of taxol were flowed abroad on a large scale. Taxol content was only 0.01-0.02% in Taxus

. From September 1999 to November 2001, Kunming-based Hand Company produced 111 kg of paclitaxel with purity over 98%, most of which were exported to the United States. Experts have calculated that just over 100 kilograms of paclitaxel means that 300,000 to 600,000 wild Taxus trees have been stripped of their bark. Another nightmare of Taxus is that Taxus has become a new favorite in furniture and woodcarving market because it is a superior wood, which is not rotten when exposed to water and has natural fragrance. According to the current situation analysis and Protection Countermeasures of Taxus chinensis var. mairei in Jiangxi Province published in Jiangxi Science, Taxus chinensis belongs to the category of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to incomplete statistics, from 2006 to 2013, the number of illegal felling of Taxus chinensis in Jiangxi Province showed an upward trend. The illegal felling mainly occurred in 23 counties (cities) of 7 cities (districts). The total number of illegal felling Taxus chinensis trees was 560, many of which were transported to the southern region for centuries to make root carved tea tables, Guanyin statues, goddess of wealth and so on.

"Now the country takes germplasm resources as national strategic resources for protection, and attaches great importance to it. From the general situation of Taxus germplasm resources preservation, it is still possible at present. Li Bin said that Taxus chinensis was collected and preserved as an important germplasm resource by the Germplasm Resources Group of the Chinese Academy of Forestry Sciences. For example, in Jinggang Mountain of Jiangxi, Zhangjiajie of Hunan Province and Changbai Mountain of Jilin Province, conservation points of Taxus germplasm resources have been set up. According to statistics,
< p>, at present, the National Forest Germplasm Resource Platform has collected and preserved more than 2000 tree species including Taxus chinensis and 132,000 germplasm resources. The Chinese Academy of Forestry has established 22 comprehensive forest germplasm resources storage banks, covering five climatic zones in China. At the same time, the State Forestry Administration and the Academy of Forestry have established 99 special germplasm resource banks. The special germplasm resource bank is mainly protected by one species or one genus, such as Camellia oleifera, Pinus massoniana, Chinese fir and so on. "And in situ preservation. For example, in natural reserves, state-owned forest farms, scenic spots and other places where natural resources are relatively good and Taxus communities are relatively complete, some in-situ conservation sites are delimited. Li Bin said.

In fact, where there is a Taxus community, it is generally surrounded by mountains, surrounded by trees of other species, shading Taxus, so that it is not disturbed by wind and rain. Qian Hua, a researcher at Zhejiang Forestry Research Institute, said that Taxus can't form a yew forest independently. It usually forms a mixed forest under other trees and coniferous forests. Consequently, the protection should be "zoned protection", and all the trees around it should be protected. "It is not good to protect a few yew trees by light". Why is wild Taxus chinensis listed as an endangered species? That means it's almost gone. Cut one tree and you'll lose one. Zheng Jian, an associate researcher of Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, said that for researchers, there is an urgent need to make a thorough investigation of the wild Taxus population in China; for the protection of taxus, the government's investment is pure, and there is not much economic return. "If someone does this, they need to pay human and material costs. At the policy level, they should give some ecological compensation. Only in this way can people be willing to afforest and form a virtuous circle of Taxus protection and breeding. Such an institutional mechanism can be applied not only to taxus, but also to the protection of all wild animals and plants. < p > < p > Audit: Bruce Wang < / P > < p >