It has been sealed underground by human beings for 100,000 years. Even if the world is destroyed, it can not be opened.

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It has been sealed underground by human beings for 100,000 years. Even if the world is destroyed, it can not be opened.

2019-04-01 11:26:03 1040 ℃

I wonder if you have found a rule: businessmen like to boast about their persistence.

Restaurants and banks always say that they are "a hundred-year-old shop", "a hundred-year-old history". Even those who sell five spices will say that they sell ancestral secret recipes of the former dynasty.

because we humans have a subconscious: the older things are, the more likely they will continue to exist. --- In other words, it has been around for so long, and it must have its reason. The same goes for

. If you have an ancestral necklace, you want to store it safely for decades and centuries, you must think of the Swiss Bank. If you want to store it for 1000 years, you might think of putting it in the basement of Notre Dame in Paris. For 5000 years, only the pyramids of Egypt met the requirements.

Then, if there is a cargo related to the destiny of all mankind now, needs to be stored for 100,000 years, where should it be put?

This cargo concerning human destiny is nuclear waste ; and 100,000 years is the time when their radioactivity has weakened to be environmentally harmless. At present, more and more scientists and politicians have found that the 21st century is likely to be the century of nuclear power.

(Fig: Reaction Core of Nuclear Power Plant)

France, which has taken the lead, has used nuclear power to supply 73% of the country's electricity.

(figure: schematic map of French national energy sources, figure source: EIA)

but nuclear power has a fatal defect

compared with other energy sources, that is, we still have no feasible nuclear waste storage scheme for .

The main source of nuclear waste is spent fuel, that is, spent nuclear fuel. They can't continue to generate electricity through nuclear reactions, but they still contain a lot of radioactive elements. At present, most nuclear power plants in the world, such as San Onofre nuclear power plant in the United States, adopt in-situ treatment. Strong > is stored in a giant pool for five years, then in a special sarcophagus, stored underground in the power station.

However, San Onofre is far from an ideal storage site: It is located at the plate junction, with frequent earthquakes and old facilities.

In fact, almost all nuclear waste storage facilities on Earth are temporary at present. That is to say, the nuclear waste is actually waiting to be transported to a permanent facility that can last for tens of thousands of years.

Figure: San Onofre Nuclear Facility

In the words of an engineer, this is "built the apartment, but forgot to put the toilet, so you can only pile it up at home"

Many people have proposed that nuclear waste be sent to space by rocket. However, this plan is not realistic at least at present, because the probability of successful rocket launching is about 98% in both China and the United States. This success rate is fatal to the dumping of nuclear waste: If it fails once, the consequences will be no less than detonating a nuclear bomb.

At present, the only reliable scheme is to construct a permanent (10,000 years +) burial site underground. How to build such a facility has become a difficult problem for everyone.

(Figure: Karlsruhe nuclear waste burial cave in Germany)

You know, human beings exist in this world only 200,000 years ago. Strong, of which only 10,000 years have passed since the existence of a civilized society with organized division of labour. Can you list any building, organization, or anything tangible or intangible that has existed for more than 10,000 years?

Forbidden City, 600 years

The oldest pyramids, Zussel Pyramid, 4600 years<


is probably the Gobekli Stonehenge in Turkey 12,000 years ago.img src="/1ydzximg/0LabFJ7pIQ"/>

However, the Stonehenge was abandoned by humans around 8000 BC. If we build a permanent burial site for nuclear waste with a planned lifetime of 10,000 years, we must consider the reality that < strong > our civilization will probably not last until the day when nuclear waste is safe.

When modern advanced civilization comes to an end, do we still have the ability and technology to maintain the safety of nuclear waste? When the country and civilization do not exist, can this facility continue to operate?

This is a very realistic question: it was as strong as the Roman Empire and eventually destroyed in the 5th century A.D. No civilization can last that long (except maybe Chinese civilization is still going on)

So designers have to think about these problems with a grand and civilized span of thousands of years. Among the permanent burial facilities currently under construction, the most advanced one is probably the Olkiluoto nuclear facility in Finland.

This may be the safest place on earth: Olkiluoto is not on the seismic belt, and there is no record of tsunamis or hurricanes. Finns excavated a long tunnel 500 metres underground to store sarcophagus carrying nuclear waste. The first batch of nuclear waste will be stationed here starting in 2020.

It is expected that in 2100, when the storage capacity of the whole facility reaches the upper limit, they will destroy the access channel and fill up the whole facility. In this way, the environmental impact of nuclear waste can be minimized. < p > < p > < strong > and after that, the whole facility no longer needs personnel care. Even if Finland disappears, the nuclear waste stored here will not leak.

figure: Olkiluoto's schematic diagram, the green part is the storage area.

but there is still one last potential problem human curiosity. The destruction of civilization does not mean the extinction of human beings. New human beings will emerge from the ruins of ancient civilization.

From ancient times to the present, mankind has been full of curiosity about ancient things. So many people worry that thousands of years later, people from new civilizations may excavate this facility with archaeological curiosity. Then the Pandora box of nuclear waste will be opened in the future. In order to solve this problem, many Finns propose that the Olkiluoto nuclear facility be deleted from all the paper and network records so as to permanently disappear into human memory.

"This is the place we must remember to forget"

(figure: location of Olkiluoto)

and Americans have adopted another method, they want to warn people of future civilization in various ways: leave quickly, the things here are very dangerous.

In 1993, in order to build Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, the U.S. Department of Energy convened anthropologists, linguists and semiologists to do their best and designed many different warning tips.

(Figure: Expert Opinions on Preventing Human Invasion of Nuclear Waste Facilities, U.S. Department of Energy, 1993)

(Figure: WIPP, US Nuclear Waste Isolation Experimental Facility, New Mexico)

Linguists first decided to use warnings in English, French, Chinese, Spanish, Spanish and Spanish. Arabic is written around the facility. Strong > Because in probability, if human civilization exists thousands of years later, they should be able to read at least one of these words.

"... The danger is still present, in your time, as it was in ours. The danger is to the body, and it can kill... This place is best shunned and left uninhabited"

"... Dangers still exist here, in your time, as in ours. The danger here can hurt the body and cause death. Ignore here and leave at once! ___________

Figure: Room displaying information

Figure: Room displaying information

Figure: But what if future humans cannot understand these languages?

In the suggestion given to the Department of Energy by semioticians, designed a series of diagrams to convey information

img src="/1ydzximg/0LabFJ3RB"/>

(figure: illustration in the report of the United States Department of Energy)

in addition to burying the surface of the facility with fear

. The exaggerated building structure has prompted mankind to leave

img src="/1ydzximg/0LabFJihkB"/>

However, these suggestions still have great limitations.

1. The meaning of architectural and graphic symbols will change with the development of history. For example, skeleton symbols represented death in the Middle Ages, but in Disney movies they often symbolized treasure and piracy. We cannot guarantee that future humans will understand this information

2. Human pride and curiosity will not convince them of this information. The pyramid, for example, is the eternal Tomb of the Egyptian royal family and should not be opened. But archaeologists can still dig it out. In 1984, Paolo Fabbri, an Italian scholar, put forward another plan for opening a brain hole:

Architecture will eventually die out, but religion and custom can survive in human civilization. So a new religion should be established to teach people to stay away from nuclear facilities.

Fabbri proposed that cats should be genetically modified to sense radiation. Specifically, a cat glows green when it is near a radiation source. And let the cat multiply in large numbers

and then build a "Cat worship theology" which is widely spread through traditional and folk songs.