Why do some people smoke for the rest of their lives without getting lung cancer?

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Why do some people smoke for the rest of their lives without getting lung cancer?

2017-06-05 10:22:03 263 ℃
Tobacco risk is one of the most serious public health problems in the world. In twentieth Century, about 100 million people died of tobacco. In twenty-first Century, the figure would rise to 1 billion if there were no effective measures[1].Since 1989, the day before the children's Day (May 31st) has been designated as world no tobacco day,Intended to protect the next generation from tobacco damage.

Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world, which poses a great threat to human health. A large number of studies have shown that smoking has been proved to be one of the important risk factors for lung cancer, and the incidence of lung cancer among smokers is higher than that of non-smokers. However, some stubborn smokers will"Some people do not smoke, but also lung cancer, and some people smoke, lung cancer for lifeAnd other similar statements as an excuse for continuing to smoke. Today, let's start from these two angles and talk about tobacco.

Never smokers and lung cancer

According to a study by American academics, the number of lung cancer patients without smoking accounts for 15-25% of the total number of lung cancer patients, and mainly women. Compared with smokers and lung cancer patients, there are some differences in the clinical, pathological and molecular biology of non smoking lung cancer patients[2,3]

Since the "never smokers all A thing has its cause., also have lung cancer", means less the primary risk factors of smoking, the other direction always have an answer.

1, the natural environment

The researchers turned their attention to the natural environment. In 1988, the international agency for research on cancer radon as a carcinogen and a large number of epidemiological studies show that for miners exposed to radon is closely associated with the occurrence of lung cancer, and the recent study shows that indoor radon pollution and the general population of lung cancer, radon exposure has become the second major influence factors of lung cancer[4]A lot of research has also shown that secondhand smoke is another important cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. A meta-analysis of 55 studies from Australia showed[5]A non-smoking wife who lives with a smoking husband has a significantly increased risk of lung cancer.

3, others

Other risk factors such as smog, indoor air pollution (including indoor cooking fumes, burning coal, etc.), asbestos, arsenic and silicon can increase the risk of lung cancer among non-smokers.

Therefore, non smoking also results in lung cancer, which is the result of one or more other risk factors. bright[6]Radon and tobacco have synergistic carcinogenic effects. This means that the risk of lung cancer among smokers is higher than that of non-smokers when exposed to the same amount of radon exposure (as shown below). Smokers may also face these risk factors, if you continue to smoke, perhaps one day will suffer.

Smoking does not lead to lung cancer

Lin Biao does not smoke, does not drink, only lives 63 years old;

Zhou Enlai doesn't smoke or drink, and live to be 78;

Mao Zedong only smokes and does not drink. He lives to be 83;

Deng Xiaoping smoked and drank and lived to be 98;

Zhang Xueliang ate, went whoring, bet all, and lived to be 103;

Comrade Lei Feng had no bad habits and did good deeds. He lived only 23 years old.

Quietly watching you pretend 13.jpg

Smoking, but no lung cancer, in fact, is also a result of various factors.After a long period of exploration and research, the medical community has now gradually realized that lung cancer may be an external risk factor, through the internal disease. As mentioned above, risk factors can induce malignant transformation and irreversible gene alterations, including activation of proto oncogenes, inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and uncontrolled apoptosis, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth. These genetic changes are produced over long, random steps. This means that long-term smokers are at any time facing the risk of genetic mutations leading to lung cancer, and the possibility of increasing. "There is no lung cancer at all." this is probably just a random event.

The international agency for research on cancer risk of carcinogenic substances to human in the evaluation study, in different smoking condition (before the age of 50, has been smokers quit smoking, quit smoking, never quit smoking before the age of 30), with the passage of time, the cumulative risk of cancer will be increased year by year.[7](as below). Even in this case, there are still some smokers who have not suffered from lung cancer for the rest of their lives. What we should note, however, is that..,The risk is rising steadily!

Smokers who have not yet got lung cancer need to pay attention

Is there really nothing to fear? The clinic often encountered CT found suspected nodules and lung cancer patients, they started for the length of life and sorrow. The prognosis of lung cancer depends on early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment. However, the 5 year survival rate of lung cancer is very low. The cancer survival data from the National Cancer Registration Center and cancer prevention and Control Office of China is 16.1%[8]With the progress of Medical Science in recent years, the data may be improved, but it still means that most lung cancer patients will die within 5 years after the diagnosis.

But, at least encouraging, research has shown that quitting smoking at any time will benefit health, and the sooner the better. The figure also shows that smokers who quit smoking before age 30 cut their risk of lung cancer by the age of 60 by the same time as those who quit smoking before age 50. When smokers choose to quit smoking at different stages of their lives, their risk of cancer will be reduced to varying degrees.

How to quit smoking is easier to succeed?

Foreign statistics show that smokers 70% want to quit smoking, 30% tried to quit smoking, and each year only about 3% successful quit smoking[9,10]. There are still a lot of smokers willing to quit smoking on their own willpower, trying to quit smoking, and most of them end up losing. This is actually a manifestation of tobacco addiction. The essence of tobacco addiction is that the body relies on nicotine in tobacco, which is similar to heroin addiction and belongs to drug dependence. At this point, the doctor's help provides smokers with more interventions to stop smoking. The doctor in daily diagnosis and treatment, according to the condition of counsel according to different characteristics. The international common "5A" program includes asking about (ask) smoking status, recommendation (advise), evaluation (assess), willingness to quit smoking, providing cessation assistance (assist) and arrangement (arrange) follow-up[11]. In practical work, can be taken first to inform patients of smoking cessation is a necessary part of the treatment or prevention of diseases of the underlying disease, and recommended that patients quit smoking immediately, then patients were given appropriate smoking cessation medications, so quit work will be more successful.

At present, our country has been approved for the use of smoking cessation drugs, including:Nicotine patches, chewable tablets (non prescription drugs); Bupropion Hrdrochloride Sustained Release Tablets, varenicline (prescription). Of course, not every smoker needs to use a smoking cessation drug to quit smoking, but every smoker gets information and guidance from the doctor on the smoking cessation drug.

Today, we are still calling for the love of life, away from tobacco.