More terrible health killers than sugar and fat are making you addicted.

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More terrible health killers than sugar and fat are making you addicted.

2019-08-07 00:26:38 43 ℃

< section > < section > < section > < section > < section > < section > < section > please read before meals.

First think about a question: Do you like salt?

You may not like it, but in fact, about 80% of Chinese people have an average salt intake of 213% of the recommended intake [1], and some eat more... Many years ago, experts studied the per capita salt intake in China. Among the 20 provinces surveyed, the average daily salt intake was 9.1 grams, while the World Health Organization recommended that adult salt intake be controlled within 5 g/d < sup > [2] . Chinese people's salt intake has long been significantly higher than the recommended limit < sup > [3] , not counting the rapid development of takeaway and processed food in recent years.

Per capita salt and sodium intake: 2000 and 2009-2012

If sugar or fat intake is seriously excessive, you may have found it earlier, because someone will say to you that

However, most people do not feel salty. Especially for salty Chinese people, they usually eat every meal with taste through 10,000 cooking methods, such as pickling, sauce explosion, red stew, dipping, oil baking, dry simmering, salt, soy sauce, oil consumption and other condiments.

Why do we not eat salt in infancy and before industrial society, but now we eat more and more salt, and do not even feel that we have become a "salt addict" organism? How does salt control our taste buds step by step? < p >< section > < section > < section > < section > < section > < section > < section > < section > < section > < section > < p > < strong > eat salt from snacks for life < / strong > < br > < / P > < / section > < / section > < / section > < / section > < / section > < / section > < section > < p > No one is born to like salt. In infancy, we don't take any extra salt except for a small amount of salt in breast milk or formula milk. Maybe we have a natural desire for sweetness, but saltiness is never on the preference list.

With the change of growing environment, we follow our parents and gradually begin to enjoy salty delicacies. Once children ingest too much salt prematurely, they may have a lifetime preference for salt < sup > [4] . Researchers at the Monell Center showed that six-month-old babies who frequently consumed salt-supplemented foods preferred salty tastes to their counterparts who did not often consume salt-containing foods, preferring to choose foods with 55% more salt than regular foods [5] in preference tests.

Family eat the same table, the interaction is inevitable. When parents like heavy-tasting food, children also have heavy-tasting eating habits to a large extent. High-salt foods are normalized on the table, and the tongue is stimulated by sodium ions for a long time, which leads to a decrease in the sensitivity of young children to salty taste. Nutrition Journal Nurients also published research results that if mother's salt intake increased by 1 g per day, children would increase by 0.2 g < sup > [6] correspondingly, but interestingly, this study also showed that father's dietary salt content had no direct impact on children.

As the taste buds deteriorate, it is easy to appear "tasteless food" when you are older, so the more salty you eat, the more salty you are. In this way, people and salt have a stable development relationship, from no feeling of adaptation, from adaptation to love, and then from love to addiction.

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The development of the food industry has led to more and more people eating salt

High salt snack-delicious plum

Long ago, salt was a kind of condiment that the poor could not consume and was not easily obtained, and even needed politics. The government strictly controls it. Salt has never been easy to get, and it only took more than a hundred years. Why does the development of the food industry lead us to consume so much salt?

First of all, light food is not good to eat, and no one buys it. Therefore, processed foods that are eager to sell well will try to avoid light food. In the salt world, attractive flavors come from sodium ions, not from exchangeable ones. Sugar can be replaced by sweeteners, but salt is different. Although many institutions have started to study sodium substitutes, such as potassium chloride, it is a pity that there is something missing in the taste. Imagine that potato chips become white, honey nuts remain sweet, hot chips remain hot, just like the world turns black and white...

high-salt snack-puffed food

Secondly, there are certain synergistic effects among different flavor enhancers. Different flavor enhancers can play the greatest delicious effect under the right proportion. And a certain amount of salt can make food more delicious, that is, chocolate will be sweeter, soup will be fresher, milk will be more fragrant, hot pot will be more fragrant, barbecue will be more tasty.

Finally, besides seasoning, salt also has important functions of preservation and preservation. For example, people soak vegetables and fruits with salt water in search of a longer shelf life (hence the so-called pickles and preserved fruits), and pickled meat is often easier to preserve than ordinary meat products. Therefore, in packaged foods, reducing salt consumption may cause mildew or deterioration. For example, under the same production conditions, salt-reducing soy sauce is more likely to deteriorate than general soy sauce.

TV series Dachangjin:

Cui Shanggang suspected that the unqualified salt quality caused the palace sauce to taste

Food processors did not want to miss the cheap and useful condiment of salt, resulting in more and more salt intake when people eat processed food.

Eating salt makes people happy

In order to solve this mystery, we need to know: how is salty taste perceived? The main component of salt is sodium chloride. We eat salty foods, such as crispy fish, and sodium ions on the skin of fish act on the cells on the tongue. They enter and stimulate the taste cells < sup > [7] through a chemically gated channel. The taste information is transmitted step by step, and is coded and integrated by the nucleus of the solitary tract of taste, thalamus and other centers, resulting in a salty sensation < sup > [8] . Then we can deeply understand the salty and crisp delicacy of crispy fish.

Science is paramount, and the same rule applies to potato chips, potatoes, hot and spicy, Weilong small gluten.

and salt intake is related to brain reward system [9] based on salty taste perception process. The reward system of the brain is involved in regulating sodium intake. Animal experiments show that a brain neuron associated with sex and drugs is activated to produce more pleasant hormone dopamine < sup> [10] after eating salt water, thus bringing happiness, real and simple happiness to individuals.

Actually... Maybe now we can't refuse salt, but can't refuse happiness. At this point, I finally found a reason to like French fries and salt-baked nuts.

p>strong>salt is no good,p>p>strong>but salt excess is slowly infiltrating into our lives br>p>excessive salt intake, heart, brain, kidney and other problems are more likely to occur [11]. Studies have shown that high salt can accelerate calcium loss, which may lead to osteoporosis. It may also increase blood sugar concentration and aggravate diabetes by affecting amylase activity. In addition, salt intake is the cause of 1.65 million deaths from heart-related diseases worldwide every year. Sodium intake in salt is directly proportional to the risk of hypertension, and the higher the intake, the greater the correlation [13].

Regionally speaking, for example, nearly 20% of heart disease patients in Shandong Province who have "no salt deficiency" in their diet have been killed by "Yanwang Ye" (data from the Shandong CDC study), which is far higher than the global average.

Last May, the Shandong Provincial Government Office issued the National Nutrition Plan of Shandong Province, proposing to reduce the per capita salt intake.

It can be seen that food shortages and nutritional deficiencies are being replaced by elaborated "bliss spot" formulations and desirable foods. Sugar, salt and fat have become the targets of public criticism. Some countries and cities have begun to impose national taxes on sugar. Maybe soon, in order to help the heavy-mouthed people reduce the side effects of salt addiction, salt will also be included in the tax target.

In life, there are always people who say that I eat more salt than you eat. After reading this article, I will recall this sentence. It feels so sad and stirring.

Think for a moment, or eat more fresh fruits and vegetables, less take-out, less packaging food bar! It's not easy to keep healthy after all.

Plain is true

References

[1]. Andrew Mente, Prof Martin O'Donnell, Sumathy Rangarajan, et al. Urinary sodium excon, level, pressure, cardiovascular disease, and mortality: a community-perspective epidemiology World Health Organization. A global brief on hypertension: Silent killer, global public health crisis, 2013. Switzerland and: Geneva, 2017

[3]. David B. Hipgrave, Suying Chang, Xiaowei Li, et al. Salt and Sodium Intake in China. JAMA. 2016; 315 (7): 70: 3-705. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.15816.

[4]. WHO. Guideline: Sodium intake for adults and children. Geneva, World Health Organization (WHO), 2012.

[5]. Stein L, Cowart B, Beauchamp, G, The acceptance of salty taste is related to dietary in human infants: a prospect experience Carrie Service, Carley Grimes, Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion, Nutrients, 2016

[7]. Stephen D. Roper. The taste of table salt [J]. Pflugers Architecture- Eur J Physiol, 2015.

[8]. Liu Xuemei, Jia Jing, et al. Exploration of the activation of taste centers by oral perception of two basic tastes [J].Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Repair, 2015, 5(3): 147-50.

[9]. Morris MJ, Na ES, Johnson AK. Psychological craving: the biology of sodium intake [J]. Physiology & ampology Be; Haior, 2008, 94 (5): 709-21.

[10]. Lu B, Yan J, Yang X, et al. Involvement of brain ANG II in acute sodium depletion induced salty taste changes [J]. Regulatory Peptides, 2012, 179 (1-3): 15-22

[11]. Mou Jianjun, Liu Zhiquan. Concern about salt and salt sensitivity to improve the prevention and treatment of hypertension in China. Press magazine 2010; 18:201-202

12]. Aljefree N, Ahmed F.Association between dietary patterns and risks of cardiovascular diseases among aduls in the Middle East and North Africa region: a systematic review [J]. Food Nutr Res, 2015, 17 (59): 27486.

[13]. Li Ruilin, Yang Lianzhao. Dietary status of hypertension patients Research progress in needs and dietary education. Nursing research 2016; 30: 2830-2832 [DOI: 10.3969/j. issn. 1009-6493.2016.23.005

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