In the 38 year history of the Republic of China, the man was almost involved in all the important events2017-05-19 20:09:06 12 ℃
Among the modern historical figures,
Yan Xishan is definitely a special being.
Not only because he is a great reputation of "the king of Shanxi",
At the same time, in the thirty-eight year history of the Republic of china,
He was almost involved in all the important events.
In the meantime，
Yan Xishan is always high,
Even Jiang Jieshi, Li Zongren and others had to take it.
Sometimes even feel,
Looking at Yan Xishan's personal experience is like looking at the history of the Republic of China from another angle.
(map) Yan Xishan (October 8, 1883 May 23rd 1960), the Republic of China army general, organization and leadership of the Taiyuan uprising in 1911.
In October 8, 1883, Yan Xishan was born in a family of five counties in Shanxi Province, and his father, Yan Shutang, was a businessman in the lending and lending business.
At the age of 14, he went into his father's "Ji Qingchang" money shop and started his business as a man, and began to accumulate experience in business.
If not then Yan Shutang speculation fails, the two men were forced to skip, maybe Yan Xishan will take over his father's industry, make a firm and secure "rich soil".
Of course, nothing, if, in order to avoid creditors, Yan Shutang came to Taiyuan with his son, it is here to change the life of Yan Xishan.
In Taiyuan, Yan Xishan was first to admitted to the Shanxi military academy, and later by the public recommended to go to the Japanese military academy, where he also joined the alliance, met Sun Zhongshan, participate in the formulation of plans to overthrow the Qing government. If the Qing government officials in charge of studying abroad know that they sent students to do such a thing, it is estimated that the hearts of those who want to die, right?
In 1909, Yan Xishan graduated home, not long after he became the Shanxi new army forty-third Association eighty-sixth standard coach officer and standard system (equivalent to Colonel Colonel).
Two years after the outbreak of the revolution of 1911, in response to the situation of the revolution, Shanxi army announced the uprising in the league's plan, uprising army invaded the city, killing the governor of Shanxi Lu Zhongqi. Later, Yan Xishan was elected as the military governor of Shanxi.
In the process, however, Yan Xishan's behavior seemed a bit off color.
(graph) Yan Xishan. Source "life" (picture magazine)
According to his cousin, Zhang Ruisheng recalled: in October 29, 1911, the Shanxi uprising army and joined the revolution with this anti kill, Shanxi governor Lu Zhongqi and his son Lu Guangxi. Yan Xishan fought among the trees with his cronies in the battle"If a successful revolt, he followed up the troops can participate in the credit; if it fails, the responsibility onto others."
Take a look at this small abacus, which is half the revolutionary party's heroic, or the blood of the new soldiers? This is a wearing uniform profiteers!
However, this is the beginning of his life speculation, after which he will carefully calculate the abacus, as far as possible to maximize their interests.
After the success of the 1911 Revolution, Yan Xishan turned to Yuan Shikai, and in order to gain Yuan Shikai's trust, he not only openly opposed Sun Zhongshan, but later announced his departure from the kuomintang. Even the emperor Yuan Shikai, Yan Xishan initiative "to", so it is called "wait for a".
Of course, Yan Xishan this is not without benefits, he got admitted Yuan Shikai's position in Shanxi, was appointed governor of Shanxi.
From then on, Yan Xishan made a firm stand in Shanxi and became the "emperor of the earth" until liberation.
Yuan Shikai (pictured), source network
After the death of Yuan Shikai, Yan Xishan and Duan Qirui hold the thigh, also called for the teacher, in the choice of major things only on Duan Qirui's lead.
Especially in the law enforcement campaigns, Yan Xishan firmly stood in Duan Qirui side, out of their own forces the Jin army to Hunan business, the first mixed brigade brigadier combat, were brutally The whole army was wiped out.
This time the defeat to Yan Xishan as a warning for the future, will definitely not easily stand, pursue"Three principles of non aggression"".
That is"No, no, no trouble outside the party for the rights of individuals to obey the central military command, to defend the local security".
Although Yan Xishan also played several times for Duan Qirui tough, but more is the use of the influence, with the help of the war to expand their sphere of influence.
In 1926 the Kuomintang official swearing in the northern expedition, considering that Yan Xishan plays an important role in the northern forces, both the KMT and Zhang Zuolin tried to draw.
In the beginning, Yan Xishan lived in the opposite direction and put on a "mountain view" and "tiger fights" attitude. Until the northern expeditionary army defeated Wu Peifu and Sun Chuanfang successively, and the enemy troops directed at the warlords.
Yan Xishan hurriedly jumped out and announced as commander of the National Revolutionary Army in the north, its fine day suspension.
However, his "National Revolutionary Army commander in chief, North" is the central political conference after the ratification of the......
Duan Qirui (pictured), source network
Seeing Wu Peifu and Sun Chuanfang being easily defeated by the Northern Expeditionary Army, Yan Xishan thought Zhang Zuolin would be as vulnerable as they were, so they offered to send troops.
But then expedition failed to the north, Zhang Zuolin tried to attack the Jin army, defeated Yan Xishan, not only in 1915, also lost a lot.
Presumably Yan Xishan's heart must have been crying: "the deal was a big loss."!"
Although this one is defeated, but Yan Xishan to contain a large number of Jun to positive effect on, in the south of the northern expedition from the stable situation, Yan Xishan on the strategic situation of the northern expedition there are still a lot of credit.
In 1928, Jiang Jieshi experienced the first step, to organize forces to the northern expedition, Yan Xishan was appointed as the commander in chief of the third group army of the National Revolutionary Army, fighting with Zhang Zuolin again.
As a result of the full preparations of the National Revolutionary Army, Zhang Zuolin was defeated and returned to the Northeast in June, after being killed by the Japanese in Huanggu.
In December 29, 1928, Zhang Xueliang announced the successor Fengjun northeast authorities, subject to national leadership of the government, the national government has completed the unification in form.
The Northern Expedition victory for Yan Xishan and Jiang Jieshi, from the famous reputation, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren in the North warlords become famous.
However, this is only the beginning of the story, and soon the challenge came.
Zhang Zuolin (pictured), source network
In October 28, 1929, the national government appointed Yan to be commander in chief of the Navy and air force, but must come to Nanjing to take office.
This is like him, Yan Xishan was originally the "Shanxi company" independent boss, and now the "national government group" CEO Jiang Jieshi command Yan boss come over as deputy CEO, the price is to abandon the "Shanxi company" all the shares.
Which makes Yan Xishan, a businessman, can't bear it? How can you give up your small kingdom for a short title?
Before long, the relationship between Jiang Jieshi and Yan Xishan deteriorated rapidly.
In March 1930, before Yan Xishan, Li Zongren and Feng Yuxiang, who were jointly suppressed by Jiang Jieshi, sent troops to discuss Chiang Kai Shek, and the Central Plains war between Chen Bing and the two millions of people began to unfold in such a vigorous manner.
However, this war hero is "young" Zhang Xueliang.
During the war, Zhang Xueliang has been sitting on the fence, two don't help. The two sides in order to win support for Zhang Xueliang, so that we can do all we can, a huge amount of chips.
Finally, there is the Shanghai capitalists behind Jiang Jieshi came out on top, September 18th Zhang Xueliang electric Yong Jiang, shuaibing into the attack against Jiang Lianjun, Yan Xishan defeated, then announced the departure.
In a word, the "rich man" still can't resist the "big capitalist"".
Zhang Xueliang (pictured), source network
Step down after Yan Xishan dormant in Dalian, but was still firmly in control of Shanxi's military and political situation, ready to stage a comeback.
Soon his chance came.
In 1931, the "nine + 18" incident broke out, and the Japanese invaded the northeast. In order to prevent the Japanese down, Jiang Jieshi was forced to once united against his Li Zongren, Yan Xishan et al.
Back from the Yan Xishan buried his savings in power, no longer openly with Jiang Jieshi fight for major decisions of Chiang's support on the surface.
The war of resistance broke out in 1937, and Yan Xishan served as commander in chief of the Second World War zone.
In time, Yan Xishan summed up a set of "philosophy", in the war, Yan Xishan will be a "philosophy" played most incisive, both in Dang, the national government and the Japanese caught.
In this regard, Yan Xishan has said that he is"Dance on three eggs, and none of them can be broken."".
But as the Japanese defeated and surrendered, the balance was broken, and Yan Xishan could no longer sit back, and quickly ran out to accept the Japanese occupation.
Yan Xishan, the commander of the artillery in the week after the liberation of Dai recalled: "we follow Yan Xishan for a long time people have figured out his temper. He is a 'money devil' origin, abacus is the most refined, always take the power struggle between the two sides, on the balance that the said, only in their own strength greatly exceed them, he will understand that attitude; otherwise, as he is all things to all men must not rush to offend people......"
At this time, in Yan Xishan's eyes, Jiang Jieshi's power is naturally more than a total of Dang power, so he closely followed Jiang Jieshi to participate in the civil war.
Of course, the result is not, I say, as you all know, the Kuomintang was defeated and retreated to Taiwan, and Yan Xishan lived there for the rest of his life.
Jiang Jieshi (pictured), source network
Perhaps Yan Xishan's treacherous, cunning, no position to feel contempt for many people, but he in Shanxi many aspects of the contribution is a great tribute to.
Especially in the aspect of education, Yan Xishan is more pain under the original capital, the construction of a large number of schools.
By 1916, there were 290 pupils per 10000 people in Shanxi, ranking first among the provinces.
Since 1924, the enrollment rate of school-age children in Shanxi has been above 80% annually.
By 1937, Shanxi had 55 secondary schools, 17 normal universities and 6 universities.
Tao Xingzhi said in 1925: "the real implementation of national compulsory education, now only in Shanxi province".
Yan Xishan thinks, what money can not only education province, province, because education is the first thing in the world I.
As Chinese founding ten marshals of Xu Xiangqian, who dropped out of school because of poverty, and later heard that Yan Xishan established provincial National Normal School are students, but is free!
Xu Xiangqian immediately passed, passed the examination, became the first phase of Shanxi national normal training students, and he read a lot of Political Theory Journals here, and gradually grew into a progressive youth.
So Yan Xishan had Tucao: "I Shanxi is a local talent, Wen Bo Yibo, Wu Xu Xiangqian, if these two individuals have for me, I can rule the whole Chinese, but they went to the Dang to go there."
(photo) a photo taken by Yan Xishan's family, 1947 in Taiyuan. Source network
In addition, in the thirty-eight years when Yan Xishan was in charge of Shanxi, the industry and economy of Shanxi have been greatly developed, and the social security and the livelihood of the people have been greatly improved.
Under its control, Shanxi has become a "model province" renowned throughout the country".
For a long time, Yan Xishan's evaluation is also mixed, his love of him very much, don't love his people to despise him.
For a long time, because Yan Xishan smart, sleek and be living in the history of the Republic of China on the stage of high, but later because of too "smart" almost ruin.
There is a saying that old thinking can not solve new problems, and with the progress of the times, we should also refresh their thinking in a timely manner.
Don't be trapped by past experience and ideas, so as to eliminate the trend of the times.
The history of the school official team works | paper: cloth
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