India past and present why ancient India civilization in India2017-08-12 23:05:06 9 ℃
Today, the mention of India, we first thought is Republic of India. But from the geographical concept, generalized India refers to the entire subcontinent, including India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, India and Pakistan, Kashmir dispute.
In the terrain, we can visually see the broad scope of India, its range is the Himalaya mountains to the south, northeast to the hills to the Arakan mountains area, northwest to the Sleiman mountains, East and west sides respectively reach the bay of Bengal and Arabia sea, South to the southern tip of the India peninsula. Below we will be known as the India India general.
As we all know, India's name comes from the famous India River, the river is located in the north-west of India, the India river basin is the core area of ancient India ranked the world's four major ancient civilization.
In 1856, the British people in British India (now Pakistan) within the territory of the railway, in Halabacun discovered the remains of an ancient civilization, to 1920, after excavation found the ancient city of harappa. Two years later, again in Harappa 600 kilometers south of the city and found Hengsuodaluo friction.
Through textual research, Mo Henry Soda Lo's civilization is harrapa - 2400- 1700 BC, 2200- before 1800 (I was in Xia Dynasty) reached its heyday, this civilization is the civilization of ancient India.
Divided between India and Pakistan in 1947, most of the India river basin is located in the Pakistan area, but not in the territory of India.Around 1700 BC, created a splendid ancient civilization in India these people suddenly disappeared, the problem of their origin, ethnic composition, the reasons for the disappearance of a mystery so far. Later, India spent 200 years in the dark period, until the 1500 BC, from the Caspian Sea and the steppes of southern Russia region by pass into the Aryan Hindu Kush India, Wuhe confluence area mainly lived in the upper India river. The creation of ancient Aryan civilization in India, and today is the same civilization of India.
With the rising of the population, from 12 BC to eleventh Century BC, the Aryans gradually spread to the East, the Ganges RIver River Basin has been developed. In this process, the continuation of the caste system began to form, within Aryan into three occupy the highest caste (Wahl's), local residents in the last caste. The Aryans brought India a unified language, Sanskrit, from 300 BC to 1100, traffic control in Sanskrit has been Aryan large in northern India.
It is worth mentioning that the ancient Persian Empire once the India river basin into their own provinces, they put on the India river called Sanskrit into Persian reliability (Sindhu) Hindush, then by the Greeks to use, Chinese follows the ancient Sanskrit transliteration, has evolved into India.
The history of India has been divided period, less uniform period. From sixth Century BC to twelfth Century, has been in many small countries, only in a few times in the limited space to achieve unity. During this period India is a religious museum. The caste system based on Brahmanism and Hinduism have been established, including Hinduism developed into today's state religion of India. As opposed to the caste system, emphasize the equality of Buddhism and Jainism also have been born. Among them, the development of Buddhism in the world's third major religions, and the Buddha Shakya Mani's birthplace - today (Nepal and India at the junction of the Lumbini), and near the tiny country of Bhutan has become today Buddhism in South Asia, finally two base.India's ethnic composition is very complicated, regardless of outsiders as the Aryans, even is a native of India, there are dozens of people. Among the dozens of nationalities in India, did not occupy the absolute advantage position in the nation. Highly diverse ethnic and religious differences, so that India is very difficult to form a unified country in history.
At the beginning of thirteenth Century, after several Muslim invasion of India, and finally gain a foothold in the subcontinent, a continuation of 320 years of Delhi in Sultan, which brought another important religion -- Islam to India. Between the monotheistic Islam and Hindu polytheism is fire, dislike each other, always to work, are planted later and Pakistan seed.
The Delhi kingdom of Sultan lasted 5 dynasties, despite the expansion of the scope of its rule, but still limited in North India. In 1526, another Muslim Mughal Dynasty (Empire) instead of Delhi in Sultan, North and South India is truly unified, in the India history of the most powerful but also the last anempire completed. But this is the foreign Muslim rulers.
The Mughal Empire, the foreign ruler eventually died in another way to outsiders in India in the second half of nineteenth Century completely become a British colony. British rule in India over a hundred years, the ruler and the colonists, Muslims and Hindus in India, foreign and local people, the contradiction between the various ethnic groups have never been settled, eventually led to the partition of india.
In 1947, an agreement between Britain and India's Congress, the India Muslim League, according to religious principles to Muslim Pakistan and mainly Hindu India Republic of India. The greater India area of Kingdom of Bhutan was founded as early as 1907, Nepal in 1923 achieved independence.
After the partition of India and Pakistan, has been three times of war. In 1971 third India Pakistan war, Pakistan is located in India three surrounded an enclave of Eastern Pakistan declared independence, became today's bangladesh.
As Bangladesh East Pakistan and West Pakistan, the population regardless of the Bengal discrimination, not long-term economic aspects of care. And the things between spans more than 1000 kilometers of India land, land did not close to, what is not easy, only helplessly One divides into two..
Bangladesh is a Muslim country, and Pakistan local ethnic contradictions and economic conflicts is the fundamental reason for the independence of Bangladesh, the third India Pakistan war is just a fuse.
Ancient India after the split, the most common is that several countries are poor, the bitter. The slums of India world famous, although Pakistan has nuclear weapons, but not what the typical pillar industry in Bangladesh, needless to say, the high population density, and Pakistan iron brothers to agriculture. Nepal, Bhutan and the pursuit of high mountains, recover the original simplicity, traffic inconvenience, but also in the poorest countries.
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