Is the Great Wall meant to be used for defense? At least the Han Dynasty's west the Great Wall was less passive2017-09-22 23:04:41 164 ℃
People may have imagined that,Two thousand years ago, the Han people broke into the western regions for the first time in historyThe.On behalf of the great leap forward and the strong and penetrating spirit of ChinaTheThe subjectIsThe Great Wall stretch-Han Dynasty west the Great WallBuild up?
This period of the Han Dynasty or west the Great Wall is part of the test set, the Department ofFrom northern Zhangye to northwest Dunhuang, Shule has reached the South Bank of Heyuan,At the end of the west end, about eighty kilometres from Dunhuang. This is a great project atWudiThe beginning of the first year of the reign of man (96 years before the reign of man) has been accomplished and also due toStein discovered his site in 1907Collected from the relics at the same timeBeginning the first year of tabletsBe proved.
Marc Allaire Stein (1862 - 1943), native to Hungary, Jewish, entered the British in 1904. The world famous archaeologist, art historian, linguist, geographer and explorer, one of the first person in Dunhuang international school.
He is a major collector of cultural relics in Dunhuang and Central Asia today in Britain and India, and one of the earliest researchers and publishers. Once in 1900-1901 years, 1906-1908 years, 1913-1916 years, 1930-1931 years for the four Central Asia study famous, China study focusing on the Xinjiang and Gansu, found Dunhuang Turpan cultural relics and other cultural relics in Central Asia is an important international research data today in Dunhuang.
West the Great Wall relics preservation engineering survey part: the base height of about 1.1 meters, the base width is 1.3 meters, 1 meters on the top of weak material for Tamarix willow, reeds and white clay layers, building the so-calledVersion of the building. The clay has its elasticity and stickiness, while the local soil and water also contains salt, so after solidification enough to resist wind erosion.
It was two thousand years since I was found in 1907Semi fossilState, the hardness is why Stein assessment of the masonry, resistant to destruction and even without the fear of war today use artillery attack.
The Great Wall is not merely a city wall, but an organized compound.exceptAncillary worksasWarehouses, barracks, hospitals, welfare agenciesSo, also by countlessPavilion"andBarrier". In short, not "line", but rather"Line", "dot" composite surface"- a complete system.
Han the Great Wall in Dunhuang
So-calledPavilion is the most basic unit in the the Great Wall systemOne by one, toweringBunker and lookoutIt can be attached to the main line of the Great Wall, and can also be spread inside and outside the Great Wall lines independently, echoing each other, forming the periphery of the Great Wall.
When the booth arrangement, before and after the conquest, the North has Jiuquan along the Ejina River to Ningxia Jia Shun far Noel (Juyanhai), the west by Lopnor, north of Kroraina, to the north of the road, forming a wide rangeThe Great Wall area.
In the west the Great Wall District, the number and configuration of kiosks vary with the needs, but the academic research report:About every four or five kilometers apart, there is one. General specification is square planar, bottom width, narrow, like to go to the top of the Pyramid base area from five square meters to seven square meters, about four to nine meters, materials of brick or as a city wall with clay and wood mixed version of the building, there are. The firmness from these ancient towers and castles, calendarTwo thousand years and still standCan show.
The beacons of the Great Wall.
Xinjiang Fengsui sites, today along KUMOO, Kongquehe ancient Avenue, self drive and (Shindi) on the west, Stein found many. "Pavilion" set up in general. The main function is in the alert the enemy, and the flames of communication.
With the monitoring of the enemy,"Tian Tian" is a great invention. Extensive use of sand in the desert is paved in a certain areaThe so-called "Tian Tian", see the footprints in the sands have patrol inspection with no abnormal degree, and make judgments.
Beacon communication, in generalTwo usesFirst, usually and regularlyRoutine reportWhen the signal was interrupted, the signal was suddenly interrupted, and the neighboring stations were alerted to the fact that an area had been raided or attacked by the enemy.
Secondly, it is the situation reportThe size of the fireworks and continuous release times and shade, understand the enemy. Dunhuang the Great Wall District, one of the civil Jane, had understood that the report agreed to find the enemy when the signal rules, such as enemy figures in 20 people below, put two times, in 20 to one hundred people, three times.
The discharge of materials using firewood grass, can produce light and strong smoke,Use the wolf dung and make the smoke straight up the sky, the wind won't slant. The human vision and the wilderness, generally up to ten above, the move and the great distance, then the pavilion "is within the range of standard stroke eyesight watch.
Han the Great Wall
Only the "Pavilion" as a beacon communication network composed of cells, so often called the "sunshine" and "Lei Feng" "Beacon Tower" and "the pavilion", "Pavilion" than anotherThe official name for the "tunnel", "a" or "beacon". Person in charge"A long"Soldier called"A soldier"Each unit, each configuration a stroke of three to five. Contact with the command center several pavilion between flint, "Hou", in the ten to twenty soldiers, and time history of 4 to 5 (within a long time).
Ting Sui Shuzu task, in addition to issuing a signal outside, still mustRegular patrol reconnaissanceAlso, each patrol with fireworks and communications equipment to keep in touch with a pavilion. We cast the flames and the received beacon Pavilion, and the return of the patrol, time, signal names and direction, are filled with these reports, report made many in the Great Wall area remains until today, as found by archaeologists.
Stein in the range of about two hundred kilometers north of Dunhuang. In the field survey of a pavilion number to thirty-seven, of which sixth B near the site, thenFocused on the discovery of more than three hundred pieces of woodAnd the academia pays attention to it.
A small pavilion inside the camp, a bedroom, fire and other equipment, in addition to documents made relics, crude wood furniture, lacquer ear cups, bowls, spoons, and copper and iron tools such as many unearthed arrowheads.
The scale is larger, and the higher level is the unit"barrier"(Hou Guan), has been non Pavilion, waiting, just watch, alert and monitor the nature of the enemy, and become aMilitary stronghold, quota of about one hundred peopleThe supervisor called "Hou", and the deputy "Wei Wei" (or "Wei Wei").
Stand the same as the barrierTraffic passesWeigh"shut"Its most representative, when it is famous in history."Yumen Pass,The Han Dynasty City along the West long track Stein west of Shule to find travel.
ThisNorthwest throatThe western end of Hexi Corridor, the door of the gateway site, in Stein map, marked as T fourteen site position in longitude ninety-four degrees, distance of about one hundred km northwest of Dunhuang, said today"Little city".
Existing remnants of the city wall, about 26.2 meters by the sea, 7.5 meters high, on top of about 24.8 meters per side, 3.8 meters wide. The West and the north wall have gates, and the west gate is 2.5 meters wide and 2.7 meters high; the north gate is 3 meters wide and 4 meters high; the north gate is the Shule river.
The examination of Yumen Pass siteAlso, because in the North outside the mounds of waste,The book has been discovered for three years(Ji Yuanqian 94 years) discovered in Yumen Wei Shuo leap years that thousands of people still support the Wei Cheng Moumou department......" TypefaceWooden slips documentsAnd have been proved, andDunhuang Shishi"We found that Tang geography works dudufu map" canjuan records,Coincide.
And Yumen Pass is also well-known since ancient timesYangIts location is also about seventy kilometers southwest of Dunhuang today, the South Lake shop southwest of antique beach. The distance between the Yumen Pass Yaoyangguan, about sixty kilometers, two and Dunhuang three, each is exactly three vertices of the triangle.
Gansu Dunhuang sunshine
"Yang" interpretation of the word "south", after the Yumen Pass in Nankai set pass, according to the "Han" from western regions that need, seems to lie in the Yumen Pass or the Yumen Pass as assistant, Deputy Commissioner of the significance.
Pavilions (off), the Great Wall area system of the highest military commander for the CommanderyThat legacy is "avoidance" or "off", and Wei position, but it is the local government and the system of prefectures and counties "county" composed of a member, shall be subject to supervision of Prefecture command. So, the the Great Wall in the Han Dynasty, though much more militarily colored than the rest of the Great Wall, wasIn essence, it is attached to politics, and is usually associated with civil affairs, not purely national defence facilities.
About the west the Great Wall system,Scattered in Dunhuang and Kroraina, a large number of barrier sites in the the Great Wall areaAs well as the investigation of the unearthed relics, they have provided first-hand valuable information. Relics, in general and not before the invention of paper before substitute tablets were found in repeated pavilions range, and apparently is left by the local garrison, as special major, was equal to explain at that time.
Wooden slips, generally is about ten inches long, the width is about half an inch of wood, with a writing brush. This kind of wooden slips, found and not limited to the the Great Wall area,From Kroraina along the southern edge of Xinjiang's great desertThere are also residual, text is not limited to Chinese characters. butFound in the desert, many so-called Jin Jin legacy system, Jane;The area around Dunhuang, is made in the early Han Dynasty, and with Chinese characters writing.Rather than being mixed up in Xinjiang, see the Chinese, the wood and the wood.
Look at the world of academia of Han Dynasty is the most abundant harvest, 1930 to 1931 northwest scientific expedition in Ejina River downstreamJuyan Lake(in the vicinity of Wei Wei, non Dunhuang county and Zhangye County jurisdiction) near the survey resultsMore than ten thousand pieces(annals is Han Xuandi, Jane emperor era), the value can be imagined.
According to the record of all wood brief reign, represent the earliest is traced back to the era before the west the Great Wall built by the beginning of first Century. Of particular concernThe recorded content widely, legal, official documents, reports and orders for longOutside the city organization operation system documents, private letters, a pavilion where soldiers garrison service records, death registration, taxes, and other kinds of books, traveling, or even six, medicine and so on were performed with books.prepareThat is colorful, not only had the ancient the Great Wall Garrison when the daily life of reality,The Great Wall
Wide range functionAcquire profound and correct understanding.
the juyan bamboo slips
The following are a few examples of the Han dynasty:
"In July two thousand sunrise, Chou, a pass to the table. The night of the food, lettuce (torch) of a fire, from the East, see Du charge". - receive the timerBeacon signalShuzu, by filling the report named Du, carrying on moon moment.
One arrow goes back to the bank, the other to the new". -
"Fifteen Zhang died ten, a Man Wai, a man wai. One man, one man, one dog, one man, two men, one manA soldier's job accounting Houguan ZhisuoWhat's called a Book?. Must keep daily records and report to superiors on time.
Han Yumen Pass - little Fang Pancheng
Here, you can seeThe great scale of the Han Dynasty, west the Great Wall,Daily work of command systemConscientious attitude,functionAlso, in many aspects, not only the enemy guard or shield March, there are post, leading to road traffic supply maintenance of the western world, and with the positive effect of the Tarim Basin Dynasty, western region to support the cause.Han Dynasty Central Control CenterThe Western Han Dynasty, built in the vicinity of today's Luntai county policy Taiwan Wozhou Ukraine barrier city and Han banchao era in Qiuci country house, or later moved to the Turpan basin long history mansion.
The west the Great Wall was built because of the new order of the western regions, and the final result was due to the decline of the Western RegionsIn ancient Xinjiang, history has undoubtedly become the main thread before and after linking up.
Yao, Chinese history, Yao Dazhong, Huaxia Publishing House
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