To what extent did the government of the Republic of China decay?2017-10-25 22:09:51 493 ℃
At the beginning of 1940, the Minister of finance of the Republic of China government to Kong Xiangxi, tipped off the 1937 to 1939 fiscal situation about. He disclosed that the eve of the war of resistance against Japan, the national tax revenue of about eight hundred and eighty million yuan, together with other income, the government budget of about one billion and two hundred million yuan. The number is surprisingly small. According to the time of three than the exchange rate, tax revenue of less than $three hundred million, the budget is only $four hundred million, only the equivalent of a large company turnover. This meager pay huge funds, outside the civil service system, to education, to industrial, open to traffic, to support agriculture, but also to expand the national defense force, the construction of a strong army can resist, really feel.
This is the economic situation facing the Chinese government when the war broke out. If the wars of the 20th century, is not only the aircraft artillery ammunition fire contest, strategy and tactics are resource competition, is the management efficiency of the economic strength of competition, then, in the view of many Western observers, 8 years of war in China, not only without any hope of winning, but will defeat the despair in the the economy in the prewar already extremely weak, the more fragile as flames of battle raging everywhere, is in the tempestuous waves leaves the ark, capsized will go bankrupt at any time, by crowning calamity. If the poor and weak, plus the infrastructure is weak, lacking spirit of cooperation, military decrees are sluggish, the emperor to report their wonder Japanese army said, only three months, you can solve the China incident. This conclusion can be said to be well founded.
From a few simple figures, not difficult to imagine that Chinese government in distress sinister, completely to the point: the end of hills and rivers accounted for about half of the population, with the government to retreat, the influx of mainland southwest. Industrial capital accounts for only 4% of the country, but the number of factories is only 6% of the country, generating capacity is only 4% of the country, and industrial workers are only 7% of the country. Even with public and private enterprises relocated from the coastal areas, the output of major industrial products has never exceeded 12% of the national level before the war. Compared with the prewar production level, cotton yarn is only 5.3%, cotton is only 8.8%, flour is only 5.3%. On the 1/10 and 1/20 of the resources, the government not only to feed a population of 1/2, more than five million have led the three million army, in order to make a unified, life and death battle with millions of enemies. Such a hopeless situation, the Chinese people actually insisted for eight years, who can imagine?
In terms of finance, the situation of the day, the most headache to Kong Xiangxi, is the sharp decline in tax sources. The government has always been to taxes, duties, tax, tax system by which tariff is the most big. But along the coast, tariff revenues were depleted and became insignificant. With the same tax loss along the marine salt area and large reduction. The tax is levied on the original factory products tax, government moved after the arrival of logistics to expand tax, but the number of factories and industrial output declined sharply, revenue. The government all the way, such as expanding the scope of Taxation, increase new taxes, such as Ta Mi, various initiatives, still can not stop the actual tax revenue fell sharply. According to the 1936 price, the tax from 1939 to 40 years ago was only 1/8 before the war, and then reduced to 1/10 or 1/20.
The tax revenue minus a few. Even with the debt collection, consumer goods shop, bank and so on pay income, total government revenue of 1938 to 40 years, according to the actual purchasing power is still reduced by more than half, then reduced from the original 1/5 to 1/4. Not for deficits, and caused hyperinflation, the price doubled every year, even for four times. By the end of the Anti Japanese War, the price in the rear area was 2600 times higher than that before the war!
The shortage of open source has to be throttled. The number of civil servants cut to cut salaries, the actual pressure and pressure. During the war of resistance against Japan, the real income of civil servants actually declined by ten times, excluding the price rising factors! Most of the government workers have two jobs, but they can't keep the family full.
Jiang Jieshi wrote in his diary in April 11, 1943:
Civil servants living in poverty stricken. Wife to birth without money for abortion. There is no fee for medicine, but for those who are poor. Overseas Chinese in Cantonese, Yu children who sell live. Henan disaster Efuzaidao, dog animal carcasses, the horrors to hear more. Day! If you don't make the pirates to perish, or for another one or two years, it is difficult to support Chinese potential. I will not be able to fulfill the mission entrusted to me! But heaven God, why not save me from speed?
Living in poverty stricken, more than civil servants? Ordinary soldiers are miserable times more miserable than this. At the beginning of October 1944, general Wei Demai Jiang Jieshi became chief of staff to Chinese long, at first only focus on the mobilization and deployment of troops, but less than a month, he found the troops in semi starvation. A military force more than a mile, there have been soldiers tired, die on the sidewalk. This is not Wei Demai's own observation. After March, along the road there are dead bodies of the soldiers, many journalists and Western officers have witnessed, and made a record in its report report. Wei Demai finally realized that the Chinese Army's fighting capacity was weak, and the backward equipment and inadequate training were certainly important factors, but the biggest reason was the general malnutrition and weak constitution.
The historian Huang Renyu, in his book "the way out of modern China", described the soldiers as "half like beggars" and "half like bandits"". The monthly pay only fourteen yuan yuan, also deduct non-staple food, only enough to eat four bowls of noodles on the street. The price to buy light machine guns near the bandits, each is as high as seven thousand yuan, operators is a good soldier forty years pay. Huang Renyu, a lieutenant commander, was unable to sleep at night for fear that the soldiers would steal the machine gun.
Lack of revenue plus inflation, the government's military budget, a year low, from 1 billion 300 million yuan in 1937, fell to more than 300000000 in 1941, then dropped to less than 1943 and two hundred million in 1944.
This military expenditure is not enough to support the 3 million 500 thousand national army. Mr. Huang Renyu recalls:
When I was a platoon leader in the army in 1941, the military department only supplied us with a summer uniform. We have fine soldiers with a bath in the river, on the one hand is still bare body clothes in the river washing, drying in the branches, to change. So since September is a military department under the former, is another set of clothes of this generation, but down the money is not enough, Yunnan is Wanshan nowhere to buy more, the lack of transport facilities. Finally only by our teachers make a quartermaster disguised as businessmen, more than Japanese to exit occupied Vietnam, bought a batch of white cotton cloth, dyed with soil dipped into turn yellow green, and cut the seam athletic shorts to save materials, we have to wash clothes and other difficult situations, also. All so. (forty-fourth pages) to say, is a gangster, a kongchengji. In the army, the arranged system is adopted, and if the funds are not covered, the army can only be dealt with by legal and illegal, reasonable and unreasonable means. In general, the establishment of officers and soldiers cooperatives, with military trucks business. The communication with troops in the city and left behind, is the stack and stores. More unscrupulous officers selling weapons, opium. As a result many army soldiers are still in rags, medical equipment is not much, if any. (162nd pages)
Compare US military rations. After the Pacific War, the territory has gradually China US military presence, increased from more than 1200 in 1942 to more than 30000 at the beginning of 1945, which is the main force. American soldiers supply eggs, milk and beef every day. When it comes to "Cambridge" in the history of the Republic of China, to us huge expenditure, is also an important factor in the later stage of the war of price soaring. Think about it, an American soldier in China is talking about spending 500 Chinese soldiers! In the Chinese government budget, even if the standard of American soldiers supplies ten times lower, only to feed an army of tens of thousands of people, how to meet the needs of the enemy to defend? Finally, we have to reduce the standard, so as to maintain the number of troops, it has its own difficulties.
Another fact can not be ignored. China obtained military aid in the war, start to play a few times less than the Soviet Union and britain. As early as the first and second years of the Sino US alliance, only about 1.5% of the US leased materials to the aid allies were allocated to china. In 1943 and 1944, it was reduced to only 0.5%. In 1945, with the victory of the European war, this proportion has risen, but only 4%.
President Roosevelt once said, "forget China people in more than seven years how Japanese withstood the brutal attack on the Asian continent and vast areas contain a large number of the enemy, just think, if Chinese yield, how many Japanese troops get out? What are those forces going to do? Occupation of Australia, the occupation of India, will be the same as the plum ripe to occupy an easy job to do that, then marched into the Middle East...... It will be Japan and Nazi pincer shaped large-scale offensive, somewhere in the Near East rendezvous, completely cut off contact with the outside world, Russia divide Egypt, after all cut off traffic line in the Mediterranean, isn't it?
People laugh at Chinese like British army. The army can't sue to the enemy launched beautiful big counterattack, but I do not know how the army was in the fight with the enemy in extremely hard and bitter. The Burma Army expedition from the situation, once China military equipment supplies, close combat rival Japan, far more than other strong, never lose to the United States and Britain army.
In the eight years of Anti Japanese War, what was really unbelievable was not that the Chinese army could not launch a great counterattack, but that they stood for eight years without standing up. To Chinese resources extremely barren lack of civil servants in a state of extreme poverty, armed forces want tired, even to the rifle of artillery gun sword, and the absolute advantage of millions of enemy, for eight years, always unyielding. So tough and heroic, in the two World War, no allies can do it. In any European country, facing such China the end of hills and rivers the impasse, early surrender, where we talk about resistance in eight years?
A real warrior, the firm will never succumb to the enemy's despair. At this point, China than that in the spirit of Bushido ture of the Empire of Japan, more than a million times. Compared with Germany, Italy, Japan's surrender is the most useless, as early as the combat force, the local did not lose intact when it lost the will to fight. Only a short while ago, "one hundred million to about two million" oath in army fair one war, the mighty nation, it early, very humiliating, bow and scrape unconditionally surrendered.
Finally, let me quote a passage from Mr. Zheng Langping in the second glorious Sino Japanese War history to end this article:
...... Both sides of this comprehensive and continuous history of Armageddon, a total of eight years, one month and three days, the two sides a total of twenty-two times the battle (both mobilization forces in more than one hundred thousand people), more than one thousand one hundred and seventeen times (combat troops in more than ten thousand people), and thirty-eight thousand nine hundred and thirty-one times the small war China military casualties of three million and six hundred thousand people, the Japanese casualties one million and one hundred thousand people, Chinese civilians killed thirty-five million people, estimated China people's property loss, more than $six hundred billion, in addition Chinese numerous cultural relics and monuments were destroyed and looted a lot of japanese.
Finally, one million and eight hundred thousand Japanese troops surrendered in the Chinese Theater of war, and the main forces of the Japanese army were almost entirely confined to the battlefield in china. This is China's unparalleled contribution to the anti fascist war in the world, which is a fact that cannot be reversed. That is why China will become the top four of the United nations. Historical narratives can be distorted by ideas, but numbers can still speak.
Yes, "historical narratives can be distorted by ideas, but numbers still speak."". When I try to see the war from the number, can not help but when the bloody Chinese and China government, full of respect.
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