Premier Zhou indicated that the volunteers must use new cotton uniforms, originally there is this intention2017-10-25 22:11:32 440 ℃
"Smoke billowing sing hero, surrounded by mountains give ear to......" Hear the familiar song, heroes and heroines China people's Volunteer Army image immediately emerge in front of us: wearing a tufted cap, wearing a cotton padded waist ramp, pedal cotton shoes, wore the "China volunteer army". But people seem to know nothing about volunteer uniforms. On the anniversary of the war to resist U.S. aggression and aid Korea, this article will take you to know more about the military uniforms of the volunteers......
The military uniforms of the volunteers in the early years of the Jin Dynasty
In June 25, 1950, the Korean War broke out. In July 13th, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China decided to establish the northeast frontier defense force. In October of the same year, the Chinese people's volunteers went to the DPRK to join the war. It was a short time for the volunteers to weave and go abroad, and all preparations were rushed. The first entry into the Korean people's army officers wore uniforms toward the belt fold straight cylinder cap, yellow leather collar uniforms, armed with yellow, black breeches, high boots...... Volunteer army cadres do not wear rank insignia, wearing robes, the division level and above regiment battalion in full uniform, even platoon leader Wei soldiers wear robes, wearing uniforms of North Korea, but most of them are in the people's liberation army uniforms, not wearing a badge, badge......
"Valiant, spirited, across the Yalu River"
With the headquarters of the volunteer army entering the DPRK, Mao Anying wore the Korean people's army uniforms.
In addition to the first batch of the DPRK army's replacement of the Korean people's army clothing, the rest of the volunteers who entered the DPRK were all wearing our army's 50 style military uniforms. Its basic style is:
The officers and men of winter clothes wearing cotton padded caps or fur coat with two cadres; dig bag, a bag cover, a single row of 5 buttons; pants for western style pants, a jacket and gun bag after the soldiers; cadres are basically the same, two bag cover a buttonhole, Ming buckle; female soldiers winter clothing for Lenin clothing, small collar, double row 10 button, tight cuffs, Western-style pants. Are made of cotton cloth, above the regiment cadres for the use of coarse woolen and regimental, above the division level with fine it (Merten Ni); the color is yellow green.
50 types of military coats are divided into overcoats, cotton coats, fur coats and so on. Senior officers (cadres above division) coat, style switch dual-use large lapel, fur pullover, front row 12 button, two covered by dig bags, back there are two waist decoration and decorative buckle, fabric dress, senior overcoats, coarse wool gabardine etc.. Cotton coat, fur coat, the style for the front row 10 button, two lower pockets, after hem down. Twill fabric, cloth (cadres) (Warriors), sheep etc.. The soldiers for single breasted.
50 officers and soldiers, and winter clothing color summer dress materials are the same, wearing hat (cap). The warrior Pullover Jacket, semi open, tight cuffs, two cut bag, tie wire belt. Female soldiers for summer dress dress, collar stand, pullover, the front upper opening 3 button, two cut bag, long sleeves, tight cuffs, 1 button, waist cloth belt, skirt length and below the knee. Female soldiers with trousers from 1951 summer dress.
Volunteer troops were not wearing the "81" and "people's Liberation Army Cap Badge Chinese" badge. Because a "volunteer army" identity of the war, when strict rules: forward, all personnel and units must be cap badge, and all the people's Liberation Army badge has labeled items at home, seals and documents shall be handed over to the. Therefore, the so-called "18 O division flag was paid" is purely irresponsible and groundless.
In the winter of 1950, the PLA officers 50 winter clothing have asked to join the volunteer army, participated in the Korean war.
Let the Central Committee think of the volunteer army winter clothes
After entering the army, the volunteer army mainly encountered three difficulties: one is the disadvantage of the weapon equipment and the lack of ammunition; the other is the problem of eating, especially the hot food supply difficulties; and the other is the winter clothing tension.
To prepare for the volunteer army, arranged in Northeast and North China, East China and Central Military Commission as early as July 1950, the General Logistics Department, produce 340 thousand sets of cotton, cotton 360 thousand pairs of shoes, pants, trousers, cotton vest, cotton coat 400 thousand pieces (top, bar), cotton gloves, socks, 700 thousand pairs. But because Korea forces increased, and the urgency of the situation, many units to complete winter clothing. When the second batch of volunteers entered the country, it was winter. The north part of North Korea is very cold in winter, and the troops from South China have not enough time to change winter clothes. On November 6, 1950, the station in Shenyang, in the central military command to check for entry into the army deputy commander of the Northeast military Jinnian he saw the ninth regiment of the twentieth army officers and soldiers dressed in East China's cotton cloth hat, wearing a hat without ears, wearing rubber soled shoes, shocked, immediately found under the command of twenty Army Transportation Army Deputy Commander Liao Zhengguo, asked for emergency parking two hours to mobilize the thick coat and cap from the military forces in Northeast china. But the most urgent military, the twenty army fifty-eight, fifty-nine and eighty-nine divisions, basically no parking directly bound for North Korea kanggye, only military force directly and sixty guard division had few thick coat and cap in the parking space in brief.
November 8, 1950, anton. Our army soldiers still wear hat.
Lack of winter clothing has become a serious problem for the voluntary army after entering the country. In the first logistical conference of the Northeast military region, the preliminary summary of the logistical work made by the twenty army mentioned that "twenty-five thousand wounded soldiers in the whole army, frostbite accounted for more than sixty percent, about fifteen thousand people.". The reason is the army "in addition to coat hair, cotton padded hat, shoes and other warm materials have not been added. Combat is very painful in a world of ice and snow, the only way is to remove the socks, gloves, earmuffs quilt etc.. According to incomplete statistics, sixty percent of the quilts in the army have been demolished." In the battle of the ch'ongch'on Changjin reservoir, the volunteer army troops is because of the lack of cotton suffered. The volunteer army ninth corps of twenty army, twenty-seven army, the emergency of the Korean War, the army did not complete winter warm clothing, resulting in non combat casualties great combat dropped, only twenty-seven in the first day in the army, more than 700 people have frostbite. The twenty army, twenty-seven army and 3 companies were all frozen to death in the ambush battle formation! "Ice sculpture" became the awe of the American army"!
The winter clothing of the volunteer army has aroused great attention from the headquarters of the volunteers, the Central Military Commission and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of china. To this end, the Central People's government urgently set up Northeast Army uniform factory, and ordered Shanghai to organize the development of industrial sewing machines as soon as possible, in order to understand the urgent needs of the volunteer cotton padded clothes supply. Premier Zhou Enlai was very anxious, calling two times a day to urge the production and transportation of winter clothes. And personally instructed: to the volunteers uniforms must use new cotton, high quality cotton! Why must we use the new cotton? It turned out that this new cotton not only fluffy, warm, more important is clean, once wounded soldiers on the battlefield, you can pull out cotton in the cotton padded clothes to stop bleeding. Then punish unscrupulous individual profiteers, they stuffed cotton in the inferior to the Chinese people's volunteers do cotton, infection causes the volunteer soldiers wounded, causing unnecessary casualties.
The great victory of the war to resist US aggression and aid Korea is inseparable from the vigorous support of the people of the whole country. Especially in the northeast, as an important base to support the war to resist US aggression and aid Korea, it provided a large number of military supplies, military shoes, food, shells, rockets, explosives and other military supplies for the volunteers. Only four major cities in Northeast China, Shenyang, Da Cheng, Harbin and Changchun, have produced millions of military uniforms in just a few months after the volunteers entered the country, which ensured the needs of the front line officers and men.
Northeast clothing factory workers volunteers rushed winter clothing.
The hands of the people, the lines, the soldiers' coats. In Wuhan a female students use their spare time to volunteer sewing cotton.
Military uniforms for volunteers
In the Korean War, U.S. forces rely on air superiority, has been the destruction of enemy supply as one of the volunteers fighting force means weakening. Especially from July 1951 onwards, the implementation of the "bid" for volunteers to rear, trying to cut off enemy transport line. The volunteer army was loaded with materials, with strong seasonality, concentrated quantity and huge volume. It was the key target of bombing damage by the enemy aircraft. Therefore, it is a severe test for the logistic front to organize the voluntary army to be supplied. 1951 summer before the operation, because of many intermediate links, material arrival is too concentrated and failed to evacuate immediately, causing enemy bombing, causing major losses. The summer before the number of losses accounted for 30%. Only three landing area once was bombed, the loss of 280 thousand sets of more than 120 thousand sets of clothing, shirts, more than 190 thousand pairs of shoes, more than 230 thousand top cap. In some Eastern forces can not be on time to the hot summer dress, also do not wear clothing, had to be changed to wear cotton clothes.
The implementation of the "bid for U.S. volunteers behind".
1951 winter before operation, drawing lessons before the summer, starting from the active air defense, try to shorten the residence time of materials in the middle, and returned by dispatched direct transport and assault. In the winter has not completely removed from the motherland clothing factory, voluntary army logistics troops put forward the resounding slogan: "the completion of this year's winter supply for victory task struggle!" "In order to ensure no loss of a winter coat and struggle!" In September 10, 1951, Peng Dehuai commander ordered "rear authorities and forces without combat mission, should concentrate all power by the end of September to October of cotton, primary qi." The volunteer army logistics system nervous and orderly start rescur winter work. The special forces organized cars to Anton self transportation. The remaining 955 wagon train with "one-sided continuation method" to North Korea, the second-line troops organized forces to the railway transport feeder end point, and then people back pack horse, put the winter from the unloading point back to the troops. Due to strict organization, not only fast delivery, and small losses, losses accounted for only 0.52% of the 1 million 430 thousand sets of winter clothes.
Women's soldiers in the Logistics Corps of the volunteer corps are distributing cotton padded mattress.
In October 1951, before the second winter of the volunteer army's entry into the north, the rear service headquarters of the volunteer army had prepared all the winter clothes of the year, so that the army wore the cotton padded clothes a month earlier than the enemy. When wearing a brand nucotn uniform of the volunteer soldiers appeared in the place of negotiations at Panmunjom, the enemy was shocked on behalf of the armistice negotiations. They said, "I didn't expect the bombing to be so severe. You could wear cotton padded clothes. It was still earlier than we did."."
After 1952, the goods were generally used to transport before the 1951 winter, there is almost no loss in transit.
The prisoners of war in the volunteer POW camp wore the new winter clothes of the volunteers.
In the early days of the entry into the northern China, the volunteers carried out the standard of supply in the cold areas of the pla. The volunteers in Korea in addition to perform combat missions, but also to build fortifications, repair roads, firewood up the hill, long-distance carry grain, clothes, shoes and wear large, usually can not meet the needs of the standard. The General Logistics Department of the Central Military Commission and the headquarters of the Logistics Corps of the voluntary army should adjust and supplement the supply standards in order to meet the needs of the Korean battlefield.
The volunteers were issued in 1951 the supply standard, compared with the year the people's Liberation Army supply standard, the issuance of a shirt, two pairs of socks, line two towels, cotton shoes, a pair of the three, a pair of anti-skid pin code. In addition, wool leather shoes, raincoats, mosquito nets, kettle, bag, liberation army two or one and a half years, a year for voluntary military reform.
To position defense, clothing and shoes to reduce consumption, supply is standard to make the corresponding cuts in 1952. Compared with 1951, each of a pair of shoes, hair cut a pair of shoes, cotton shoes changed according to the number of 25% to; cotton coats, raincoats, nets use period extended from one year to more than two years and two years; group cadres above change hair lambskin coat, battalion cadres above modified scared boots.
In addition, during the war of resistance against US aggression and aid Korea, many volunteers passed through the uniforms of the Korean people's army. At the February 1952 National Youth Congress, chairman Mao Zedong met with representatives of the Chinese people's volunteer army. The volunteer army corps commander Yang Chengwu said in his memoirs, he saw Peng Dehuai in the volunteer headquarters commander of the Korean people's army will be dressed in a military uniform: "I found Peng wear uniforms have special texture, very pretty, is clearly grown, unlike our common pocket style, decorated with red lines on both sides of the trousers vertical. I asked, where did you get this set of uniforms? Peng said with a smile, "Korean comrades sent.". How about, like a commander?"
Improved volunteer uniforms in actual combat
The volunteers found in the practice of war, does not meet the operational needs of forest -; Pullover unlined (imitation of Soviet style) of poor ventilation, and wounded to affect the ambulance; easily detachable, cotton knurling piles, effect of warm, and easy to break; tufted cap did not listen to the hole, negative air defense anti shelling fur boots; the waist is short, easy to snow......
The soldiers demand affects Zhongnanhai after the beloved Premier Zhou personally, the General Logistics Department of the army soon problems have been studied, the structure has been improved, in order to adapt to the requirements of the volunteer army.
In June 22, 1951, the General Logistics Department issued "on the volunteer winter clothing style and quality instructions", made some improvements on the Korean battlefield volunteer army officers and soldiers of cotton underwear, pants, wool leather shoes, the point is:
(a) cadres cotton padded clothes style: the top by 50 years to transform the pattern, namely: the collar to collar, the front with a cardigan style, which add a chest protector to keep out the cold; trousers for breeches, trouser legs lower five buckle; with brass buttons and bakelite buttons, sail line, line or wire thread buckle, in order to achieve the purpose of durable.
(two) cotton underwear style: Cotton warrior warrior cadre cotton upper body and the same style, the collar for straight collar slightly high cotton, two shoulders and a piece of cloth to wear shoulder shoulder two a few lines tied with buttons, cuffs with belt loop; trousers for western style pants big trousers, cuffs and easy hair tied with smoke leather waist; anterior knee and knee, back crotch crotch belt and belt with;
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