Why did the Qing troops defeat in the Sino-Japanese War? Look at Japan's pre-war preparations!2018-06-08 00:26:16 382 ℃
Wen/Association Tiger Team Mr. Duan Lin
Li Zhongtang trembled and signed his own name. Until now, this matter still often lets people sigh. After the Westernization Movement was cleared up, why did the population fail to lose as the population economy did not lose Japan? This has to reflect on the fact that China and Japan were at a terrible difference in the entire war system.
In 1853, Japan was knocked open by Perry's black ship. Although the time of awakening is even later than that of China, when the Qing government took a drastic move in the Westernization Movement, Japan is also actively pushing reforms to catch up. This is the famous “Meiji Restoration” in the history of Japan. In the Meiji Restoration, it created a set of military warfare with Japanese characteristics for the military reform and also created a unique and new army in modern Japan.
The military reforms of the Meiji Restoration clearly have an expansionary ambition. Under the auspices of Akihiro Daisuke, Daisuke Daisuke, and his successor Yamaguchi Yamato, Japan completed a complete exchange of blood for the Navy.
First, Japan unified the military system in 1870 to determine the criteria for "Army Studies in France, Navy in the United Kingdom, and Military Spirit in Germany". Subsequently, the government replaced the samurai class during the feudal period with a new conscription system. These policies have jointly built the foundation for the rise of the Japanese army in modern times.
The newly established Japanese army also has a very clear goal: expansion!
To this end, the Meiji government, which has drunken territories and resources, has repeatedly revised its military system and eventually exempted it from all exemptions in 1889. In other words, at this time, Japan has already reached true national unity. In addition, starting in 1878, the Japanese military system gradually began to learn from Germany, and Prussia’s martial spirit and militarism further affected Japan. This kind of thinking and system is doomed to make the Japanese army erupt into more powerful fighting power.
In addition to the inheritance of the Western empire from ideas and institutions, the Japanese army also made innovations in specific systems.
1888 The Army unified the use of the field division system. A division of the division has an infantry brigade, cavalry brigade, artillery wing, engineering brigade, and large brigade. The navy also has a standing fleet, which is clear and orderly. Under the Sino-Japanese War, the Qing Army still retains the old eight flags, green camps, corps training, and the army's various forms of command and disorder. Even if we compare this point alone, it is not surprising that the Qing Army was defeated in the war. In order to serve the army’s construction, the Meiji government has also set up many military schools in the country. They hired Europeans to train soldiers early on, and later they completely conducted it with Japanese instructors. These military schools have clear teaching objectives, diverse contents, and management. Before the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, the Japanese government had basically completed a modern military education system that included all branches at the time.
▲Modern Japan was established Military schools
Besides this, Japan has also made many achievements in the military industry. In order to speed up the construction, the government has specially received a batch of formerly private enterprises and transformed them into state-owned ones. The arsenal that was produced exclusively for the military, among which the Tokyo Arsenal, the Osaka Arsenal, the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, and the Ishikawa Naval Arsenal were honored as the four major Japanese arsenals at the time.
On the weapon, the Japanese government has also made a lot of efforts.
It is different from the Qing government's Westernization Movement to buy or imitate foreign weapons. The Japanese relatively proposed the concept of "independence of weapons." Later in 1880, Japan independently designed and built the warship "Fukushima"; in 1883, the Osaka Armory independently produced 70 mm copper artillery; in 1888, the Japanese military The "22-year-old" rifle was designed and manufactured, and was widely used in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894. On the other hand, at the time of the Qing Army, the difficulty of logistics was greatly increased and the slackening of arms was a direct result of the failure of the war.>
AboveThe examples given are sufficient to show that the Japanese government has indeed worked hard on military reforms. Although the Qing government's efforts in the Westernization Movement have also made some achievements, there are indeed gaps. However, in the Sino-Japanese War, it was these pre-war reforms and preparations that ultimately led to a disparity between China and Japan.
Then, what specific impact does these factors have on the war between the two sides?
First of all, the purpose and purpose of the military are different. This has caused the Chinese and Japanese armed forces to have a different attitude toward the Sino-Japanese War.
In the Sino-Japanese War of the First World War, Japan almost took all its troops in the country and invested most of its strength in the navy and navy. It allocated more than 200 million yen as temporary military expenditure. About 100 million yen). The Qing army claimed to have requisitioned 500 combat troops totaling 250,000 troops, but only 25% of the Zhili Huai Jun and more than 10,000 of the remaining troops actually put into combat, not to mention that the Qing government “only listened to the lustful behavior all day long”. It is very "not attentive" to the war that is related to life and death.
Secondly, the commanding personnel of the Qing Army were unsatisfactory.
We can't deny that even if the Qing Army was in a rage in the Sino-Japanese War, there was still a touching song of tragic rock. Deng Shichang’s feat in naval warfare was widely known. Pyongyang The left side of the city’s unique combat was also a tribute to the Japanese military at the time. However, the majority of the Qing Army’s unbearable performance made the Japanese military begin to “tap” the Qing’s low combat capability: Li Hongzhang’s self-protection ideology led to the annihilation of the Beiyang fleet, and Ye Zhichao’s greed for death led to the defeat of the Qing troops in the Qing Dynasty. Behind the invaluable loneliness of the left is the “masterpiece” of Ye Zhichao.
Once again, the military qualities of the Qing soldiers were low and became an important reason for the defeat of the Qing army.
When the Army took over the enemy, the Qing Army pressed the entire army regardless of the situation, and the attack was hampered by obstacles. The Japanese army first tried to sneak up the squad, exhausted the Qing Army, and then seized the opportunity to beat the main force.
In the naval battles, the military quality of the Qing Army was even worse. Huang HaihaiDuring the war, the seat of the Japanese naval minister Chekiyama Shiki was hit and it was difficult to sail. The Qing Army ships caught up, and the Japanese soldiers on board were "turning their eyes shut". Who knows that the torpedoes fired by the Qing army were wiped off and the artillery fire did not hit. The Xijing Maru was able to escape.
It can be seen that the powerful combat effectiveness brought by Japan's new military system completely outperformed the corrupt and crusty Qing army. The behavior of the late Qing government, which was weak and incompetent and bent on knees and knees, was even more spurned by the world. Nowadays, it is not surprising that the Qing Dynasty, which was still in the stage of feudal agricultural civilization, was defeated by the Japanese armed forces that had undergone modern industrialization reform.
Of course, although Japan had won a victory over the Qing government, its militarist ideology eventually buried it. On May 8, 1945, the Japanese government surrendered unconditionally, and China finally achieved victory in the hard-fought anti-Japanese war. Although we live in peace today, we should still be prepared for peace and preparedness. It should not be like the arrogant government of the Qing government, but should learn with humility and build a more powerful motherland.
A few issues on the evaluation of the Qing army land battle in Jiawu” Guan Xinjie, “The Military Expenditure of the Meiji Government before the Sino-Japanese War,” Zhang Xingang. /p>
"Military Reforms in the Meiji Restoration Period in Japan" Xie Zhaohui
Analysis of the Sino-Japanese Casualties in the Sino-Japanese War" Wang Zhexiang
"The Army School in the Meiji Period in Japan" Li Tiehan
"Japan's Military Expenditures and Japanese Soldiers' Number of Dead and Injured in Sino-Japanese Sino-Japanese War" Gu Lin
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