The first injustice case of the National College Entrance Examination in China: the first champion was killed, the examiner was exiled, and the top 51 scores were all abolished.

Home > History

The first injustice case of the National College Entrance Examination in China: the first champion was killed, the examiner was exiled, and the top 51 scores were all abolished.

2019-01-13 09:03:21 1677 ℃



<<< Gu Jingyan

< p > Behind the news of < strong > < p > < p > there is a world you don't know

< p > whether the college entrance examination is fair or not, which has always been a hot issue for Chinese people.

Historically, the difficulty of college entrance examination in different provinces and remote areas is different, which has always been the heart disease of examinees and parents. "Why can't we have a national paper and rank it uniformly?"

Especially the students in Shandong, Henan and Jiangsu provinces who have taken the college entrance examination feel unjust: Why do we have to face the "hell mode" in the college entrance examination? There is nothing new under the sun. More than 600 years ago, there was a case of "the first injustice in China's College Entrance Examination".

In that injustice case, the champion of the talented person was cracked by a car, the impartial examiner was executed directly, and the rest of the high school imperial examinees were deprived of merit and fame. It was Zhu Yuanzhang, the emperor of heaven, who made this injustice. Why did he want to kick the best men of the Empire out of the imperial list and select another group of people whose talent is far inferior to theirs? Behind the enormous injustice lies a helpless truth.


A pure and honest reading genius who gets the champion through his genuine talent and practical learning has fallen into the first place in less than a month...

full of talent, attracted not glory and wealth, but the disaster of death. Some people say that Chen Anque (fpi) is the most unlucky champion in history. < p > < p > Chen Anque, Anzhong, Changle, Fujian. Compared with contemporary scholars, Chen Anzhong is absolutely an enviable "other people's children".

He began to study at the age of 5. He was talented and was called a "prodigy" from an early age.

In his youth, he had read a lot of books, and almost never forgotten, and became one of the "Ten Talents of South Fujian". If Chen Anzhong is a genius in modern society, there may be many ways out: scientists, business elites, well-known scholars... But at that time, he had only one way: to become an official through imperial examinations.

< p> Learning to be an excellent official is the dream of all the scholars in that era. The imperial examination was as important to the scholars at that time as the college entrance examination was to the Chinese students now. In February of the 30th year of Hongwu, Emperor Taizu of the Ming Dynasty, Chen Anzhong took part in the imperial examination of the Daming Empire with many scholars.

The examiner of this examination is Liu Sanwu, who has always been famous for his frankness and frankness, and is deeply trusted by the Ming Taizu as a minister of letters. < p > < p > Liu Sanwu, adhering to his determination to select talents for the country, took talent and learning as the sole criterion and enrolled 51 scholars as new scholars. After

was put on the list, the talented Chen Anzhong topped the list and became the most enviable champion.

The remaining 50 scholars are also one in a million. However, Zhu Yuanzhang, Taizu of the Ming Dynasty, was furious at the fair and just result of the examination.


As a monarch, we naturally hope that "the world's elites will enter our league". Zhu Yuanzhang's abnormal rage of thunder was caused by someone telling him that the exam was not fair at all and that there were fraudulent phenomena.

The reason is simple. All the 51 scholars enrolled this time are from the south. < p > < p > < northern scholar, without exception, all of them fall to Sun Shan.

"Is the best scholar in the north not as good as the 51st scholar in the south? There must be something catty in it!" < p > < p > The northern scholars were very dissatisfied, gathered in the streets and lanes to discuss the matter, and went to the Rites Yamen to make a big noise, which soon spread to the ears of Zhu Yuanzhang, the Ming Taizu.

Zhu Yuanzhang immediately ordered a thorough investigation of the matter.

He sent 12 civilian officers headed by Zhang Xin to review all the papers in the examination and make a clear investigation of the truth. After carefully examining the examination papers, Zhang Xin and others gave Zhu Yuanzhang a startling answer: Liu Sanwu is fair and impartial, and the literary style of the northern scholars is really poor, which is inferior to that of the southern scholars. < p > < p > < p > Southern scholar ranked 51, which was much higher than Northern scholar ranked first.

Zhang Xin presented many papers of Northern Scholars to the palace. After reading them, Zhu Yuanzhang found that many northern scholars not only wrote poorly, but also did not know how to avoid taboos, and often made forbidden remarks. At this stage, the dust should have settled down, but Zhu Yuanzhang made a fantastic decision. Instead of blaming northern scholars for rumors and forbidden acts, he ordered the execution of impartial examiner Zhang Xin and others, and banished Liu Sanwu, the examiner-in-chief, to the frontier.

< p> Zhu Yuanzhang wielded a large brush to remove all the Southern scholars from the high school imperial list, while Chen Anzhong, the champion, was crowned with unnecessary charges and finally killed. After

, Zhu Yuanzhang personally presented the questions and read the papers, and re-presided over the examination.

This time, Zhu Yuanzhang personally delineated the list of new cadets, all of whom were from the north. Confronted with the emperor's blatant eccentricity, the Southern scholars with genuine talents and practical knowledge could only destroy their teeth and swallow blood. The emperor's eccentricity broke the principle of "preferential admission", but made "northerners first" a hidden rule.

is also a scholar of the Daming Dynasty. Just because of the different regions, he will encounter such different treatment from heaven to earth. How can it be?


until the reign of Ming Renzong, Zhu Yuanzhang's grandson, this preference for Northern scholars even became a system.

Emperor Renzong stipulated that new scholars should be selected from different regions. Sixty in the South and 40 in the north.

On the surface, the Southern Scholars are glorious, with 20 more places, but not in fact.

If the whole country does not divide into regions, Southerners can occupy about 80% of the places by virtue of their talents and learning. Why did the emperor of the Ming Dynasty formulate such an unfair examination system?

This is a common doubt of many people.

Zhu Yuanzhang, Taizu of the Ming Dynasty, claimed to be a "Huaiyoubuyi", a southerner. He had made his fortune and must have been in the south. Why did he have such a preference for the non-competitive northern scholars at that time?

Emperor Taizu was not a comatose monarch. He would not make a decision that seemed to be comatose because of his personal likes and dislikes.

He knows that the southern scholars who were expelled by him are wronged;

He knows that the northern scholars are really low and generally inferior to the southern scholars;

He knows that the examiners Zhang Xin and others who were sentenced to extreme punishment by him are fair markers;

He knows that Chen Anzhong, the champion of innocent death, is indeed a worthy scholar;

But even though he is a worthy scholar. Knowing all the truth, he will not change his decision.

because he is the leader of the world, we must consider not whether an exam has been absolutely fair, but the stability and development of the entire empire.

Liu Sanwu, the examiner at that time, once said in his defense to Emperor Taizu that the scholars had no intention to concentrate on reading because of years of war in the northern region. The southern region is prosperous and prosperous, so the culture is prosperous. Scholars generally write well. Little did Liu Sanwu's explanation touch Zhu Yuanzhang's mind. < p > < p > Zhu Yuanzhang came from a humble background, and only after a hundred wars did he ascend the throne of the Son of Heaven in troubled times. He was too aware of the situation in the north.


"White bones are exposed to the wild, there is no chicken crowing in a thousand miles". Poverty in the north, the common people in the war are all kind of extravagant expectations, how can they have the unique reading environment of Southerners?

Unified ranking of papers issued nationwide, which seems the fairest way of admission, is actually unfair to northerners.

Because the starting line is different, how can you run better than the southerners?

If nobody in the North could enter the temple through imperial examinations for a long time, then over time, the northerners would feel cold and disappointed in the Daming Empire, and their sense of identity would become worse and worse.

You know, although the Ming Dynasty had driven the Yuan Emperor to Mongolia at that time, the Yuan Emperor was not completely dead-hearted, and the Mongolian Tieqiao was ready to attack Daming and regain control of the Central Plains.

while in the northern region, people were uncertain because they had been the hinterland of the Yuan Dynasty for a long time, and many people still had a sense of belonging and identity to the Yuan Dynasty.

p>Zhu Yuanzhang must be supported by the northerners.

Otherwise, the whole country would probably fall into turmoil again. The injustice of Hongwu's imperial examinations in the past 30 years was not Zhu Yuanzhang's cruelty to the southerners, but his helplessness for the whole empire.

The governance of mega-state is more difficult, and the quality of candidates must be different because of regional differences.

If only from the point of view of material selection, the fairness of the examination is undoubtedly the most desirable, with high scores, which implies a strong sense of ability, so, who scored high should be on whom.

But examination is never just a question of examination. First, for the country, the examination has the effect of promoting education, enhancing the centripetal force of backward and frontier areas, and must maintain a certain degree of regional equity. Secondly, for families, education also has the function of promoting the mobility of social strata.

Therefore, there has been a conflict between examination fairness and regional fairness.

Zhang Xin, who was executed, and Liu Sanwu, who were exiled, were all Confucian scholars with full stomachs of classics. They understood the article but did not see through it.