How difficult is it for Koreans to pay tribute?

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How difficult is it for Koreans to pay tribute?

2019-04-01 11:25:34 34 ℃

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author:Linxi owner The Dynasty established the secret The connection between the two became a model of vassal relations. The important link used to maintain such diplomatic relations is the diplomatic corps. From the beginning of Ming Dynasty, DPRK sent envoys to Beijing four or five batches a year, sometimes even six or seven batches, and the names of the festivals were complex and varied. Every winter solstice, New Year's Day, the birth of the emperor, the collapse of the emperor, the ascension of the emperor and so on, DPRK sent pilgrimages. A professional North Korean diplomat will never appear in Seoul, either in Beijing or on his way to Beijing. What a historic event it is!

The bumpy road of Chaotian Yanxing

Take the Korean Embassy of the Qing Dynasty as an example, besides official envoys, translators, officers and so on, there are quite a number of accompanying personnel, up to two or three hundred people, and one or two hundred horses. When the mission representing the state body is ordered to set out, it will be greenlighted all the way through the country. Local officials will carefully prepare accommodation and entertainment activities, but it is a good thing.

Under the political capacity of pre-modern countries,

it is very difficult to govern vast territory and lead neighboring countries

In addition to maintaining suzerain-vassal relations with North Korea and Vietnam by various means

in China, there are also many systems in parallel to maintain centripetal force

(the bottom map is from the Historical Atlas of China)

But once they enter Liaodong, the situation is different. The route of the mission to Beijing can be roughly divided into three sections. The first paragraph is from Yizhou to Liaodong, the second from Liaodong to Guangning, and the third from Guangning to Beijing. <<<

Although the Qingting decrdecrdecree ordered that the envoy envoy capital along the Beijing line repair of the "procuratorate" to provide accommodation for the Mission accommodation That is to say, They often let these houses fall apart. When it comes to rainy days, the houses are leaking, the water on the Kang is accumulated, the water is deeper than knee, and it is difficult to live in.

The delicious Korean Missions in China sometimes have to sleep in the wilderness because of heavy rain.

p>The tributary delegation walked along

p>If it lost its way in the mountains of Northeast China, it would be able to

when it loaned outside, of course, it would encounter generous owners who did not count the house money, but more often it was the landlords who used it to raise house prices and extort money. If the housing money can not meet the main housing requirements, the landlord even locked the door of the house to prevent the mission from leaving. Because of the fierce folk custom and the unfamiliar place of life, the delegation often had to pay more room money for peace. < p > < p > In addition to the easy extortion of the delegation by the landlords and shopkeepers, the delegation also needs to deal with the Qing army sergeants and officials seen along the way, and the gifts it gives are also of great value.

has a long way to go, and the number of people is slow

When a mission was sent to live in a certain place in the Ming Dynasty, a Ming Dynasty officer and the mission sent some gifts separately. Out of etiquette, the mission also sent out the fans and hats brought from China as symbolic gifts. When visitors saw these gifts, they felt that they were too few and left in anger. After a while one of them turned back again and picked up the gifts thrown on the ground and took them away. When the DPRK envoy saw this, he could not help scolding the man in his diary for his insatiable greed and lack of shame. Sometimes things on the ground can be terrifying. < p > < section > < section > < section > < section > < p > < br > < / P > < p > Some diplomats are familiar with the local people's families because they often borrow their homes and often travel to and from China and Korea. The people's families often grant their children to the couriers and interpreters accompanying the Korean Mission, which is commensurate with their parents or adoptive fathers and adoptive sons. When the delegation comes, its family must treat them well with wine, and the delegation also needs to use Korean local products in return.


Li Dynasty scholar Park Zhiyuan encountered this kind of thing. At that time, a shopkeeper changed his clothes and came out with his 8-9-year-old daughter, who was "fierce in appearance", and called her daughter to kowtow, hoping that he would recognize her. Park Zhiyuan refused at the moment and said that he was a foreigner. "You can't come back after that. You can make a second marriage. The misery of missing each other is still a grievance."

Park Zhiyuan: No, I don't have

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Even if Park Zhiyuan recognized this dry daughter at that time, he would return to Beijing as a gift, which is not worth mentioning. However, due to the prosperity of this custom, it is difficult for members of the delegation to avoid it completely in many cases. After arriving in Beijing,

, the mission usually lived in the Huitong Pavilion, that is, the Ming and Qing Dynasties used to resettle the residence of the tributary mission. However, like the buildings on the road, there is always a lack of proper maintenance, often requiring the DPRK mission to pay its own money for repairs and maintenance. As a result, the first thing the delegation did when they arrived in Beijing was often to rush about renovating houses.

Of course, the dilapidation of the houses was due to the poor management of the Qing Dynasty on the one hand, and the deliberate destruction of the grass-roots officials on the other, which forced the Korean Mission to repair again next time, so that it could take the opportunity to charge high prices for various maintenance costs. Qingfang managers can be described as "making money wisely".

Finally, it was not peaceful to go home, so the ambassadors were inevitably blackmailed by Chinese escorts. < p > < section > < section > < section > < section > < p > < br > < / P > < p > When a Korean Minister of the Ming Dynasty returned from Beijing and passed through Liaodong on his way home, he heard the enemy's attack and asked Liaodong Dusi to send troops to escort him. Towards the border, the envoy said he would not work for the general to continue his escort. The commander of the Ming Army said that since he had been ordered by Dushi, he should be escorted to the border all the time. So after the Ming Army sent the Korean Mission across the border, the DPRK thanked them by hosting a special banquet for the Ming Army officers and soldiers and giving them some gifts.


As a result, the Ming Army has developed a habit of sending officers and soldiers to escort whenever the mission transits quickly, just to enjoy the hospitality and gifts of the next Korean side. It can be said that the Chinese people have brought the means of ripping off bamboo sticks to the extreme.

consciousness of "Little China"


According to the provisions of the Qing Dynasty, Chinese officials may not have too much contact with members of the Korean Mission at will, but these provisions can not eradicate the regrettable disposition of Chinese and Korean scholars.


Although the two languages are not clear, because Korean scholar-bureaucrats can write Chinese characters, the two sides can actually talk in writing. From the literature of Yan Xinglu, we can find that the Korean Mission despised those phenomena that people in the Qing Dynasty did not know the clothes of the former Ming Dynasty and called them costumes. It seems that the Korean Mission had a superior mentality of "small China".

Kim Hong-tao, a famous Korean painter, described the envoy group

< p> as one of the "Yan Xing Tu"

< p> < p> depicted the Taihe Temple in the Forbidden City of Beijing

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< p> of course, the Korean envoy group under the guidance of the consciousness of "Little China" did not look at other countries. The envoy of the family. < p > < section > < section > < section > < section > < p > < br > < / P > < p > Ming Wanli 25 years, when the Korean Lee Kuan-kwang was in Beijing, he happened to meet the envoy of Annan, Feng Kekuan. As a result, the exchanges between the two sides were not friendly, and Feng Kekuan was embarrassed by Li Jiguang's repeated remarks about Annan.


The two countries have no diplomacy at all, but Li Kuoguang is familiar with Annan's national conditions, and has made many changes to the post-Annan Li Dynasty, Mochao Dynasty and other countries, thanks to the role of "spy" of the Korean Mission to a certain extent. No matter what time the envoy sent to Beijing, the envoy had to record everyday life in no great detail, including the political situation, social culture, folk customs, the national conditions of other tributary countries and so on.

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Sometimes when Russians come to pay tribute, North Koreans mock them as "big nose Tartars" for their unusual appearance, unwilling to live with them, preferring to move out. This also reflects the high self-esteem of the Korean people.

In addition to acting as an intelligence officer in Beijing, the DPRK Mission also undertakes the task of foreign trade and trade. In addition to "tribute trade", there are also "eight-package trade".

The so-called "eight-package trade" means the economic privilege granted by the King of Korea to some members of the diplomatic corps to trade. Generally speaking, each "official" of the mission can carry the trade principal of "eight packages" value (about 22 to 32 thousand silver, depending on the grade of the official). Its name is said to have originated from the use of silver in the initial missions to the Ming Dynasty, but this led to the outflow of silver from the DPRK, so that only eight packages of ginseng were allowed to carry each person to trade in the Ming Dynasty.

According to Qing government regulations, the Korean Mission has to trade with the back city of the residence. The Qing merchants and other tributary merchants participated in the trade. Individual Qing merchants played a very important role in the post-market trade. One of them, a merchant surnamed Zheng, was able to monopolize the supply of silk and satin in Korea for a long time, and the Li Dynasty even named him to buy his family.

But because the trade personnel on the Korean side are all for profit, commercial fraud has appeared. In this regard, the Chinese government has to pay more attention to it and strengthen the management and surveillance of the DPRK mission. The collapse of the Huayi order

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Although North Korea showed a very respectful attitude toward the Ming and Qing Dynasties, it was not convinced by the Qing Dynasty, at least for a long time. Li Dynasty sincerely obeyed the Ming Dynasty with the grateful mentality of "rebuilding the Fan State", while serving the Qing Dynasty was largely due to "fear".

Korea was the left and right arm of the Daming Dynasty

Daming lost on the battlefield of the DPRK's life-saving grace

and its jacket could not be taken off

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1627 and 1636. Houjin (Qing Dynasty) signed a contract with the DPRK Peninsula in order to solve the worries of its invasion. The Alliance under the city refers to the so-called "Ding Mao's disorder" and "C Zi's disorder". In that year, the small country of Faner rose into a powerful country and naturally gave way to the DPRK.