The one who gets the pass gets the world: Why do people in Shaanxi always laugh until the end?

Home > History

The one who gets the pass gets the world: Why do people in Shaanxi always laugh until the end?

2019-08-07 00:26:20 554 ℃


脚本 Hu Nan

< p style= "text-align: center"> compilation and drawing: hoe

< p> cooperative connection:

< p> < p > fans; group: 512474045

< p > official micro-blog: @Historian Cartoon

< strong > postscript P > < p > before the 10th century A.D., there was almost no regime in Shaanxi during the wars of dynastic transformation. The enemy's statement that "the one who gets the pass gets the world" is not empty talk. However, there are exceptions to everything. In history, there are still many regimes in Guanzhong that failed to laugh until the end. They failed for different reasons. After Wang Mang established the new dynasty, the Green Forest Army and the Chimei Army attacked the key problems one after another, but Liu Xiu, who was based in Hebei Province, finally unified the whole world. The collapse of Xinmang regime in Chang'an, capital of Jiandu, was due to both political and military reasons. The political reason is the failure of Wang Mang's restructuring, which has caused people to deviate from each other and caused internal and external troubles. The military reason is that Wang Mang did not make good use of the geographical superiority of Guanzhong, which was easy to defend and difficult to attack. Instead, Wang Mang drove the main army east of Laoshan to fight against the Greenland Army. As a result, he collapsed in the first battle in Kunyang, leaving the new dynasty airspace solid and defenseless and unable to escape the fate of annihilation. In fact, the reason for the collapse of the Qin Dynasty lies in the failure of the main Legion in the final battle of Julu, the empty forces in Guanzhong, which was easily broken down by Liu Bang.

Because the Green Forest Army is a combination of many peasant armies, with the beginning of the regime's reign in Chang'an, the internal division became more and more intense, Liu Xiu's brother Liu Yan was killed in the internal strife, which led Liu Xiu to set up another gateway in Hebei. Secondly, the rapid corruption of the regime is also an important reason for its increasing isolation and weakening. In addition, while emperor Liu Xuan enfeoffenced the imperial clan wantonly, he did not give the Chimei Army active in Shandong an appropriate official title, which directly led to the break-up of the Chimei Army with it. Shortly afterwards, the Chimei Army invaded Shandong Province and killed Gengshi Emperor. Liu Xiu, who has gradually established his foothold in Hebei Province, is happy to see that both the peasant army and the peasant army are both defeated and wounded.

One of the major drawbacks of the Red Mei Army is that the cultural level of senior personnel is too low, most of them are illiterate, and even military orders need to be conveyed orally. Because the Chimei Army highly esteems the peasant lineage, it is unwilling to absorb the landlord intellectuals. This led to the Chimei Army entering Guanzhong, the local powerful landlords can not be properly enclosed. As a result, the landlords armed to clear the fields and hide food, which led to a serious shortage of food for the Red Mei Army. Due to the lack of food, the Red Mei Army had to loot everywhere and become a bandit, leading to the loss of people's hearts. Later, the Chimei Army could not stay in Guanzhong any longer. It could only move eastward, and eventually was defeated by Feng Yi, the general of the Eastern Han Dynasty, in the area of Laoshan. At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, warlords in Guanzhong area were not effective. After Dong Zhuo's death, his ministry expelled Li Li Li and Guo Shu, killed Wang Yun, hijacked Xiandi and occupied Guanzhong, but beat a good hand of cards to pieces. Li, Guo and others were cruel first, ranging from emperors and princes to the people of Li. They plundered soldiers and caused severe famine. The people in Guanzhong either starved to death or fled, and their population was completely lost. Secondly, internal strife, first Fan Cong and Li Meng were killed, and then Li Li and Guo Fan attacked each other, causing heavy casualties. Later, Emperor Xiandi of the Han Dynasty returned to the East and was welcomed to Xudu by Cao Cao. Guo She died in the hands of his subordinates. Li Li Li was also pursued and killed by generals in Guanzhong.

Cao Cao sent Zhong Yi to harmonize with Ma Teng, Han Sui and other generals in Guanzhong while he was studying Hebei. Later, when Ma Teng was older, he handed over the army to Ma Chao and moved to Yecheng. After Cao Cao's defeat of Chibi, he decided to expand his forces westward. As a result, the generals in Guanzhong rebelled. Ma Chao and other warlords in 10 routes of Guanzhong United Qiang and Hu Jun confronted Cao Jun in Tongguan. However, Cao Cao eventually defeated the generals by divorce tactics because of their own grudges and internal contradictions. Among the Sixteen Kingdoms of Wuhu, the Di regime in Chang'an, the capital of Jiangdu, had a good chance of reunifying the world before Qin Dynasty. Fan Jian's own brilliant outline, but also the Han Wang Meng has Wang Zuo's talent. He advocated Confucianism and reformed state administration so as to make "Guanlong Qingyan and the people happy". He then eliminated the regimes of Qian Yan and Qian Liang and unified the north. After Wang Meng's death, Fan resolutely southward expedition to the Eastern Jin Dynasty, which resulted in the defeat of Beifu soldiers in the Fengshui War, leading to the collapse of the pre-Qin regime. The main reason for the failure of Fanjian is that the national problems in China have not been effectively solved. The ethnic composition of more than 800,000 troops is complex, people are uneven, and it is difficult to command and coordinate. In the process of withdrawal, the army is shaken, the order is bad, and it is irremediable. Before Liu Yu's second Northern Expedition, the brothers and brothers of the post-Qin regime occupied Guanzhong, and civil strife remained frequent, and the national strength was seriously weakened. Wang Zhenwei led his troops upstream from the Yellow River and into the Weishui River. After World War I, the Customs was restored. However, due to Liu Yu's eagerness to return to China and usurp the throne, the arrangement of Guanzhong affairs is very hasty, and the way of managing the miscellaneous places of Hu and Han in Jingzhou and Yangzhou will inevitably make people hard to convince. The following year, Liu Song's generals fought against each other and were captured by the Huns. However, because of his cruelty and unpopularity, Hereb changed hands again after his death and was included in the territory of the Northern Wei Dynasty.

From the above failure cases, we can easily draw the conclusion that Guanzhong's geographical position is of great advantage, but if the ruler is unpopular, or the internal contradictions are fierce, the people are uneven, the best site can not be held, let alone pacify the world. Therefore, Mencius said, "The land is not as good as the people", which is very reasonable. After the Tang Dynasty, Li Zicheng's Dashun was the most climatic Shaanxi regime. Regarding the reasons for Li Zicheng's failure, we can pay attention to the upcoming book "Imperial Disqualification: Sixteen People in the Ming and Qing Dynasties".