The East African battlefield of a war, the Germans had beaten the British.2016-08-09 22:55:01 450 ℃
Before the outbreak of the first World War, Germany in Africa a total of four colonies: Tu Kou LAN, Cameroon, German southwest non and German East Africa.
When the war in August 1914, the Germans in overseas colonial forces is minimal, the four colonies are surrounded by a colony of Britain, France and other countries, the German defenders of these colonies both dispersed and weak, only the indigenous garrison troops, as equivalent to the tasks of the police, no military force.
War British, France and other countries that the Germans out of Africa have a good time, then unite to attack the German colony.
A handful of German and indigenous police forces simply can not resist, quickly, spit LAN Kou, Cameroon, and German southwest non fall into the hands of Britain and France.
But when the British wanted invasion of the German East Africa faced a serious defeat.
German East Africa area of about 38 million square miles, about 765 million population, but whites only more than 5300 people. In addition, there are 15000 Indians and Arabs. Around it are surrounded by the enemy, surrounded by a British East Africa (Kenya), Uganda, northern Rhode (Sambia) Rhodesia, Nyasaland (Malawi), than genus Congo (Zaire), mostly of British colonial rule, only the South Portuguese Africa (Mozambique) is neutral. So the German defense in East Africa can be said to be almost besieged on all sides.
In on the eve of the war, German East Africa forces including the 68 officers of the white, 60 white sergeant, 132 white medical officer and administrative personnel, two black officers, 184 black sergeant, and 2286 available black soldiers.
In weapons only 67 machine guns, 31 door outdated light field guns, also soldiers with rifles is 1871 years old Mauser rifles, bullet loading will produce a large number of white smoke of gunpowder.
British East Africa and Uganda in the vicinity of the troops of about 2000 people, the British two basically matched.
Unlike other German colonial military commander, Lieutenant Colonel German East Africa garrison troops German commander Paul von Leto - Lettow vorbeck (Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck), having participated in the battle of the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, the incompetence of the British command system leave deep impression.
Leto - Lettow vorbeck decided to in every possible way in a lot of Africa occupy the enemy troops, and the longer the better; because one more British troops into African battlefield means less a British involvement in the war in Europe, much less that he needed the weapons, equipment, and supplies, medicine, etc.. He wanted to help Germany win the war in Europe.
The war had, Leto - Lettow vorbeck clung to the concentration of battle, take the fight to the principles of guerrilla warfare, but he still take initiative, taking advantage of the British East Africa unprepared pre emptive occupation of land, elevated levels of conflict.
The land, in fact, is of little military value, but it caused a panic in British East Africa, that the German army will be a massive invasion.
British East Africa and Uganda in the vicinity of the British army, only by the indigenous black consisting of "king of African Rifles regiment" and by the white settlers volunteer composed of "East African Rifles" and "East Africa Lancer regiment", only as a guard, and inability to carry out offensive operations.
So by the British Ministry of foreign affairs coordination, as was the main British British Indian army sent a total of more than 8000 people in the elite two brigades to Africa combat designation series for the Indian expeditionary force B detachment. There is a white man composed of North Lancashire battalion, and a Gorkha infantry fighting the strongest.
Two brigades of the British Indian army from Mumbai, India to Mombasa, East Africa, colonial forces in East Africa has been of German East Africa launched tentative offensive. Including the king's African rifle regiment, including about 1500 people to the long and many (Longido) forward, but by the German side of the 600 troops to repel the results, but greatly enhance the morale of the German side.
After the arrival of the British Indian army Mombasa, suggested the troops ashore to rest for a few days, to eliminate the voyage caused by the fighting capacity of the decline in Indian expedition army B detachment commander Aikent negative, he said that would attract the German alert and continued hidden until landing check.
The Royal Navy fleet of the Royal Navy in the Indian army is the fox.
Fox, Captain F.W. Kaodefeierde see landing port of Hong Kong Tanga (now Tanzania) there is no coastal facilities directly entered the port of Tanga outside, to send troops to and the German governor von Sconi this port to discuss the surrender of the problem.
Mr. Berlusconi Jianshibumiao arrange a low German local Commissioner Ola Cheel stalling tactics.
Fox: Captain Caude Field Wen Ola Cheel port is laid mines?
Ola Cheel Caude Field answered seriously: a lot of mine layout!
Caude Field had stopped, back to fox, ordered a tugboat start hard mine action.
The British fleet arrived later, had to stay for a long wait in the port of Tanga sea.
The British navy has done for decades the Germans did not dry the dredging channel work:
Clean out countless logs, tanks and small ships from the sea, only not found is mine!
In spite of this, Caude Field is still convinced that the Tanga port has an unknown risk, to convince the India expedition B detachment commander Aikent in a mile away from the port of another coast landing.
Have to admire the Caude Field vision. The coast is the worst of the Tanga landing sites, was full of leeches and snakes, occupied by mosquitoes and tsetse flies covered with mangrove swamps.
Experienced life 2 months long board, is already exhausted Indian expeditionary force, fully spend 48 hours the muddy swamp expedition after the completion of the landing operations, defense so that the Germans are some anxious the.
Although compared with the British, German in the number of people living in absolute disadvantage 1:8, but to see the British so bad command and action, German commander Leto - Lettow vorbeck confidence doubled.
The British army marched through the coast to Tanga, and did not see any German troops on the way. So when they arrived at a hill near, three British officers climbed on top of the hill to observe the enemy's situation, the results of all was a sniper, ambush the Germans launched a surprise attack, the German black native soldiers rushed to the British Indian army 13th Rajput special group, British Indian army immediately rout, dropped down to lambaste the British officer. The results 12 the regiment of the British army officers were killed.
The first German led the British Indian army was easily suffered 300 casualties, mostly white officers and ncos. Indian soldiers are so panic, Rajput regiment more than 100 Indian soldiers, for which a rifle possessed and scattered, and escape back to their landing on the beach, jump to the water inside squatting only peeped out.
Because there is no reconnaissance, British people of German position and the number of unknown, the British commanders in the field of Tay brigadier general to in a ship watching Aiken special report: positive and 2500 pure German forces fighting!
In fact, only 250 of the German soldiers were attacked in the attack.
After a morning after the toss, many Indian soldiers already drunk the water kettle, in heat stroke edge, because thirsty and close to collapse. But the B detachment commander of the India expedition, Aikent, decided to launch a decisive offensive to clear the Germans.
Aikent command fighting the strongest of the North Portland open summer camp and Gurkha battalion starts array, India united to bring up the rear, re Tanga to attack.
The German lines laid barbed wire and machine gun fire, the German native soldiers ambush in the big monkey bread tree condescending shooting British. The fighting has caused African bee attacks on British, but it is the famous killer bee ah, although toxicity may not be particularly severe, but that is famous in pursuit of the ultra long distance.
The British again by the African bee "fight" to the coast in the cover the face and creep away. India's army has been so frightened that they shoot at anyone who has emerged from Tanga.
A soldier of the North Lancashire, said: "we don't care about the German artillery fire, but we the Indians behind us damn possessed and bee's sting sting so that everything is in a mess." The times later wrote that bees are cunning Germans as a weapon, this is inhumane and cruel behavior.
Tanga harbour attack, the British abandoned on the beach to unload all the equipment, large quantities of rifles, 16 quite machine guns and a large number of food, blankets, motorcycle, the telegraph and so on, British Indian army of more than 800 people died, 500 people injured and 250 people missing.
Fulbeeke Leto - German only 15 white soldiers and 54 indigenous soldiers wounded.
After the battle, the morale of the British greatly depressed, did not have enough troops to conduct offensive, the 1915 both sides into confrontation, until March 1916, once again the British assemble heavily before the offensive again.
But the Germans did not idle, they often send class of small forces to infiltrate into British East Africa, weak offensive and defensive Uganda railways and bridges.
The small size of the German penetration action let British guard, only transferred to the defense of the railway troops reached 8000 people, relatively more improve the German morale, perfect the Leto - von Lettow vorbeck's strategic objectives: contain more British.
German East Africa garrison troops commander Leto Faure after Beck was promoted to major general.
By the end of 1916, the Allies had occupied most of the German East African region. Leto - Lettow vorbeck general with his troops (including 150 Europeans and 1200 local people) transferred to Mozambique, and subsequently transferred to Northern Rhodesia, after received the German Empire had surrendered the news. In November 1918, on the southern shore of Lake Tanganyika to the British surrender.
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