The Inland Northwest ethnic composition change2016-07-21 03:29:11 299 ℃
The Qing government suppressed the Junggar Khanate later, Central Asia Kazakhstan began large-scale to the eastern and southern migration into the territory of the Qing Dynasty, nomadic living. In Qing Dynasty, Kazakhstan mass moved a total of three times, respectively, in the late period of Emperor Qianlong and Dao Guang period and Tongguang period. The reasons and characteristics of Kazakhstan three move each are not identical, the Qing Dynasty's attitude and policy was adjusted.
Be sincere and not listen to yourself
The middle of the fifteenth Century, Kazakhstan Kazakhstan established in central asia. In seventeenth Century, Mongolia Junggar olot rise, the establishment of the Khanate of Junggar and Kazakhstan, has been in a state of war. At the beginning of the 17th century at the end of the 18th century, the Kazakh Khanate split in jade Edwards (also known as the left-hand side), jade Edwards (also known as the right or central) and jade hereby (West), and their respective Khan said. Twenty years of Qianlong (1755), the Qing Dynasty sent troops to Yili, Junggar Handawaqi capture. For twenty-two years, to suppress the rebellion of amursana, pacification of northern. Twenty-four years, still size and Zhuo rebellion, unified xinjiang. The Qing Dynasty unified Xinjiang, opened a new chapter in the relationship with kazakhstan.
Qianlong twenty-two years in June, Kazakhstan Yuzihan Abu first to a table with Dalai Qing Wen, sent tribute. Soon, we also sent to pay tribute to the Qing Dynasty jade, the establishment of political and economic ties with the Qing dynasty. The Qing Dynasty to the Kazakh tribes take "Gui Cheng or not, listen to Er" and "no counties in the" policy, but warned the should observe the environment, do not mix the invasion ". With frequent exchanges with the Qing Dynasty, such as politics, economy and, a large number of Kazakh herdsmen from the love of the Tagus River, Balkhash Lake to the west gradually eastward migration into within the territory of the Qing Dynasty ILI, tarbagatayn (hereinafter referred to as "Tacheng"), Altay nomadic area. The emperor Qian Long's attitude is: "Yili, vast land, the more the more good people. Kazakhstan, such as not nomadic places, or fear of looting, rather attached, shall take, to suppress. A long time people can be created with collar, hengy." Said: "that Kazakhstan temperament no, or to escape, is of no great importance." The influx of Khovd Kazakh herdsmen, Qianlong's attitude is: "living in Khovd local even, do not have to support to Qianliang, appoint officers, properly suppress pie."
Due to the Qing government to Kazakh moved to take the relatively tolerant attitude, more and more of the Kazakh nomads across the border, into the territory of China in nomadic, patrol officers and Yili reciprocating, struggling to cope with, very difficult to carry out effective management. In order to fundamentally solve the problem, on the one hand, the Qing government in the Ili, tarbagatay and Altay area increase Karen, troops patrol, on the other hand, changing the Kazakh "tribute Fu" policy, began to card in the winter of Kazakh herdsmen collect rent a horse, "each sacrificing millions of smoking just one, pay card on officials to collect, to supplement the tribute. So as to solve the enclosing the Kazakh winter pastures, and increase the fiscal revenue of Qing Dynasty, to maintain the stability of the northwest frontier.
Emperor Qianlong, while allowing for acceptance, shelter some Kazak herdsmen in the territory under the jurisdiction of the nomadic, and implement the effective management, but he did not give the enclosing the Kazakh as the subjects, "Yi Mu of surrender in China, since when Na fu...... Then you with Russia exchanges, also not school (more)". The imperial edict reflects he regarded as "waifan Kazakhstan" and "Yi" mentality.
If a card and then dive into the
At the beginning of the 19th century, tsarist Russia and Kokand from the west, North and south for the Kazakh steppe expansion, Kazakh, jade Edwards face serious threat. Russian invaders and Kokand feudal lords even invaded the area of Qing Dynasty, forced to live in the territory of the tax China Kazakh herdsmen. Under the threat of tsarist Russia and Kokand, and Yuz many tribes was forced to eastward migration, to Qing Dynasty northwest Karen near living animal husbandry. In the 1920s, to avoid ranking Kokand size and outstanding descendants Zhang Nagel revolt, wantonly infestations in southern Xinjiang, the Qing Dynasty to mobilize private to repression, northern defense emptiness. The Russian invasion forces took the opportunity to zaysan (zaysan Lake), Nur Kara Irtysh, permeability. Under its influence, in the vicinity of the zaysan Nur live animal husbandry Kazak herdsmen again eastward, crossed the Qing Dynasty Karen, enter the Hovd belongs Altai wulianghai seven flags amusement pasture.
The second year of the reign of Daoguang (1822), general uliastay obedient preserving zoubao into the pasture in Altaic Wu Liang Haiyou Kazakh poly to thousands of households ", almost equivalent to the total number of Altai wulianghai seven's, wulianghai Mongolian tribes of livelihood and interests. Therefore, the Qing government adopted to this strictly expulsion policy, "Le limit its migration in January cordially and sneak in the mainland" and in "Wu Liang Haixi extras such as Karen everywhere, Tim defense soldiers." In the same year, tsarist Russia in the Kazakh steppe implementation the West Siberian Kyrgyz Ordinance, abolished the Khan of the Kazakh Sanyu Edwards, put the Kazakh Steppe under its rule, the Kazakh Khanate declared perish. Russia's aggression and expansion caused a strong resistance of Kazak people, the struggle against the Czarist Russia as one falls, another rises.
In the unrest, living in the vicinity of the Qing Dynasty Karen Kazakh herdsmen have crossed the Karen, in order to obtain the protection of the Qing Dynasty, but in Qing Dynasty, the attitude is still strictly expelled. In the 15th year of Daoguang to nineteen years, the Qing government several troops Kazak herdsmen to expel the Khovd, tarbagatayn, etc., at the same time in the northwest border area added Karen and further strict Karen inspection system, strengthen the more cards in the Kazakh nomads anti blocking. By the end of eighteen, and the addition of Khovd deputy minister, responsible for the inspection and management of transboundary Kazakh herdsmen.
To maintain peace in the border areas
Tongzhi, Guangxu years of China and Russia two survey points of the northwest boundary and China more than 40 million square kilometers of territory were seized, including quite a part is Kazak nomadic. A lot of Kazakh herdsmen unbearable tsarist Russia's colonial rule, have requested containing, influx of Qing Dynasty Karen within living animal husbandry, which appeared in the third migration boom.
In the first year (1862) in July, Russia began a demarcation negotiations in Tacheng. In the negotiation process, Russia in order to achieve the occupation of Chinese territory plot, profess to Kazakhstan, Beirut were the belongs to the people. And continue to send troops to provocation, implementation of sabre rattling. Russia's act was firmly opposed to Kazakh people, beirut. They are constantly "for the Qing Dynasty, with the intrinsic" and be against to the invading Russian army. Tongzhi two years between July and August, Beirut Osman etc. "mob twelve thousand many, in the pine Schiller place to beat the Russian people", the rulers of the Qing Dynasty understanding to Beirut, Kazak and other popular available, hence decree local officials "as trying to win. For me card defense". However, the herdsmen, after all, difficult to stop Russia invading army, with the Russian army advancing step by step, more Kazak herdsmen moved Karen live within. The Qing government to those sincere containing Kazakh referred to as the "goodness enclosing the Kazakh", "self - not allowed to listen to the Russian people forcibly claims to", in pasture very tense situation, the Qing government tried to placement.
Tongzhi three years in September, the "Sino Russian survey points of the northwest" signed in Tacheng community. Ownership of a living near the border of Kazakhstan, Beirut and other ethnic, treaties to determine the principle of "people everywhere", namely "the ground points in any country, the person Ding namely anywhere return why state jurisdiction." However, many classified Russian Kazakh herdsmen to Chinese officials urge with, continues to migrate China territory. Nine years Guangxu (1883), the second survey points of the northwest boundary between China and russia. During the demarcation of the covenant, the Kazakh people strongly oppose "people everywhere", in the boundary of the Minister of the Qing Dynasty to agreed boundary after, on both sides of the border of Kazakh herdsmen shall be limited to one year, can be free to choose in the home country. In the same year, Kazakh Yuz Nayman tribe more than 100 herders in chief heap Bert led, migrate to the Altai Mountains winding South Habahe nomadic. The following year, more than 1000 households in the Kazakh herdsmen tribal leader Giacobbe led from the zaysan moved to Jimunai to live animal husbandry.
During this period, Qing Dynasty of Kazakh moved attitude self contradictory, caught in a dilemma, in terms of policy conservative and passive. Hand, for enclosing the goodness of Kazak, officials of the Qing Dynasty has tried every ways resettlement, however, due to the migration of a large number, pasture, money is tight, Qing Dynasty simply can not afford to resettlement, most cases can only take a laissez faire, the exiled around. On the other hand, the Qing government and worry in the migration of Kazakh herdsmen and Altai Wu Liang sea, Torghut, tribes of Mongolia nomadic dispute. Therefore, many times to take "ha" action, in order to strengthen the management.
Kazakhstan in the Qing Dynasty moved not only changed northwest original ethnic composition, Kazakhstan has become the cross-border ethnic groups, and to promote the formation and development of Chinese multi-ethnic unified country. After it moved, Kazak people with other local ethnic groups, in consolidating and maintaining stability in border areas has made outstanding contributions in the northwest frontier.
Kazakhstan more information, please pay attention to the WeChat public account "Kazakhstan global zero distance"
Submission / cooperation WeChat search public account: hyacinth culture media
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