The history of Turkey, what you don't know.2016-07-21 03:37:27 409 ℃
The Turks in the end is what people?
What is the reason of the Crusades?
How is the Osman Empire rising?
As the main west country The Belt and Road "and modern Islamic world, Turkey on Chinese, as through a veil, can not see the real faces. So, Turkey is what kind of country? What are the historical facts about Turkey, which you don't know? Today's coup in Turkey can be traced back to the historical roots of how?
1 the Turks in the end is what people?
Master is taught middle school history, know that Turks are a Turkic people, the cattle of the hour control the steppes of Mongolia, direct access to the west of the Caspian Sea. Later in Altai and bounded, split as a tool of Turkic,After the defeat of the Tang Dynasty was the East Turkic incorporated, later to migrate to the West from Central Asia. If we look at the map you will find a problem, Turkey and the Turks in Central Asia home across the Caspian Sea and several countries, how Turks can went to Turkey to settle it? Where are the native people of Turkey? This is one of the more interesting history of the national migration.
(Turks seed distribution country Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and other Stan country. Chinese Uighurs in Xinjiang, in fact, are people of Turkic descent)
2 the only way to move to the west of nomadic people
Later, the Abbas Dynasty began to decline, the recruitment of a large number of Turks as mercenaries to complete military mission. Thus, Turkic people more and more become the Abbasid mercenaries, such a result, Turkic people are beginning to penetrate into the middle of the focus areas. The most powerful branch of a family called the Seljuk Turks. In the Abbasid Dynasty declining when the anti bin based, in 1055 festival of Baghdad, forced the Arab court to grant their title "Sudan", also is the meaning of Islam asylum seekers.
From then on, the Arabs of the power of the Caliph into nominal ringleader, basically be in charge of religious affairs Sudan grasp the real power in the Islamic world. The Seljuks established a very strong empire of the Seljuk Turks Empire, in the whole Middle East history plays a decisive effect of a connecting link between the preceding and the following.
In 1071, in eastern Turkey where the lake to the north of Manzikert broke out in the big battle of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Turkish army. The Turks with flexibility and the impact force of cavalry and expansion, Dabei East Roman army.
The Manzi Kurt war was a marked war, and the nomads reached the door of Europe. Rome Empire failed, resulting in the defense system of the eastern empire was completely destroyed, Anatolia portals. Just a few years time, came from a central Asian Turkic people is as a trend into the eastern region of Turkey, the proportion of the population began to show history inversion.
(Turkish army and East Rome empire in Turkey where the lake to the north of the place of battle)
The decline of 4 crusades and Searl column Turkic Empire
Because the Turks gradually approached the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire of Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire had to for help to the Pope of Rome, which was to stimulate the nearly 200 years of the Crusades.
1096, tens of thousands of people in the Crusaders first momentum illustrious more from Constantinople rounded out the turkey, the Turks in the local what position the time is too short, instability of base oneself upon, the results of Sultanate of rum to lose capital, four collapsibility. Fortunately policy of Crusader Jerusalem, and not in Turkey LianZhan, but South Syria, occupied Jerusalem.
Why Syria and Iraq not Turkic army can cover the Crusaders?
When the Searl column Turkic Empire has waned. Reason is not be established centralized system and Sudan are given to governors of the military fief scale is too large, founding, the horse Zhibing, dismount to rule the people, military and civil property rights grabbed, once the central government paralysis, Empire soon will split. All the nomads have been touched by this problem.
Add on the Crusades before, Sudan's death, the princes topple, separatist place, around the packet in the principality immediately issued: independent, Empire broke apart, natural is unstoppable Crusades.
In addition to the impact from the west side of the Crusade, the more serious threat is from the eastern side of the former. Genghis Khan's grandson, Hulagu's army also from the northeast to the gap in the rounded out the Middle East region, to conquer the Iran and then invaded Iraq, the caliph of Baghdad refused to not surrender admire. As a result, the Mongol bloodbath in Baghdad, said 80 million residents of Baghdad killed, the Khalifa family wrapped horses trampled to death alive in a rug, the Abbasid Dynasty complete destruction.
In the end, the former dominated the Iran, Iraq and Turkey and other regions, which is known as the Ilhan. , of course, farming civilization of the Mongolian Nomadic concept and advanced out of tune, caused by the system of enfeoffment Empire fragmented and the Seljuk Turks Empire alike. When Ilhan's decline is another branch of Turkic tribes gradually rise, this is the world 600 years Osman megatron.
(Gen Gi Khan's grandson, Hulagu Khan · Ilkhanate founder)
5 Osman Turkey's first muster and decline
When the 1280 Osman I serve as father foundation, he put the expansion target lock in the Eastern Roman Empire in Turkey West still possess the land. Results. The Ottomans with just less than two generations, foundation, wiping out the Eastern Roman Empire in Anatolia remaining land, and began organizing scored in Europe.
At this point, the Eastern Roman Empire has defeated downright, two co governance of emperor John V and John VI in order to compete for power, even generous bowl. John VI in order to take advantage of the Ottoman forces get rid of competitors, even invited the Ottomans crossed the Dardanelles, grasp the usurpation of adversary of Thrace region, that is now Turkey in the European Department of homeland.
On the European front, more and more the Ottomans invaded Bulgaria, Macedonia, Serbia, Greece and other European homeland, the princes of Europe have to kneel, including the Eastern Roman Empire; in the East, they influence in mainland Turkey also penetrating into the East. The Turkey native, Osman is pro policy. Through the process of this peace and marriage style, the Osman Empire gradually became the largest country in anatolia.
Under the excellent situation on the upgrade, and suddenly the Osman Empire even paranoia.
This is how to return a responsibility? Originally Timur empire in Central Asia to rise, in Ottoman inexhaustible scored in Europe land, at the same time, the army of Timur but from the river in the region of large gaps rounded out the Iran, Iraq, Syria, Timur commander of the army of 15 million and eventually scored the turkey in Ankara for four weeks to pull open the battle stance. Ottoman Empire emperor hurriedly from the battlefield in Europe back against, Mamba bayazid of Oslo one of the world's army of about 7 million people, reaching near Ankara, the Ottoman army and Timur army open battle, this is 1402, the outbreak of the famous Ankara war. The final results is the Ottoman emperors BA Yazid life had been defeated and captured, Ottoman 120 years of painstaking efforts of the Empire State Building, unexpectedly in the 14 hour battle crashing ruinous. From 1402 to 1413, Ottoman princes than infighting, unexpectedly let throne dangling in the 11 years old, known to history as the "interregnum".
From the large vacancy period ended to Suleiman the magnificent ascended the throne, in the middle of the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire after 100 years of rail construction of, finally completed the from nomadic tribal alliance to medieval empire of the super wealthy Huijuan, is precisely such an institutional guarantee, the Ottoman Empire to maintain up to 600 years of rule.
Second Osman Turkey's 6 rise and the establishment of the Empire
Suleiman the magnificent like Emperor Wudi of China, previous heap sets down the material wealth and spiritual wealth, has reached a critical point, standing in such a starting point, Suleiman can finally completed a history of the Ottoman empire over the expansion.
On the battlefield in Europe, Suleiman the magnificent conquered Belgrade, conquered Hungary, defeated the Austrian Habsburg, captured Vienna, edge in line in southern Germany, Bavaria, in Western Europe as a whole to shock.
On the battlefield in Asia, Suleiman the magnificent captured Iraq, frequently beat the Persian Safavid Dynasty, occupying the Caucasus to the south of the three countries, that Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, army south always hit the Arabian Peninsula (package Luo Hanzhi), also will is at the moment of Medina and Mecca was conquered it.
At the same time, Osman's strength is also very strong sailors. In the sea, the Ottoman sailors into and Venice to keep pace with the marine hegemony; in the Indian Ocean, the Ottoman sailors and the Portuguese for the Strait of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf, in the Gulf of Aden around off the Portuguese, control of Yemen; far to Southeast Asia Su door island of Sumatra, help local Muslims against the local authorities.
During the 16th century is called the Ottoman Empire was the most brilliant century, bang graphics including the Mediterranean half circle, black Haicheng its lakes and the Balkan Peninsula almost to be included, the Middle East in addition to Persia is as all Ottoman, the territorial scale far wins the nations of Western Europe, can with the Roman Empire the most powerful mentioned in the same breath. The world, in addition to the China in Ming Dynasty, and has a vast population, Osman is the second largest country in the world.
(during the Osman Empire and heyday)
7 the decline of the Empire of Osman
In eighteenth Century, the world's business system began to change violently, and Europe entered the economic cycle. Through the discovery of the new route, the European control of the ocean commercial channel. Osman, a blunt giant, was unable to cope with all this, and gradually lost control of the business. Under the Empire began to dusk domestic trouble and foreign invasion.
In the history of the Ottoman Empire, 1683 last laid siege to Vienna to defeat settled, can be used as a marker of wall of affairs. The war reflects the growing strength of the west. The Ottomans lost too miserable, which the Ottoman sounded the alarm, they began consciousness to Europe may grow out of it a special skill, if it can be linked with traditional Islamic, will be able to replicate the Ottoman treasures. This is Ottoman version of the concept of "Westernized Chinese style".
In the first World War, the father of modern Turkey, Kemal, has begun to reform the way to the modern state of Turkey. Kemal reform directly affects the Turkey during World War II, the cold war and 80 years since the end of twentieth Century the Turkey history. About 18 century began, if calculate till today, Turks have to engage in reforms of Europeanization of 300 years of the still cannot calculate is a successful country.
From the view of "" Hong, Song Hongbing (), Beijing zitu book press release authorized cooperation
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