The Southern Song Dynasty conquered one hundred thousand military and civilian Sea collective martyr, why there is such a determination?2016-07-21 03:53:03 537 ℃
(Figure) Wen Tianxiang, the late Song Dynasty statesman and writer, poet, anti Yuan Ming Chen, a national hero
Since ancient times, the world is not a state of death, the dynasties. However, if speaking of the ruling class in the destruction of the performance, but it is not the same. Some of them become the prisoner, death and desolate, there are already is the puppet regime is in tatters, also some peaceful evolution, eventually ending.
However, there are no any a dynasties such as the Southern Song Dynasty, in the face of national subjugation, and since the emperor even thousands of soldiers and civilians collective suicide, to surrender without a man, staged in human history a group to another group the heroic resistance. Such a tragic state, people can not help but full of infinite thoughts and emotion of the dynasty.
In people's impression, mentioned in Song Dynasty, always seems to be weak impression, why these one hundred thousand people will make such a decision? Let history tell us the answer!
In 1273, in cooperation with the whole Liu and Lv Wenhuan drop under the six years of the battle of Xiangyang ended. After the capture of Xiangyang, Yuan Dynasty strategy for the next step happened intense debate, the civil service that should recuperate, suspend school song, and meritorious eager generals who were of the view that should be big bang, victory onslaught. Seeing the two parties disagree, Kublai Khan also hesitant, but history this time here opened a paradox of the joke, he finally by means of divination made immediately attack song's decision.
The appointment of Kublai Zuo Cheng Shu, Tongzhi privy thing Bayan as coach, control all the South army. Following Kublai's brother who was Boyan West, later as an envoy to Korea at most. He has talent, is rigorous, reuse by the Kublai. Kublai's appointment as manager, urged him to take Cao Binlai's Southern Song dynasty. (at this time of Kublai Khan seems to China itself, he warned Boyan in South sign process, pay attention to the killing of military discipline, control, fully illustrated in attacking song process, Yuan Dynasty from two aspects of political and military start with, and not meet the previous force to seize and short-term occupation.
In southern expedition army, Liuzheng, Lv Wenhuan and so on these Han drop impressively in the column, on the one hand, their most familiar song, on the other hand, can use them to surrender other Han Chinese generals. The results show that the Han General exceptionally hard, the Southern Song Dynasty is basically dead in their own hands.
(Figure) Kublai, statesman, strategist
At the same time, Kublai ordered two yuan in Sichuan Huai, to launch the attack to the South Song, with post Bayan army. Facing the menacing yuan army, Southern Song Dynasty Civil and military ministers have suggestions, but powerful minister jiashidao but headstrong, totally ignored, dismissed the Jinghu appease system make the office Wang Lixin, instead appointing cronies. To this point, the Song government don't want to mobilize the army, strengthen the defense, but also the internal friction, dumbfounding.
Boyan army arrived in Metro (now Hubei Qianjiang), ride a horse and carry a Lv Wenhuan to the city, ready to surrender the city garrison, has not yet opened, suddenly City arrow like rain, thanks to his followers, desperate to rescue, Lv Wenhuan just picked up a life. Boyan great anger, ordered the siege, the defenders under the command of Tong Bian Ju Yi, tenacious resistance. But in the end because outnumbered, city 3000 defenders all were killed. In order to frighten Song Jun, Yuan army under the command of the Bayan, once again, the implementation of the massacre, the people spared.
In the brutal "massacre" deterrence, Wangfengerjiang along the state and county, the yuan army arrived in Ezhou. Along the river of division vice the summer you will million warships are respectively arranged in the near an important pass, but he in the yuan army by the meter, lost sand Wuhu port (now Huangpi, Hubei northwest). The yuan army has since entered the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and hold in the Han River Estuary, control of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, hundreds of thousands of army troops under the escort of the Navy crossed the Yangtze.
A military center in the yuan army strong offensive, the Southern Song Dynasty Ezhou, Jiangzhou (now Jiangxi Jiujiang, Anqing (now Anhui Anqing) etc. are lost. Boyan army arrived in Anqing, this time as Huai west of the Privy Council of Liu whole that empty road in Southern Song Dynasty, plead in straight take Lin'an.
Waiting for death in tougong can let others, Bayan refused his suggestion, let him still remaining two Huai contain Songjun, coordinate the main force to move forward. The traitors saw his proposed plan, but for others to do the wedding dress, could not help but furious and soon after was depressed and eventually. The news of his death spread to the Southern Song Dynasty, people have applauded.
Seeing yuan army all the way like gangbusters, song Ting vibrate greatly, courtiers suggestion right minister jiashidao personally in battle, this person although bossy. But it does have some generalship, previously in beat back a Mongke Khan's armies to invade. Jia Sidao of Lv Wenhuan still unwilling to give up, he appointed by the son and son-in-law official, attempting to make Lv Wenhuan back from the brink, but he moved to play a rock only to drop it on their own feet, the blink of an eye on the surrender of the yuan army.
(Figure) Boyan famous statesman, military strategist in the Yuan Dynasty
No way, Jia Sidao hardened his scalp led an army of 130000, thousands of ships went against the yuan army, suffer a setback in the summer you also folded surplus navy to confluence. But in Ding Jiazhou (now Anhui Tongling northeast) by the yuan army artillery fierce attack, the morale of the song immediately disarray, Yuan army kill defeated.
Greatly reduced the prestige of defeat and the return of the Jia Sidao, song Ting set off a violent fall Jia movement, own the Empress Dowager Xie ordered will be dismissed. Gushidao en route was escorted back to Ling'an, was killed by escort officer Zheng Huchen. A generation of Quan Chen died on the eve of national subjugation, for him, is a lucky. For Building Masa, this is the talent of the Southern Song Dynasty, it is undoubtedly worse.
In a critical situation, in order to strengthen the defense of Lin'an peripheral, song ting to around a loyalist imperial edict, there are three armies positive response: a road is stationed, Ying Zhang Shijie, he was appointed Ryujin four car all direct to make; second is Jiangxi criminal Wen Tianxiang (famous, ancient Liufang Wen Chengxiang). He was appointed Jiangxi to appease the side and knows Ganzhou; three is Hunan Ti Xing Fu Li, was appointed as Hunan appease and know Tanzhou.
At this time of the yuan army had occupied Jiankang (now Nanjing), another Yuanjun in Ali Hague led, break the Jiangling palace, to Hunan to enter. A few months later, Li Fu stationed Tan Zhou fell. Li Fei Dutch act. The many people will not do the unyielding, Yuan army captured. Particularly impressive is the Yuelu Academy, hundreds of scholars in the city broke a moment ago still recite poetry.
Yuan army attack into the city, these frail scholar brought weapons back into the enemy, and eventually all killed. Full of reading the books of sages, they in the survival of that a moment, from the bottom of my heart burst out of the courage strong beliefs and fierce stand in no fear of death, although through thousands of years, but their impassioned still turned into a torrent of water, promoting our nation will continue to move forward.
Under the excitation of Tan, military and civilian, Zhang Shijie rate army once recovered Pingjiang, Anji, Wuxi, Changzhou and other places, originally in the vicinity of the surrender of prefectures and counties and have to pledge allegiance to the Southern Song Dynasty. But shortly after the good times don't last long, Zhenjiang Jiaoshan war, a major blow he led the Navy again by the yuan army. Changzhou, and then as the yuan army occupation, thousands of soldiers were killed in the city of song. ("the battle of the fishing town", the hero of Wang Jian's son, Wang Anjie)
(Figure) Zhao Xian Song Gongdi, the seventh emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty
Soon, Yuan army vanguard troops arrived in Lin'an City under, the Empress Dowager Xie dispirited and discouraged, has lost the courage to continue to resist. She refused Wen, Zhang Shijie floating on the sea to avoid the enemy's proposal, command the Prime Minister Chen Yizhong went to the yuan army camp negotiations, who knows the prime minister's adult out of the city, even without a responsible and fled. The government has appointed Wen Tianxiang as SM bachelor house, right of prime minister took the responsibility of negotiation. Who knows not getting the upper hand of the Bayan immediately detained Wen Tianxiang.
In desperation, ad 1275. In February, empress dowager empress Xie Daoqing, song Gongdi Zhao Xianfeng pass in Yuxi, rate of officials to surrender. But the bridegroom Douwei Yang Zhen, guarding the imperial clan Yi Wang, Wang obstacle in Fujian Province, Zhang Shijie subsequently rate army with its confluence, continue to raise anti yuan banner.
When the yuan army took the Empress Dowager Xie's edict to surrender stationed in Yangzhou Lianghuai system structure makes Li Ting Zhi, the star on the towers gyrus replied: "I the imperial edict Shoucheng, never heard of the imperial edict to surrender". Since then, the were repeatedly to surrender, were sternly refused Li Ting Zhi; soon, stationed west of Huainan Xia Guiye surrender of the Yuan Dynasty.
For the rest of the Southern Song Dynasty troops gather at a, in Fujian Yi King dispatched a messenger to less security, left the prime minister's office will recall Li Ting Zhi. Know court sajik still exist, Li Ting Zhi greatly encouraged, he ordered the Ministry of Huan Zhu left in Yangzhou, his ministry with ginger rate before the army of over 7000 people call in Fujian to Fuzhou. Who would have thought that he just left, Zhu Huan had surrendered the Yuan Dynasty, and sold out the whereabouts of Li Tingzhi.
Li Tingzhi suobu in the vicinity of Taizhou by the yuan army besieged, eventually Dutch act not, as the yuan army captured. After seeing the former superior, Huan Zhu not only without any sense of shame, even obsequious to the yuan army generals O operation said: "Yangzhou since troops, littered with corpses, is due to the Li Ting Zhi and ginger to Rip Van Winkle et al resistance Imperial Army caused by, ask immediately put them to death!" A surgery to follow his advice, and soon ordered the killing of Li Tingzhi, who. (Yangzhou City Memorial Li Ting Zhi, ginger to Shuang Zhong Temple kept to the 80's of the 20th century, later because of the extension of the road, was demolished, looking forward to the sacrifice of the martyrs of the ancestral reconstruction)
(Figure) Ling'an Bayan battle situation map
Soon, within the imperial court fight old trouble made again, and Chen Yizhong dissident Wen Tianxiang's being squeezed out, he organized forces in Jiangxi and Guangdong, with the yuan army confrontation, the end because outnumbered, Yuan army captured. Yuan Zhang Hongfan let him write to surrender stationed at the cliff, Zhang Shijie, Wen Tianxiang righteously: "I can't defend their parents, how can you make things that others renegade parents?" Soon, he angrily wrote the poem "too lonely ocean", the poem at the end of the two is sung through the ages of "life since ancient times, no one died, leaving loyalty according to history." Zhang Hongfan for their sense of loyalty, sent Wen Tianxiang to most.
Arrived at the most, the clank of the steel frame of the prime minister is repeatedly refused the surrender of Kublai Khan, eventually go to generously dies, before the execution, he asked which side is the south, then calmly face to the south, bow down. Dying left "said Confucius sung, Mencius said justice, loyalty to the end, Ren also do. What is the purpose of reading the books of sages? From now on, I can have a clear conscience!" Each reading, tears in the era of the ritual music collapse, toppling, a lot of people to high official positions and riches and treachery, but they also the earliest historical sweep into the dustbin. Only such a husband to the Prime Minister Wen Wei has experienced vicissitudes of life, will be immortal. Strong! The prime minister!
Ad 1278, various resistance forces in Southern Song Dynasty to the end, spring, Chongqing city run out of food, Department of Zhao advised owners Zhang Jue open to surrender the city, the flatly refused. For the future of despair Zhao An, while the night takes the yuan army into the city, Zhang Jue rate army and the yuan army launched a fierce fighting. Gradually, the yuan army as the tide like flock to the city, saw the hopeless situation of Zhang Jue attempted suicide, be department will escort to break out of the city, after the yuan will Timur captured. In most of the way to be, Zhang Jue Dutch act. At that time was still in prison, Wen Tianxiang, after that, the mourning Zhizhishi Zhang Jue "poem goes:" gas war million people, only a corner in the day. If the country does not extinguish, exploits unexpectedly?"
In March, after decades stand down, give the Khan Montgomery Yinhen state city also by the yuan army occupied, of course, Yuan army still did not capture, is to keep the king get yuan army to protect people's oath before open to surrender the city. Since Sichuan has all fall into the hand of the yuan army.
In April, Emperor duanzong of song died, Zhang Shijie and Lu Xiufu, crowned as emperor Zhao Bing, migrated to the mountain (now Guangdong Xinhui South). June, Kublai Khan to wipe out forces in the Southern Song, life Zhang Hongfan for Mongolia, the Chinese Army marshal, hydroacoustic, rides a soldier to 20000 by seaway south, marshal Li Heng rate step ride by road south, remnants of the Southern Song Dynasty J. In November, Zhang Hongfan attacked by sea (now in Fujian), Zhang Chao, Hui (all Guangdong), three. Li Heng was riding more Dayuling step into Guangdong, from Germany (now in Guangdong), the occupation of Guangzhou.
(map) is [sh. Emperor duanzong of song Zhao, the Song Dynasty seventeenth emperor, the eighth emperor of Southern Song Dynasty, the emperor of Song Dynasty
1279. On the first day of the first month, Zhang Hongfan, Li Heng rate army converge in the yamen, Zhang Hongfan orders assault yaishan island on the west mountain, cut off the song, fresh water supplies. Lose the fresh water source Songjun soon sank into the predicament, to persevere in the fight for more than 20 days, all freshwater depletion, the soldiers had to drinking water, then vomiting, physical strength gradually. Even in such difficult circumstances, the song still repeatedly rejected the yuan army to surrender, continue to resist.
And after a few days, think of the time is ripe to Zhang Hongfan issued the command for the general offensive, Songjun in Yuan army strong offensive gradually defeated. Senator Zhang Shijie to gather all the elite soldiers to break out, and sent a boat to break with little emperors intent. The It is all up with Prime Minister Lu Xiufu in order to avoid repeating the mistakes of the imperial court of Ling'an surrendered the insult, refused his offer.
In desperation, Zhang Shijie had to endure the cruel tears away. Watched Zhang Shijie after the break and restore calm Lu Xiufu Zhangjian forced his wife throw myself into the sea, and then came to the front of the small emperor way: "state is difficult, sire when and country with Hugh, a disgrace to the blissful Emperor (surrender song Gongdi), we can not repeat!"
To finish these words, Lu Xiufu slowly lowered his head, do not let the tears in my eyes, when he raised his head, but see the little emperor only eight years old calm said: "prime minister, thank you you never abandon, song Jiangshan continuation of 320 load, now the round to me the Song Emperor loyalty." With this, the little boy jumped into the arms of Lu Xiufu, and wept bitterly.
(Figure) Lu Xiufu, Prime Minister left the Southern Song Dynasty, Yuan Ming Chen, and Wen Tianxiang, Zhang Shijie and known as the "three at the end of song dynasty"
Moist sea breeze oncoming, Yuan army shout louder and closer, Lu Xiufu, picked up the little emperor, staring back at Fairview Jiangshan behind thousands of miles, farewell, song! Then, a small two figure has disappeared in the boundless expanse of the sea.
The emperor and Prime Minister cast himself into the sea, the exile last more than 100000 song subjects three years finally fall into despair, however, did not surrender a person, they looked at each other with each other, in the look in the eyes only calm and steady. All the people made the most unexpected choice: sea.
Yuan army to see the magic of this scene, was completely shocked, they are still immersed in the endless hope of plunder spoils, in a blink of an eye, these people all jumped into the sea. The number of days after the floating up ten bodies.
This unprecedented subjugation, so solemn, copy from rolia.
The Southern Song Dynasty also thoroughly announced the death, but the spirit and integrity will not die. Only 89 years later, another Chinese hero Zhu Yuanzhang set off a "reopen the sun, the moon and the big tomorrow" magnificent, will the Mongols completely expelled from Han and recovered the Han million in the beautiful rivers and mountains.
Is the so-called "Chinese people have memories, you are burning, firm and unyielding character of ancestors! Can not learn, Tongguan greedy for power, the modalities of co-operation; not learn, Qin Huizu war, perfunctory; Wang silver train River, goto, countless, all turned into a fearless brilliant. Shine is Yue Fei Meng Gong, who urged, indomitable!"
History school official team work / day wild boundless
This article is the author of the original. Without authorization, shall not be reproduced.
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