Before the advent of Islam: the golden age of classical art in Xinjiang2016-09-25 10:01:11 442 ℃
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Author: Lin Meicun
Photograph: Chen Xinyu
Qiuci ancient ruins schematic drawing: Sun Changquan
Located in the ancient Silk Road traffic hub of the Qiuci country, is the cultural breed as the western regions have God's favored one, the political, economic, military and cultural communication center, from the Central Plains area, northern India, Iran, grassland, ancient Greece and Rome and other parts of the world in the Ming cultural collision and fusion, to create brilliant. Qiuci civilization, such encounters in China and even the history of the world civilization is extremely rare. From a certain point of view, Qiuci culture is a necessary immigration culture, foreign national intervention, early migration to northern Tarim Qiuci ancestors, the occurrence and development of Western civilization and the China civilization played the quite vital role.
Qiuzi kingdom is located in the northern margin of the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang (now Kuche area), second Century BC entered the stage of history. The name first appeared in "Western Han Chuan", as one of the thirty-six western country, "Qiuci country, King Zhiyan City, went to Changan in seven thousand four hundred and eighty. South and Jingjue (today the people of Fengxian County, the river downstream), Southeast and Qiemo (Northern Qiemo County, southwest of this) and defend mi (downstream Yutian County, north of the Keriya River) and Wusun (now Yili River), and West (now Wensu) with Gu mo. Can cast metallurgical, there is lead. To protect the legacy Ukraine barrier city (now Luntai) in three hundred and fifty."
At Tuladi cave 34 at the top of the four corner of the king image rendering
J Yzylha of the Han Dynasty Fengsui sites
The extension of the city in Kuche County, the ancient city of Pilang, also known as the "hariph ancient pier". In 1958, Huang Wen went to the Tarim Basin Bi on-the-spot investigation, that the ancient city of 7 km in circumference, he found the "karadong lower culture", the Qiuci history dating back to the bronze age, the culture and the Yanqi basin of the bronze culture -- the Chawuhu culture is close to the ditch, semi cultivated and semi pastoral oasis culture. Study on this phenomenon and the ancient Qiuci language agree without prior without previous consultation.
According to the comparison of physical anthropology and linguistics, Qiuci people are Caucasian, about the West Branch of Indo European Tocharian dialects. Since the beginning of twentieth Century, Europe and the United States, Japan and China archaeological team found a India Brahmi writing Weiminghu language in the Tarim Basin in North Road, mainly in 7 ~ ninth Century. Linguists are surprised to find that the language and the neighboring Indo European Weiminghu East Branch of India Iran languages differ very far, but with the distribution in Europe, the West Branch of the Indo European Hittite Latin, French, Italian, close. In other words, in the early Indo European West and East branches before differentiation, Qiuci were the ancestors of the original Indo European people bid farewell to hometown on the northern shore of the Black Sea, to the Central Asian steppe migration.
Aida Tula Cheonbuldong kuchean unearthed written volume photograph: Lin Meicun
At first people did not know what the language is left behind, until the German expedition discovered in Xinjiang Uighur script "Maitreya credited with" finally told Hong meng. According to the volume before the inscription, the script is a mage from Kucha Tocharian translated to. The German psychologist Mueller believes that the so-called "Tokharian" is found in Kuche Weiming language. A B, the Tocharian language book two dialects, A dialect mainly popular in Yanqi and Turpan basin, both Buddhist texts, including secular documents, the researchers called "Yanqi language"; while the B dialect only popular in the Kuche oasis, is mainly used for writing various Buddhist texts, the researchers called "Qiuci language".
According to Li Chong of the Western Han Dynasty and the Eastern Han Dynasty unearthed private India "Gui Yi Qiang Long lying sheep button copper Chinese Tibet National Museum photograph: Lin Meicun
The pre Qin era, Qiuci under the Central Asian steppe overlord Rouzhi rule. Third Century BC darouzhi moved to the west, and the Jimi qiuci. In 60 BC, the Han Emperor in the east exit of Qiuci Ukraine barrier city located in Tarim Basin, the western regions frontier command, formally incorporated into the territory of Chinese. In 1928, Huang Wenbi in the Tarim basin study found a bridge Hanyin button. He wrote in the report: "Han Yu Tongyin, a Le division buck area shaya...... At the end of every seal is six words, general "Li Chongzhi printed" four words, more than words is unknown." Li Chong is the last western regions frontier command. "Han - Western biography" recorded in the year 16, Li Chong rate army against Yanqi, waited until several years after the death of Qiuci, "Chong was not because of the vast western regions." This text is printed "Li Chongzhi seal", is now in the possession of the National Museum Chinese.
Han Emperor Ming Yongping sixteen years (73 years), the Han banchao operating silk road south, North West Han Dynasty and Hun, heavy flak. And the emperor Yong yuan three years (91 years), banchao Pingding Qiuci, western regions frontier command from the city to the Ukraine barrier Qiuci country it dry city (today County jade Qika special city). So, Qiuci and its surrounding area has become an important window of Chinese culture spread in the west. Baicheng County, Eastern Han Dynasty inscriptions "Liu Pingguo" is the emperor Huan Guan Ting song Yongshou four years (158 years) the general construction of Han Dynasty engraved Qiuci left the tunnel fung. In 1953, the new County jade Qika special city also found a "Han GUI Yi Qiang Long lying sheep button Tong Yin, its owner should be moved to the west of Hexi corridor or Qinghai Kucha Qiang tribe.
Before the statue of Kumarajiva Kizil Grottoes
The Wei and Jin Dynasties, constantly sent to the Central Plains Dynasty Qiuci tribute. With the Central Plains regime change, has turned to cool before Qin, Qiuci, northern Liang, and North Wei sent Xian na. The Silk Road opened, Qiuci becomes one of important cultural exchange center. These early study tour of northern India and Prince Kumarajiva to western countries, gradually grow into a generation of Dharma master. According to Liang Huijiao "gaosengzhuan - Kumarajiva biography" records, Kumarajiva returning, "king of the Golden Lion seat qiuci. The Datong Qinhuangdao brocade quilt shop. To make or to say". "Qin" is Chinese history of East Rome (Bai Zhanting) in the title, so the Romans in the fourth Century ad production Datong Qinhuangdao Jinzeng into qiuci. Stein found a big Qin Jin relic in Dunhuang at the upper trim edge Gewen eight petal flower pattern, collection is now in the New Delhi National Museum of India.
382 years, Qin Fu Jian sent cavalry general Lu light with the king of Shanshan, king of the car division, led the seventy thousand army against qiuci. 384 years, the king's younger brother Li Chun Bai Bai Zhen as king. The biggest harvest crusade against the battle of Qiuci Lu light is captured, Dharma Master Kumarajiva Qiuci and bring them back to Liangzhou (now Wuwei) to teach buddhism. After Qin Hong was three years (401 years), Yao Xing Ying sent to Changan in the Chinese translation of Buddhist scriptures kumarajiva. The earliest Buddhist sutra translation field Chinese, is created by kumarajiva.
The German team found in Kizil straight Kharosthi Wenmu slips for map: Lin Meicun
At the beginning of twentieth Century, the German expedition also found a number of Le CoQ straight Kharosthi documents in Kizil Grottoes, in around seventh Century. According to one of the Gandhara tukhara bilingual documents, interpretation of these documents. According to historical records, Theravada Buddhism dharmaguptaka to gandhari for the court language. The rise of Mahayana Buddhism in India and Central Asia, under the support of the ruling class, Theravada Buddhists had to exile in Ceylon, Southeast Asia and the Tarim basin. Xuan Zang said the "Buddhist records" Qiuci Buddhism belongs to the Theravada religion sarvastivadin, and straight Qiuci Kharosthi documents found that Qiuci is also one of the collections of the refuge of Hinayana teachings.
Subhash temple ruins
Buddhism in the Tarim Basin, western countries local residents gradually give up the burial customs, cremated after death, so we rarely see the Western Wei Dynasty and Jin Dynasty tomb. But the kings or monk exception, after the death of Li Jian temple. The monk song cloud westbound method stops in the south of Tarim Basin in tian. "Luoyang qielanji" quoted his travels in Tianren said: "the dead to fire, collecting bone buried, on the floor...... Only the king died without burning, the coffin, buried in the far field, Li temple, to think". On the west side of Subhash Temple found a tower built on the tomb, pagoda, built under the Palace of the Earth, built in the coffin. From the unearthed cultural relics, SUBASHI Tomb of the tower in the Wei and Jin Dynasties (A.D. third Century). The shape of this tomb had great influence on the western and Central Plains burial ceremony, such as the tomb murals found near the ancient city of LE in Kroraina, is also on the tower of the tomb. The empress of Datong in Shanxi built in the 200 meters before the yongguling, build a week around the corridors of the square tower ruins, apparently influenced by Buddhist culture in the western regions.
The painting box, Tokyo National Museum
A SUBASHI, Kucha oasis, spit La Kizil, etc. the SUBASHI temple, the oldest, founded in sixteen in the period of Wei jin. The temple is located in the Copper River (Kuche River) on both sides, a total area of 180 thousand square meters, with pagoda buildings as the center, around the building of the temple, Temple Pagoda, cave, etc.. Chinese and foreign research team found a large number of precious relics in the ruins of SUBASHI Buddhist relics, such as painting box, Gandhara style Buddha mold, painted wooden coffin, painted pottery etc.. From time to read, then in SUBASHI Kumarajiva preaching.
They spit La cave 2 new caves on the dome of Bodhisattva portraits
The middle of the fifth Century, for the ROEN Mongolia plateau Qiuci Khanate control. At the end of fifth Century, Qiuci once belonging to the Central Asian powers hephthalites. However, has sent Qiuci in the Northern Wei, Northern Zhou Dynasty and southern Liang dynasty. In order to compete for the market and Chinese, Persia, Shule, and other countries have Qiuci Gaochang, developed a unique style of silk products, such as Turpan instruments mentioned, Kam (Persian brocade bowl), Shule Jin, Gao Changjin and Qiu Zijin (Gui Zijin). A popular Qiuci silk variety, "Old Tang - Music Record" records: "the" Qiuci Yue "workers soap (soap) silk scarf, scarlet cloth gown, sleeves, scarlet cloth trousers. Dancer four red, scarlet coat, white trousers wiping the amount of money, black boots......" From the costume dancer Qiuci, the popular black silk scarf, Qiuci deep red brocade gown with sleeves, Choi jin. According to the documents of Turpan "North Pacific cool five years Taoist law Andy Anu for" Jin Jin voucher records, using the "cotton Qiuci Jingmian weft weaving", "long (nine feet) five inches wide, four feet and five inches". Turpan documents and disclosure, in fifth Century the creation of the "yellow Qiuci people in Syracuse Kam" is popular in the western regions. The weavers wantonly counterfeit, produce "Gaochang made yellow Jin in syracuse".
The thirty-eighth cave murals in Kizil Grottoes top coupons
The Dunhuang manuscripts unearthed Qin Jin relic photograph: Lin Meicun
As early as in the era of popular Qiuci Kumarajiva, Qin Jin, while Dunhuang and Turpan found that the Byzantine style often used brocade lozenge. In 6 ~ seventh Century, Sogdian art was introduced into Qiuci, Baicheng Kizil Grottoes on the painted Sogdian art style Lianzhu pattern Hanshou bird paintings. Therefore, unearthed in Kuche yellow Diling Gewen Hanshou bird brocade is a product when Chinese, Sogdian, three kinds of Byzantine culture combine, sericulture technology from the Central Plains culture, Hanshou birds from Sogdian culture, and lozenge from Byzantine culture. This provides us with another example of cultural exchanges on the silk road.
Subhash temple ruins
In the Sui Dynasty, Qiuci Chen belongs to the Western Turkic khanate. In eleven years (615 years), sent into qiuci. The Tang Dynasty in Qiuci are still in the extension of the city, but was renamed "Yi Lu city". In the early Tang Dynasty, Qiuci associate with the Tang Dynasty, the name is attached to the western turks. At the beginning of seventh Century, he visited India on the way to the west of SUBASHI, that is under the rule of the Western Turkic qiuci. The "Buddhist records" the copper factory on both sides of the river Subhash temple called East and West Zhao Hu Li temple, and described: "shortage of North 40, the mountain across the river, there are two with the same name as Hu Garan, and with something called%. Buddha Decoration, more artificial. Monk Qing Su, Cheng Li qin. Zhao Hu Li East Temple, jade has more than two feet wide, with yellow and white, like a clam. The Buddha footwear stitch, eight inches long, Yuba inches wide. Or fast days, as the candle light."
They even spit La five hole
In eighteen years (644 years), the Tang army attacked Yanqi, Qiuci and Yanqi Union soldiers refusing to. 648 years, Guo Xiaoke rate Tang defeated Qiuci, frontier command from Turpan Jiaohe City moved to qiuci. Tang Gaozong was celebrating two years (657 years), the Soviet Union will have in the leaf level of Dingxi Anxi all Turks, will move back to haunt the legacy of gaochang. The following year the Tang Anxi all moved to the capital, under the Qiuci Kucha, Khotan, Yanqi, Shule four Town, Qiuci became the rule of the Tang Dynasty of the western center. They spit La Cheonbuldong Qiuci temple is the main period of cut, so the cave temple has a large number of Chinese paintings.
In Chinese ah AI grotto statues and paintings
Tang Jun in Qiuci built a large number of Central Plains Style of the ancient city. This new and, at the junction of two counties in the desert, through the ancient city of Zi Bashi perimeter 960 meters, four angle were extending outwards from the walls or turrets now building, rounded square, outside the walls with Navodon building, Central South and North walls built a gate urn. The city has a number of efflorescence, red sand dunes, scattered surface exposed, glazed terracotta glazed pottery of the cylinder, urn, pots, bowls, pots, paving brick, copper, iron, stone and other residues. Over the years for unearthed relics dating mainly pottery, coins, fabric and Chinese documents, as well as kaiyuantongbao, Qianyuan treasures, Jianzhong, Dali and other top gold coins of the Tang dynasty.
In seventh Century, the south western regions (Arabia, Arab Empire) and East asia. The Tang Dynasty and Tubo, huge fierce competition for the western regions, many were forced to abandon the Kucha four Town, until Wu Zetian long first year (692 years) to recover. After one hundred years, Anxi all stabilized in Qiuci, until the Tang Zhenyuan six years (790 years) before and after Tubo invasion. It is worth noting that, through the ancient Zi bash within the ancient city of the northeastern corner had found a hoard of coins unearthed about more than 3000 pieces, including gold, built in the reign of Dali, and a small amount of kaiyuantongbao, Qianyuan treasures, "the" word "Yuan" money, money etc.. Yutian is the earliest in Zhenyuan six years after being captured in the west, Tibet, Zhenyuan eight years (792 years) after the fall of Anxi, about eight years in Zhenyuan fan. According to Wang Yongsheng research, built in the reign of Dali gold, and its products don't "in" money, "Yuan" is the word money Anxi all stick to the western regions, Dali, built in the years (766~783 years) in the casting Qiuci area, is not a private cast, only to the extent that the circulation of Anxi main control range that is, Qiuci and adjacent areas, mainly for the use of the local garrison.
Sen Musaimu Grottoes
At the beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty, Caucasian Qiuci people by Mongolia Turkic speaking Uighur ethnic assimilation gradually. Today is the Xinjiang Uighur Uighur ancestors originated in the Mongolia plateau in northern Lingshui (now Mongolia Suo North Selenga), Han history says "ringing", "he" or "high car". Rooney said the "nine Ming Beiji Turkic Oghuz surname", the equivalent of Arabia geographical literature "nine surname Gus" and Chinese historical records "nine surname tiele" or "nine Uighur name". 744 years, the establishment of a new dynasty replaced the Uighur Khan - Turkic Uighur Khanate khanate. After the outbreak of the rebellion, the Uighur Khan had sent troops to Korea, Jing nan.
Tang Kaicheng five years (840 years), the country perversing Pakistan perversing Kazakhstan for the Hudson northern nomadic people xiajiasi Uighur people were forced to break, three branch Xiqian. Among them, fifteen tribes to the steppes of Central Asia Geluolu, Northern Song Dynasty and early and Geluolu black Han Dynasty (or Karhan); another vote of Anxi (now Kuche), known as the "Qiuci Uighur" Qiuci began the process of Turkic oasis. Song Zhenzong Xianping four years (1001), Qiuci Anxi governor, Senator Paul wins the Uighur Khan sent Cao Wantong in the Song Dynasty to the table. According to the Eleventh Century Mahamu de lived in Kashi in Baghdad by "Turkic dictionary", Buddhist and Islamic state in Western Han Dynasty in the black boundary of Qiuci western territory.
In the "first Tallinn Qu Yuan Qiuci Ao", Emperor advocate of Islamic culture, civilization gradually after Yuan Qiuci Buddhism replaced by Islamic culture.
Tibet xingzhishu, here read Tibet.
The snow covered Plateau Tibetan Buddhist Encyclopedia of local customs and practices.
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