As a woman, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi why in power for 47 years?2017-01-13 16:37:19 702 ℃
This paper from the late Qing Dynasty "four faces", author: Wang Kaixi, Oriental Press authorized push.
In November 1861, Queen Ci Xi and Prince Gong Yi jointly launched the 1861 coup success, since three of the power behind the throne, until his death in 1908, Chinese ruled for 47 years.
The ominous; a woman usurping man's power, power, country risk. Although this is a political bias, but in China's feudal society is a common consensus of people. Then, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi as a woman why can hold the highest power of Qing court, China ruled for 47 years? According to the author's knowledge and vision, no special article or monograph discussed.
Referring to the Empress Dowager Ci Xi, people are considered as a person haggard, means, subject to changing moods, strong desire for power, good play politics. She turned her hand to the cloud, covered hands for the rain, "right" and "art" and "potential" the use of handy, is a veteran feudal rulers. "Mr. Ci Xi, who was born in Taiwan, said," as for him, he was born with a very strong desire for power, and his political skill was so high that he had almost no rival". Mr Cai Dongfan thinks that the Empress Dowager Ci Xi can play a prince in the hands, condemnation, to open, to show grace demonstrations. The princes following awe, what Qishan in handling". Mr. Xu Che not only lists the Empress Dowager Ci Xi in the Tongzhi emperor seriously ill "got around, he got an easy job to do (see fold number%) the" clean power "by Sheng Yu Memorial, cut off all power Yi, reached the purpose of dictatorship. Now, she in turn inhibited and the collapse of "clean concrete examples, but also for the Empress Dowager Ci Xi said:" a pair of antithetical couplet in Wonderwoman, hot face, good popularity, Yishouzhetian, groundless talk control multi to half a century Chinese Yu; demon woman, cold wrist, bloodshed, three screen, hulala suddenly nearly four hundred million people enslaved people." These statements and opinions are important reasons that can control the supremacy of the Empress Dowager Ci Xi 47 years in power, mainly lies in its unique personal politics.
The Ci Xi in the Summer Palace
In my opinion, the reason why empress dowager Ci Xi ruled China for 47 years is complicated. To sum up, there are three reasons.
A little of the summit, inherited the throne crisis
Qing Dynasty a total of 12 emperors. The 12 emperor of the length and number of children, and the prosperity of Qing Dynasty are closely related.
First see the emperors of life: the destiny of Nur Ha Che Khan, at the age of 68; the emperor Chong Huangtaiji, at the age of 52; the former Emperor Fulin, at the age of 24; son of emperor Kangxi, at the age of 69; the emperor Yong Zheng emperor, at the age of 58; Qian Longdi Hongli, at the age of 89; the Jiaqing emperor Yongyan, at the age of 61; min Ning Emperor Daoguang, Xianfeng emperor at the age of 69; Yi Zhu, at the age of 31; Zaichun Tongzhi emperor, at the age of 19; Zaitian Guangxu emperor at the age of 38.
To see the children the amount of emperor Nur Ha Che Khan: destiny, lifetime total of 16 children, 8 female; the emperor Chong Huangtaiji lifetime total of 11 children, 14 female; the former Emperor Fulin, a lifetime total of 8 children, 6 women; Kangxi Emperor Xuan ye, a lifetime total of 35 children, 20 female emperor Yong Zheng emperor, life; a total of 10 children, 4 female; Emperor Hongli, a lifetime total of 17 children, 10 women; Jia Qingdi Yongyan, a lifetime total of 5 children, 9 female; Emperor Daoguang min Ning, a lifetime total of 9 children, 10 female; Xianfeng emperor Yi Zhu, a lifetime total of 2 children, 1 female; Tongzhi, Guangxu the emperor Xuantong, have no children.
Generally speaking, before the Emperor Daoguang emperor of the children more, which makes the question of succession in the throne, with a larger choice. Since the beginning of Xianfeng, except the Xianfeng Emperor gave birth to two sons (a son named not early, the rest of the war and died) Tongzhi and Guangxu without children, the heir to the throne of choice, an unprecedented crisis. What is more, the last few are short-lived emperor, will further deepen this crisis of the heir to the throne.
After the emperor Emperor Daoguang children not all, never life life is a harbinger of the Qing imperial power crisis. A famous censor in the late Qing Dynasty on Hu Sijing, childless king after the death of Guangxu emperor said: "the more vast, and no knowledge will know Lingzi, the chaos of men, say is this meaning.
The Empress Dowager Ci Xi was able to do politics for decades. In the late Qing Dynasty and the three emperor, his age is too small, especially the emperor Tongzhi age is too small, not directly related. At the end of the Qing Dynasty emperors are juvenile successor, this is Ci Xi to help him provide can use excuses.
The Ci Xi play of Avalokitesvara, left: four princess, Ci Xi, Li Lianying
The Empress Dowager Ci Xi in Xianfeng emperor during his lifetime, it does have a certain desire for power, but later in the prevention of Xianfeng emperor and Su Shun under restraint. So the government should participate in over eight ministers help coup is the desire for power and nature, indeed has to ensure that the power of the emperor will firmly grasp in their own hands and her son; Prince Gong Union and Su Shun launched fierce struggle, conflicts are not only the interests of interests, factors are also the mother of emperor and uncle combined with other power struggle. Therefore, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi may not have a strong desire for power as early as the beginning.
After the death of emperor Tongzhi, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi is to make young Zaitian Dili, there are two possible reasons. The first is for their personal power of selfishness. The Empress Dowager Ci Xi in "the 1861 coup", to help him, the importance of the supreme power of a more personal experience, the desire for power is indeed improved or expanded. The second is the Empress Dowager Ci Xi for his political ability, self-confidence is too conceited, do not worry about other people in Zibei in Royal Pu political ability and qualification, is a kind of Qing Dynasty left me no conceit. The Empress Dowager Ci Xi said before his death: "I don't know. Several times, or that look right. But under the situation, but also have to." People believe that the Empress Dowager Ci Xi this table is pure white insincere words, but at the time of the Qing Royal Family carefully try to figure out several near Prince's political quality and ability, but also some truth.
Two, special political identity and status
The Empress Dowager Ci Xi is able to grasp the highest power of Qing court for decades, not only because of its political skills or means how too profound to be understood but on its the special political status and position.
"No spur, although Cepheids cannot be adjusted without Sima; potential, although Yao can cure all". To fight the situation and results of Empress Dowager Ci Xi and Su Shun is fully illustrates this point.
Zheng Guofan and his close aides late Qing chongchen Zhao Liewen talk about the political situation in the Qing Dynasty that has commented: "only two palace queen mother in common", that is to say, including Queen Ci Xi, two palace empress, and no different from ordinary political opinions or means to. After the death of emperor Xianfeng, the internal implementation is "(empress) Chuilian (eight ministers) colonial power mechanism has a cover," it seems, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi and eight chief ministers such as Su help power is matched, neck and neck, but in fact the new emperor mother of the Empress Dowager Ci Xi has a more favorable position, more convenient for the emperor to the princes ", make it in an invincible position and help the government of eight ministers of the political struggle.
In every kind of Ci Xi like
At that time, the Shandong censor Dong Yuan Shu said alcohol: when this world an eventful year, Emperor Chong Jian Zuo age on the occasion, should drop out of the decree, declared the Chinese and foreign ", the purpose is to make the domestic" salty emperor Saint bow though young, the Empress Dowager temporary right about state affairs, did not intervene, the common people the heart even more awe, and his work are not a military operation of the four slightly cheating". Dong Yuanchun clearly believes that two is the real representatives of the imperial palace queen mother, only by the right of state affairs, to prevent official affairs specialist.
The master part over SengGeLinQin, also resolutely safeguard the representative of Queen Ci Xi's imperial political status, persisted in its memorial must also write "V for the empress dowager, Emperor Jian San"; Bingbu Shilang katsuho is explicitly proposed, "since ancient times, people have no free, two main", if we really want to make people believe that when the supreme power is still in the hands of the emperor's hand, it must be by the "Empress Dowager expedient hearing, and the two Holy Ghost", "non pro empress Riliwanji, called on ministers, to pass out and state".
After the Prince Gong Yi repeatedly belittled blow, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi is also very good use of the orthodox imperial representative political advantage.
At the end of March 1865, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi suddenly ordered the "leather Prince Gong Yi xin.
The Empress Dowager Ci Xi to stop leather Yi, one of the important reasons is to "understand the state can not be overstepped" ceremony of minister. According to the "Li Hongzhang years (Japan) spectrum" records, previously, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi has angrily to Prince Gong Yi said: "you are everything and I embarrassed, I post you leather." At that time, Prince Gong Yi does not seem to be completely out of the Empress Dowager Ci Xi in eyes, stubborn and nonchalantly said: "I was the first to the sixth son, you can not post my leather, leather prince."
The special political status and position of the empress dowager, and his political ethics, given the Empress Dowager Ci Xi in casual or reward also get rid of the absolute authority of Prince Gong Yi knight, the Prince Gong Yi shall put Prince Prince's shelf, show the white feather, thoroughly.
Prince Yi Xuan for the Empress Dowager Ci Xi, is more obedient. When the son Zaitian was established as the emperor, he was surprised to meet "respect only, cry, coma and prostrate, tuck can not play". It is horrified and worries, "fight heart shake, a" set "relapse" on the grounds that the request of the Empress Dowager Ci Xi "Song give pity", on the errands, "a prince of emptiness to tolerate people for the world, for the Emperor Xuanzong into a mediocre blunt not only son".
Look at the Qing Empire, in addition to the emperor, who still can and dare to compete with the empress dowager, slightly on the hierarchy? Qingui as Prince Gong Yi, Yi Xuan prince, is not how to, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi, but what of other princes?
Three, better with the family and the family of Nala Aisin Giorro political relations
This is another important objective reason that empress dowager Ci Xi can control the supreme power of Qing Dynasty for nearly half a century. - if so, even with the Empress Dowager Ci Xi then clever politics, it is impossible in the Qing Empire in the highest position in nearly half a century.
A foreign postcard on the Empress Dowager Ci Xi, 1901
If we make a comparison between empress dowager Ci Xi and Wu Zetian in the Tang Dynasty, we will have a very clear understanding of this.
Tang Gaozong Li Zhi died of the disease is not as rubella governance, so "the administration had decided to" Queen Wu Zetian. At this time Wu Zetian has been "on the throne. After all, the size of government, and the", but it is not.
Do the first year (683 years), Emperor Zhongzong died, Lee was succeeded by the prime minister Peiyan assistant. Where there is a military event can not be determined, and take days into the stop, Wu Zetian still holds the supreme power of the Tang dynasty. Later, Wu Zetian and then changed little son Li Dan case, as of.
Since the heir in San ((684 years) to (Tianshou the first year (690 years), Wu Zetian to powerbut said system.
Tianshou the first year (690 years), Wu Zetian officially as emperor, the big week. After Wu Zetian waste Tang Jianzhou became the emperor, not only the seven temple, after five generations of ancestors are his respect for the emperor, and vigorously promoted the brothers and nephews, grasped the inside and outside the military and political power, and killing his son of the Tang emperor li. This will not only cause the Lee family to resist, will cause a lot of Tang Dynasty, and strong resentment against the old minister chen. Finally, finally in the Shenlong year (705 years), by the prime minister Zhang Jianzhi and General Li Duozuo mutiny, forcing Wu Zetian to abdicate, to the government to the case Li xian.
However, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi mastered decades Qing supreme power, her relationship with the Aixinjueluo family and the family was far better than Nala Wu Zetian much safer.
The Empress Dowager Ci Xi to help him, not Everything is going smoothly. meantime also many objections. In August 1860 after the death of emperor Xianfeng, the prince Yi Zaiyuan, Prince Zheng Duan Hua, CO University led by trained eight chief minister SUSHUN regardless, even the Guangxu emperor qinzheng, there are also some pro imperialist officials of the Empress Dowager Ci Xi continue to do political dissatisfaction. Prince Gong Yi Wang in politics at the beginning, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi are more dissatisfied, even disrespectful. However, one can not be ignored and denied the historical fact is that the government does not have any accused empress dowager Ci Xi for the Aixinjueluo family of infidelity, the fundamental reason is that she is in the two problem, grasp the more appropriate treatment.
First, not to show people the family responsibility of Prince nala. The 1861 coup after January 17, 1862, Queen Ci Xi's brother as Jo dubbed the three public Chengen; in September 11th of the same year, Queen Ci Xi's father, grandfather Jing Rui, Huizheng grandfather kichiro o was made public (not three Chengen like Wu Zetian, Li Wu seven temple, chasing the statue on the five progenitor). Above all for the Qing Dynasty for the queen knighted, or empress family en sealing practices, rather than "special violations". The younger brother of the Empress Dowager Ci Xi Guixiang in November 24, 1888 was three, because of its public Chengen, her daughter was chosen as the emperor's Queen, still follow the practice of "knighted, and queen Ci Xi's own will, there is no direct relationship between important (of course, Guangxi Xiangzhi female can be appointed as the queen, Empress Dowager Ci Xi undoubtedly play a considerable role).
We need in particular, Queen Ci Xi's brother and brother as Xiang Guixiang has been closed for three en public, this is only a title of the Qing government, rather than the implementation of granting official. With the official title, are two completely different concepts.
The Empress Dowager Ci Xi is not to control the power of certain task entrusted with the brother, for many reasons.
First, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi long have the highest power of the Qing government, the Qing court know that fighting is very bad, at the same time, she also knew his brother's lack of political talent, do a little careless, it is likely to hurt the family "," so in order to protect the family, Ci Xi did not give home more people do. What is the official original letter of no great importance position, bring Paul but not powerful".
Second, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi hand is "in order to take into account the impact", but also "feared the family relied on their own relationship, develop a pampered problems, or who became the lift cage birds, triflers". Queen Ci Xi's brother Zhao Xiang "was full of complaints to Ci Xi to do", but Ci Xi believes that "giving fish, as delegate to fish", hope that their brothers "don't rely on her day job, doing nothing, dawdle, lift cage birds. So, Ci Xi's family did not do what he, just awarded some titles."
Third, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi paid special attention to the Aixinjueluo family and Nala family relationships, not to other people to attack the clean feel consciousness or mental alertness, also as another important subjective reason.
The Empress Dowager Ci Xi "ethical tradition particularly in the ruling Royal when the Eight Banners' organization is Ci Xi in the pecking order, when appointing officials with responsibility for the Aixinjueluo family, and according to the system using a number of Han people in Qing dynasty. The national personnel appointment in order to avoid arousing suspicion, to the family with soothing form, given honorary position...... Ci Xi do not have a family, but also respect for the blood of the Qing Dynasty, but also to let others see that they do not have any benefits for their families".
The estimate for the historical facts, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi grasp the highest power of Qing court for decades, do not give anyone a "dry feeling and political power factor, but no facts. Whether it is formal or official documents, personal diary notes; it is difficult in the "emperor of the party members, or the" enemies "(even Bifeng sharp, once of the Empress Dowager Ci Xi hated Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao is the same), there are records of people denounce their reuse. No matter how people evaluate the Empress Dowager Ci Xi, were accused of cheating on the Aixinjueluo summit.
...... Dou Zongyi in the "Li Hongzhang (Japan) spectrum" record, it is worth pondering. One day, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi of Prince Gong Yi Han's dissatisfaction with reuse said:"This world, we do not, to the Han people?"Ci Xi Wilson "everything with my practice is especially difficult" dissatisfaction, said to the official title of leather. Prince Gong Yi restively said not only contradict,"I was the first emperor sixth son, can you post my leather, leather is not the prince"But, because of his long, without permission is suddenly stood up, the empress dowager, frightened the Empress Dowager Ci Xi shouted "King Gong to beat her".
If Yi really is considered to be beaten when the empress dowager, will be put to chaos, treason and heresy of felony, at least to be taken off the head, but the result is just the "official trend of King Gong" and settle a matter by leaving it unsettled. We can see that at the time, whether it is the Empress Dowager Ci Xi, or Prince Gong, just the matter as the Aixinjueluo family's uncle sister-in-law dispute.
The Ci Xi and Guangxu
At the same time, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi I will also own and the differences between the Guangxu emperor, attributed to Aixinjueluo within the family, the family chores dispute. The reformers officials that Wang Zhao, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi and Emperor Guangxu in various conflicts during the reform movement of 1898, not political differences, but the power struggle, if the Qing Imperial internal relations, "pure for domestic dispute". This understanding of Wang Zhao has been recognized by some contemporary historians. Taiwan scholar Mr Zhuang Lian talked about the causes of the failure of the reform, which was not without regret to say: "a national future great reform movement, was a power struggle between family and completely destroyed." During the Boxer Uprising in 1900, Empress Dowager Ci Xi saw the curtain to withdraw the powers required to note the false political emperor, also said: "he was ablaze with anger and dare to interfere with my family."
To sum up, no matter what the subjective intentions of Empress Dowager Ci Xi, objectively, she has successfully made people generally agree that it is loyal to the royal family of Aixinjueluo.
Four, the final conclusion
To sum up, the author thinks that in the late Qing Dynasty, Emperor inherited the throne from the crisis, is to come forward to help him, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi intervention regime's most major premise, without this premise, the other everything is impossible; and Ci Xi the Qing empress dowager of the special political status and position, is the long-term government dominated Chinese, ruled for 47 years as the most fundamental reasons. When people and academia, has been that the empress consort not only did not have power, generous, humble and calculating and expression, but in the feudal imperial ideology was affected, but also no one can shake her supreme authority and position; and the Empress Dowager Ci Xi did not reuse Nala family people, better handle Nala family and family aishingorio clan political relations, has tried to in order to safeguard the fundamental interests of the Aixinjueluo Royal appearance, this is the long-term holding court, ruled China for 47 years is another important objective factors. If the Empress Dowager Ci Xi can not do this, she would like Wu Zetian, was the United opposition to the ministers, a kinsman of the emperor, to the literati, and even ordinary people condemned.
But they say the Empress Dowager Ci Xi's desire for power is very strong, Fanshou for clouds, rain cover for the hand, is subject to changing moods, haggard, means unique politics, only is to maintain a necessary external or technical conditions of its rule, compared with the three political reasons we mentioned above it is not worth mentioning, some, at least is the secondary reason.
Four faces in the late Qing Dynasty
The author, Wang Kaixi
The time of publication, March 2016
ISBN / 9787506088916
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