Where are the 20 gates of old Beijing?

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Where are the 20 gates of old Beijing?

2017-01-13 16:39:57 10135 ℃

Integrity of the old city of Beijing: challenges and opportunities

Wang Jun (Xinhua Daily Telegraph)

Today, this is the article on the protection of the old city of Beijing, for the general reader, may be too professional. In order to give you a better understanding of this topic, Xinhua Daily Telegraph (public ID:caodi_zhoukan) editor found some old photos of the rare Beijing.

The first group of photos is historical images of scholars and Qin Xu Jianing in the summer of 2013 to the national archives, trying to find some old photos and the Anti Japanese War, accidentally discovered a set of aerial photographs taken in 1945.

August 15, 1945, the Japanese invaders declared unconditional surrender, but there are millions of Japanese occupation of China's vast territory. From September to November of that year, the U.S. military is responsible for helping the Chinese army to receive the work. During the U.S. at least four times over Beijing shooting, recorded in the old city of Beijing style. The following 6 photos taken by bombing squadron and torpedo squadron eighty-ninth U.S. Navy Air Wing under the jurisdiction of the.

Pictured Tiananmen and Chang'an Avenue area, you can see Tiananmen, the Imperial Palace and other buildings. The lower right corner of the building for Changan left door.

As of last century in 40s, the Eastern Industrial Zone in Beijing - now CBD.The picture is within the area of Fuchengmen. A main road map in vertical direction for Fu Street, the main road to the north along the transverse - Zhao Dengyu is located in the center area of the road; photo is today the White Pagoda Temple, under the eye-catching I-shaped building for the Beijing central hospital was founded in 1918, is now the Peking University People's hospital.

Figure for the revival of the vicinity of the door, you can clearly see the inner city of Beijing on the western side of the wall.

The picture shows the Xiyuan and xinhuamen in Lake area, south of Haizi, an obvious building is xinhuamen before the card building, it was built as a temporary structure to celebrate the victory of the war.

When it comes to the old city of Beijing, we have to say that the city has its own characteristics. The old city of Beijing "in nine and seven the four", refers to the inner door, nine door and four door seven outside the Imperial City, a total of 20 gates, this is the most common argument.

Nine: Dongzhimen, Xizhimen, Chaoyang, Fuchengmen, Tecsun, Xuanwu, Chongwen, Zhengyang, stability

Seven: Guang'an, Guang Qu, left, right, and an East West, Yongding

The four: the Cheonan, Dongan, and Xi'an.

But now, in the strict sense of the gates of Beijing only "half" - "a" is the Zhengyang gate tower and watchtower, "half" is the Deshengmen watchtower; leaving only the southeast corner of the city at the watchtower; while the wall only less than 400 meters.

Old Beijing favorite mantra "huangchenggener" is now only "root". Even the "root" is also more and more indifferent, there are only a few people in the older "thought", which exists in Beijing and places on the street.

The second set of photographs is the gate of Beijing which has been and remains today

1, Zhengyang gate. Located in the city center of the south wall, is the emperor dedicated, the Ming Dynasty called Daming gate, the Qing Dynasty called daqingmen. In addition to the emperor, no person shall import from the watchtower of the Front Gate. The emperor out of Zhengyang two times a year, once in winter, Tiantan to heaven, another is to Jingzhe, xiannongtan to land.

In 1915 at the Zhengyang gate (Qianmen) built on both sides of the train station, majestic Barbican was dismantled. The dismantling of the urn, the original closed urn into the open field, the Guan Yu Temple and the temple Zhenrong temple incense, more prosperous. 1967 Guan Yu Temple, Guanyin temple was demolished, leaving no trace.

2, Dongzhimen, 1901 photo. It is the first tower of Beijing, so Dongzhimen is also called the "floor", meaning that it is the other Beijing tower. Dongzhimen is a city located in the east of the capital city of Dongzhimen on the north side of the tower shape with Chaoyangmen, but less regulation. Yuan Dynasty, Dongzhimen, said the door of Chongren, 31.5 meters wide, through the depth of 15.3 meters, through the high of 34 meters. A treasure of the town gate tower, there is a stone like Wangyeh medicine. A car with good luck.

In 1915 by the building of the city railway will be dismantled and Wengcheng gate building. In 1927 the watchtower removed, only the watchtower platform. The platform was demolished in 1958. 1965 will dismantle the entire Dongzhimen tower. Dongzhimen tower was dismantled is regrettable. This is Beijing Chenghua years left a richly ornamented building loft style buildings to Phoebe only. Demolition in 1965.

3, Chaoyangmen, 1900s panorama. Chaoyangmen Qi Yuan said door, nine door in the warehouse are transported to the grain from the door, the gate in an urn with a bunch of every holiday, Kyoto tiancang, between grain cars in a continuous line. "Chaoyang icker" is the first one to celebrate the God of the north south grain transport. Grain into Chaoyangmen, stored in a nearby barn. Chaoyangmen is now in place names and "Lu Mi Cang", "shipping warehouse", "new Taicang", that is the year of the official grain storage warehouse.

Chaoyangmen pass 31.35 meters wide, through the depth of 19.2 meters, through the high of 32 meters. The Beijing Hangzhou the Grande Canale shipped the grain, which is the door into the city, a few large warehouse store in Chaoyangmen in. Wengcheng built temple, the temple of God and not only brand images.

1953 1957 dismantling the tower, and the dismantling of the watchtower.

4, Chongwenmen, 1886 photo. The Yuan Dynasty called civilization door, 35.2 meters high, 39.1 meters wide pass, mark is Zhenhai Chongwen iron turtle. Then there are a lot of wine workshops in the southern suburbs of Beijing Daxing area, mostly from wine car door into the city, so there is a saying: "Chongwenmen wine car, Xuanwumen tumbrils".

In the Qing Dynasty, Chongwen outside the distillery, passing a road so there is a floating wine, "wine" slang term. But then, whether or Chongwenmen is exceedingly wealthy men to be familiar with small tradesmen and porters, but not in the wine, because this is the Beijing goods tax, year net and silver Shushiwanliang, Chongwenmen round, became a famous official in the Ministry "".

Chongwenmen has a common name "hadman". According to records, the hada mansion built in Chongwenmen, Chongwenmen is known as "HADAMEN", the name has been used since the period of the Republic of china. "Hada" and "hard" homophonic, after a considerable period of time, word of mouth, HADAMEN will be interpreted as "hadman", "Kazakhstan gate", "Haidai gate". The famous Hartmann cigarettes in the name of which is.

In 1950 1968 removed the urn, remove all the light.

5, Xuanwumen early panorama. The Yuan Dynasty said Shun Shing mun. Width of 32.6 meters, through the depth of 23 meters, through the high of 33 meters. Mark is the time Xuanwu noonday gun. Go cart, also known as the gates of death. At that time the cemetery are concentrated in the Taoranting Park area, many mourners go to the door, and the site of the Qing Dynasty in Caishikou, the car can go here on escort.

Demolition in 1965.

6, Fuchengmen panorama, 1870 shooting. Yuan said Pingzemen. Width of 31.2 meters, through the depth of 16 meters, through the high of 31.7 meters. Logo is engraved on the wall in a plum. Mentougou Xishan coal, the door from the Xishan recently, so take this car door. Because of the "coal" and "Mei" is a homonym, the old "Fucheng Meihua newspaper chunnuan" said.

In 1953, the watchtower platform (Wengcheng demolition demolition, demolition in 1965 40s watchtower) the tower.

7, Xizhimen panorama (left to right), city building and the watchtower gate tower, Juan dong. Xizhimen was Yuandadu west wall of the door, and the gates of righteousness. Xizhimen pass 32 meters wide, through the depth of 15.6 meters, through the high of 32.75 meters. Logo is a carved stone urn in the water. The city palace that the water quality is not good, so take Jade Spring mountain water, so water every morning walk this door. City Square, four corners are rectangular, square is only the gates in Beijing city. Xizhimen is also the largest gate outside Zhengyang.

In 1969, because the construction of the subway, the gate tower and watchtower, together with the demolition of buildings, wengcheng.

8, Deshengmen, 1924 shoot. Yuan called Jiandemen, to send troops to battle the door, in the "Tecsun message" two words. This door walk carriers. According to the North Stars is xuanwu. Xuanwu surgeon soldiers, so send troops to fight from the north gate of the city. Deshengmen Wengcheng in treasures, should stand in a number of Beiting in the middle. The pavilion stands a tall stone, engrave the emperor at the age of sixty-two (1797) of the imperial poetry. This was the overlord of the memories of the past eventful years, in the "Tecsun" two words is to express a feeling back.

In the 50s of last century, the city walls of Beijing began to be dismantled. Until 60s, most of the walls were demolished because of the construction of the subway. Because the Deshengmen watchtower in the tower outside, not out of line, so escaped, who survived to stay.

9, on the north side of Andingmen in 1915. The watchtower, shooting is also called the "door", have abundant meaning. The watchtower pass through 32.5 meters wide, 25 meters deep, 30 meters high. The emperor from the door to the altar to pray for a good harvest. Go to the door to the army. The other eight gates are built within Wengcheng temple, but this is built Wengcheng Tati temple, it is this door Tati town door treasure.

1969 was removed due to repair subway.

10, Guanganmen's first photo, 1885 shooting. The Ming Dynasty called Guangning gate, also called Zhang Yi door. Guanganmen tower shapes as inner city, Yan Xie Shan three water Pavilion style buildings, gray Tongwa green glazed tile roof trim, miankuo three through 13.8 meters wide; pass into a deep, deep 6 meters; 17.6 meters high; floor Citylink Taiwan 26 meters high.

In 1957 the tower was dismantled (40s to demolish watchtower and Wengcheng).

11, Yongding gate. Yongding is the largest city in the gate door, "before, in the watchtower urn, after the tower", with majestic gesture in the left middle security doors and you'anmen, at the southern tip of the central axis of Beijing, also from the South and Beijing thoroughfare routes. Yongding gate was built in the Ming Jiajing period, was built outside the city to national stability, so the Yongding gate "in the name of long period of stability" in italy. The tower shapes as inner city, Yan Xie Shan three water Pavilion style buildings, gray Tongwa green glazed tile roof trim, miankuo five, pass 24 meters wide; depth three, pass 10.50 meters deep into the floor; even 26 meters high.

1958 was removed, the existing tower was rebuilt in 2004.

12, DongBianMen tower facade, filmed in 1920. DongBianMen is one of the seven outside the city gate. The city was built in Jiajing thirty-two years (1553) of the city, the city in the south of the old Beijing package, said outside the city for the project, namely city hat. The height and thickness of outer wall than in the inner city, the gate size as well as the inner gate, while the DongBianMen and Xibianmen regulation is the smallest city in seven.

DongBianMen tower is single danyanxieshan type small, gray Tongwa roof, surrounded by open wooden doors, no windows; miankuo three 11.2 meters wide, into a deep depth of 5.5 meters, 5.2 meters high; the city of Taiwan is turned over wood side door, floor Citylink Taiwan 12.2 meters high. Wengcheng semicircle, 27.5 meters wide, 15.5 meters long from north to south, single eaves hard mountain small, gray Tongwa roof, wooden door had turned back south, West and north arrow opened window, the surface of each of two layers, each layer of weak plane 4 hole, 2 hole surface of each layer of things; wide between three and 9 meters wide, into a deep depth of 4.6 meters, 4.7 meters high; the city center open door, lateral (north side) for the arch top, side (south side) for wooden doors; floor Citylink Taiwan 10.5 meters high.

In 1958 he removed the dongbianmen.

13, in early 20s guangqumenwai. Beijing Guangqumen outer city walls on the eastern side of a gate only, once called Datong door, also called sand nest door. Built in the Ming Jiajing thirty-two years (1553). The gate is low, only one layer, the gallery miankuo five, Dan Yan Xie Shanding, surrounded by corridors. In an arc. The watchtower is single eaves top, front and on both sides of the open arrow window of two layers, each layer of 7 positive holes on both sides of each layer of the 3 holes, 26 holes. The watchtower open arched doorway.

During the period of Japanese occupation in 1930s will be demolished watchtower. The demolition of the towers and in 1953.

14, the left security door. Known as the "river clean the door", is one of the three gates on the south side of Beijing City, is located in Yongding East gate. The tower is single danyanxieshan type ash barrel and the top; miankuo three, pass 16 meters wide, into a deep, through the depth of 9 meters, 6.5 meters high, 15 meters high floor Citylink Taiwan; Wengcheng semicircle, 23 meters wide, 29 meters long from north to south. The watchtower is single Xieshan small, gray Tongwa roof; miankuo three 13 meters wide, into a deep 6 meters wide, 7.1 meters high, 16.6 meters high floor Citylink Taiwan; the south side opened two arrows windows, each layer of 7 holes; what side also provided two layer arrow window, each layer of 3 the side hole wooden door had opened the middle.

In 1953, the tower, the city of Taiwan, and Wengcheng demolished watchtower.

15, you'anmen, taken in 1924. You'anmen Nancheng is located outside the city wall on the west side, commonly known as "South Simon", also known as the "Feng Yi door". Ming Jiajing thirty-two years (1553) in order to prevent the alien invasion built outside the city. 1564 you'anmen plus Wengcheng, additional watchtower. In ancient times, the court is from the Imperial Palace (the Forbidden City) the determination of the azimuth angle. Therefore, located in the Imperial Palace called you'anmen southwest, the southeast is called left security door.

In 1956, the city of Taiwan and the demolition of the watchtower urn, its gate tower was dismantled in 1958.

16, Xibianmen, 1924 Xi Renlong photography. Xibianmen rostrum for the single Xieshan small, gray Tongwa roof, surrounded by open doors, no windows; miankuo three 11.2 meters wide, into a deep depth of 5.5 meters, 5.2 meters high; the city of Taiwan had wooden monarchs in the middle of the door, floor Citylink Taiwan 11.2 meters high. Wengcheng semicircle, 30 meters wide, 7.5 meters long from north to south.

Ming Jiajing thirty-two years (1553), the Mongolia cavalry several times to invade the south, and the increasing number of residents outside Guanxiang in Beijing, built outside the city around. After losing money, just a southern suburb of Yongding surrounded by the door, 5 door, the capital city wall forms a convex shape. And outside the northeast and northwest corner of two and inner city junction near the north gate of the monarch, DongBianMen Xibianmen, respectively.

1952 will be removed, Wengcheng towersembrasured watchtower.

17, Tiananmen. Located in the city of Beijing in the traditional line, by the city station and the tower is composed of two parts, other dignified, magnificent. Built in the Ming Yongle fifteen years (14l7 years). Formerly chengtianmen, to the emperor "Edward shipment, ordered on the day".

Shunzhi eight years (1651) reconstruction, renamed Tiananmen. Both the emperor is the exercise of power for days.

18, dianmen. Also called thick set of doors, located in the axis of imperial Bei yuan in the Ming Dynasty, known as the "gate of Bei'an". The specifications of the same Dongan gate, but the volume is slightly larger, and correspond with each other, meaning world peace, good weather. Built in the Ming Yongle eighteen years (1420), koji sixteen years (1503) rebuilt in February, Longqing five years (1571) July repairs, Qing Shunzhi nine years (1652) reconstruction in July, and renamed the "Tiananmen Square", as the palace of the brick building, miankuo seven, and two in Ming Dynasty between the channel, Ming 7 meters wide, two times the width of 5.4 meters, four shoots each 4.8 meters wide, the total width of 38 meters, 11.8 meters high, 12.5 meters deep into the. Located in the middle of the door three Zhu Hong, about the value of each of the two rooms.

Demolition from 1956 to 1954.

19, Dongan gate. Located in the Middle East wall of the Imperial City, from north to south, opposite the Donghua gate of the forbidden city. The regulation and the Xi'an gate, similar to the dianmen. Dongan gate was built in the Ming Xuande seven years (1432), miankuo seven, deep into the three. Single eaves mountain yellow glazed tile roof. The middle Ming and between left and right to the door, the door of the 1 red lacquer gold nails; the left and right end and slightly between real value. Unfortunately, in many of the gates of Beijing, only the Dongan gate did not leave a photo. The annotation of the "Dongan" photos are actually "the door of Dongan".

Tomorrow Shun five years (1461), Cao Jixiang and Cao Qin from the eunuch rebellion set fire to destroy the Dongan gate, the following year reconstruction. In February 27, 1912 Yuan Shikai instigated the mutiny, the northern army will set fire to the door of Dongan. In 1912 at the site after the new Dongan gate.

From 1926 to 1927, the Beiyang Government Ministry of interior demolition imperial walls, will be removed from Dongan. Since then, the jade river has been filled into south along the main street, main street, east wall built with imperial houses, become a residential area.

20, Xi'an gate. Xi'an is located in the north west wall of imperial gate and Dongan gate, and asymmetry. This is the city of Beijing in terms of symmetry is a special case (such as graphic). Xi'an gate was built in the Ming Yongle fifteen years. No city of Taiwan, menchi for green Whitehead, red; danyanxieshan yellow glazed tile roof; miankuo seven, deep into the three, the middle Ming and between left and right to the door, the door of the 1 red lacquer gold nails; the left and right end and slightly between intercropping Banfang value.

From 1913 onwards, due to block the traffic, the imperial city wall was gradually removed, after the Beiyang government finances, then sold to the imperial city wall demolition, and later left the solitary door Xi'an door. In 1950 Xi'an was destroyed in the fire door.

Note: the above pictures are from the network.

Next, the official launch of the Xinhua Daily Telegraph "grassland weekly" Today reported that the overall protection of the old city of Beijing: challenges and opportunities -

In the new era, the strategic positioning of Beijing is the political center, cultural center, foreign exchange center and the center of science and technology innovation. As a cultural center, Beijing should properly handle the relationship between development and protection in the process of urban construction, so as to protect the city's historical and cultural heritage.


Historical and cultural protected areas suitable for full coverageThe maintenance of Beijing culture of the ancient city, we must first protect the rigorous, gentle, degree of style and inherent charm

Liang Sicheng Beijing city wall park planning plan envisaged. This figure is in the beginning of 1951, Beijing urban construction meeting, the sketch beam provides: Grand walls of Beijing city ten tower are reserved on the wall bench stone table of street trees.
One of the outstanding problems in the protection of the old city of Beijing is the contradiction between the protection of historical and cultural protection and the protection of the old city.

In 1986, the State Council approved the Ministry of construction, Ministry of culture on request that announced the second batch of national historical and cultural city list report notice: "focus on some cultural relics, or can completely reflect a history of the traditional style and distinctive national features of street, buildings, town, village, as to protect the historical and cultural district."

Since then, the historical and cultural protection areas (historic) concept is introduced Chinese, whether the western concept of city protection to including Beijing city Chinese protection needs, become a topic of academic contend.

In June 1999, Wu Liangyong, Ieoh Ming Pei, Zhou Ganzhi, Zhang Kaiji, Zheng Xiaoxie, Luo Zhewen, Lan Hua Hong, Ruan Yi put forward three "the rapid development in the more carefully to protect historical and cultural city of Beijing" proposal, said: "the old city of Beijing's most prominent point is that it is a complete plan of the whole, therefore, the protection of Beijing city will focus on the whole, in the city only to some areas zoned for historical and cultural protection areas," the protection of historical and cultural simplification "," protected area planning is only currently isolated, simply draw the boundaries of protected areas "," no overall consideration "from the point of view of the overall protection of the old city," is a kind of passive protection, in fact it is difficult to lasting".

In June 2002, Xu Pingfang pointed out in the article "on the planning and protection of the old city streets in Beijing", the ancient Chinese city and the ancient city of Europe is essentially different. The streets of the ancient European cities are irregular forms of free development, which naturally form the blocks of different historical periods.

"We can assert that there are two different types of city planning in the world history of city planning, a European (Western) mode, the other one is to China as the representative of the Asian (East) model", "the concept of protection of the historic district and is completely copy the European ancient city protection way is in line with the the European city in the history of the development of the ancient city protection Chinese but not for the overall planning of the city, resulting in protection of the historical and cultural cities in China have the richest China regardless of culture, abandon cannot see the wood for the trees, picking up sesame lost watermelon, causing irreparable damage".

"Beijing urban master plan (2004 -2020 years)" in the overall plan for the year in 2004: "to further expand the scope of the old city historical and cultural protection zone. According to the present situation of the historical and cultural relics and the overall situation of the traditional style, the existing historical and cultural protection areas of the old city are expanded and integrated, and the new historical and cultural protection areas are added."

At present, the historical and cultural protection area in the old city of Beijing has increased to 33, accounting for the old city area of 29%. According to Beijing City Planning Institute of statistics in 2003, the old city of Beijing, was assigned to the reserve alley more than and 600, have not been included in the protection zone of more than and 900 alley.

According to the 2004 edition of the requirements of the overall planning, as well as the "historical and cultural city towns and villages Protection Ordinance" and "historical and cultural city of Beijing Protection Ordinance" of the relevant provisions of Beijing city historical and cultural protection areas in the alley, should be included in the scope of the overall protection.

However, for a period of time, there has been a misconception that the protection of the area outside the alley, quadrangles can be removed. By this recognition, a large demolition and construction continued staged in protected areas, the old city suffered irreparable losses.

A member of the CPPCC National Committee, the Imperial Palace museum director Dan Jixiang in the 2016 national NPC and CPPCC proposal that, today, the maintenance of Beijing culture of the ancient city, we must first protect the rigorous, gentle, degree of style and inherent charm, including the axis to protect the city road system, maintain the chessboard, maintain rigorous and lively city landscape spatial pattern a lot of water, protection of cultural relics.

Key protection and Realization of these goals, is the integration of historical and cultural protection areas in the city on the basis of history, historical and cultural protection areas to protect the already announced, will expand the scope of protection, with the basic pattern of the region - Hutong courtyard, all published for historical and cultural protection zone. For the protection of historical and cultural city of Beijing, this is a rare opportunity to be lost.

The old city of Beijing is an integral part of the unified planning and construction. In order to implement the overall protection requirements, must change Beijing published historical and cultural protection areas can not cover the entire city, adhere to the Two004 edition of the overall plan to establish the "expansion of existing urban integration, historical and cultural protection areas" and "new historical and cultural protection areas" principle, to take strong measures, the old city have not been included in protected areas of the historic district, all published for historical and cultural protection areas.


Combination of population evacuation and housing managementOld cottage area inhabited by a large number of old Beijing, these indigenous people are the main inheritors of local culture in Beijing, should encourage them to continue to live in the historic city

Beijing alley

The old city of Beijing Pingfang district population density, ease the difficulties and housing crisis broke, and housing management, mainly reflected in:

There are a lot of Zhiguangongfang sublet lent illegal behavior, not long-term containment, and growing, and even illegal use of trading, to provide a space for the unreasonable population. Rampant illegal sublease drewdown Zhiguangongfang behavior, has made a large number of households in the cottage courtyard to the floating population, the existence of secret operations and rent-seeking behavior, and cause difficulties to the management of the floating population, many latent risks.

Some public houses by the lessee or even their right to lease (the right to use) publicly traded through intermediaries, the price and the property transaction price. There agency said, only need to pay a fee to the housing rental permits, can change, realize the use right transfer.

Due to the absence of the establishment of public rental lease exit mechanism, the user is not in the general situation, the actual number of people living in the cottage area. Beijing Academy of Social Sciences published in 2005 "Beijing City corners survey" display, Chongwen district (Chongwen District in July 2010 with the merger of Dongcheng District, Dongcheng District) the jurisdiction of the Qianmen area, people are separated seriously, households in person is not accounted for more than 20% of the resident population, individual community relocation of the population accounted for more than 45%.

This situation exists in the old cottage area of Beijing. Many houses are not used for the actual use of the household population, they are rented or profitable, or be idle for a long time. The separation of families, mostly in residential (housing or rental housing in the Zhiguangongfang tenant), they are the main groups of illegal sublease drewdown Zhiguangongfang.

The Sidaluanjian, broken wall etc. there are a lot of illegal construction, the traditional courtyard, residential space order is severely damaged, provides the soil for population and industry unreasonable aggregation. Take private acts of illegal construction of unauthorized construction is in the public interest to blatant theft, for a long time but not to punish and strike due, and illegal sublease drewdown Zhiguangongfang act together, continue to spread, deterioration of the courtyard, serious damage to the image of the city and social morality; without the approval of the broken wall, will live illegal use of land for commercial use change, to seize the high interests in the alley there are a lot of, this is also the public interests brazenly stealing, must be severely punished.

The old city of Beijing in the history of commercial space located in the North-South street, within the residential space located in the East-West alley, thus forming a "Jielu people in the territory, the order of space traveling without noise", it is worth to cherish and inherit the traditional. In the alley have broken wall openings, the quiet alley into the street, is a huge damage to the traditional.

The above problems exposed in the old city housing management cottage has serious "vacuum" and loopholes, if not corrected in time, Pingfang district population even through administrative power to temporarily ease, there is still the possibility of resurgence.

The old cottage area inhabited by a large number of "old Beijing", which is the main Aboriginal heritage of Beijing local culture, they should be encouraged to continue to live in the history of the city, not by administrative power "across the board" will they move away from mass. We should analyze specific issues, comprehensive measures to ease those really should be ease of personnel:

A, the cottage area courtyard, give priority to the supply of low-income housing, establish a long-term mechanism to choose the residents relocation, not forced. Excessive concentration of the old city, with a long period of housing supply shortage, inadequate supply of affordable housing related. Practice shows that since 1990s implementation of the demolition of building high low house renovation project, increase the old city building capacity, is not conducive to ease the population, and the formation of the contradiction between the protection of historical and cultural cities, leading to urban population structure fracture, demolition contradictions and a series of problems.

To summarize the experience and lessons, Beijing city should establish low-income housing supply and cottage area population ease relative to the long-term mechanism, to encourage residents to choose cottage areas outside the region living in low-income housing, self relocation, the relocation of the administrative power to avoid compulsory intervention, to achieve win-win situation, improve the living quality of population ease, the continuation of social structure, the old city protection.

B, establish Zhiguangongfang rent exit mechanism, completely solve the separation problem, to achieve precision strike cottage area population ease "". Zhiguangongfang occupies a large proportion in the old stock of houses, where there are a lot of people are separated, that a considerable number of Zhiguangongfang is not really use these statutory tenant, lessee will obtain public houses by the sub tenant illegal income should be stopped, and the housing sector should terminate the lease contract signed, vacated and recover the housing, reasonable arrangements for the use of. It can also promote the use of a large number of public houses to solve the problem of floating population, so that the population of the cottage area was effectively evacuated.

Zhiguangongfang is low rent affordable housing, the provision of security objects, should be low income, no property of the public, rather than the outside has owned or leased property, the latter should establish lease exit mechanism. If in a proper way, relieve the separation of families the public housing lease contract, the cottage area population ease can be promote the benign.

In such a mechanism, to stay still, those who need under the protection of the old tenants, is ease, is those who do not live here the lessee. In this way, you can avoid the old population ease caused dramatic changes in social structure and regional context etc..

C, sound Pingfang district housing management system, to crack down on illegal Zhiguangongfang sublet lent, increase a removal efforts of unauthorized construction of private, punishing the broken wall opening behavior. Zhiguangongfang is the state-owned property, no unit or individual shall not be unauthorized trading, embezzlement Zhiguangongfang, shall not directly engage in illegal activities or using illegal income.

Must be severely punished the lessee are allowed to sublet, lend, change the nature of the use of housing and use, without changing the housing structure area; a thorough renovation of public housing management, housing management departments severely punished not as chaotic as collusion, abuse of power, and the lessee or the interests of the transport agency.

D, in the case of population distribution to ease, Zhiguangongfang optimize repair according to the courtyard of the original process, realize the kitchen door, become residential sets, provide a decent living environment for low-income residents, the real need of security. We should see, in the old city of Beijing in the long term is not effectively solve the "dirty, chaotic and poor" by a problem, has seriously damaged the image of the capital, exposed many problems existing in the construction of the city management. The establishment of the cottage area population ease mechanism, is to solve this problem, to provide strong support.<12Three>


To make more cultural relics for social sharing

Tongzhou vice center construction, Beijing municipal administrative institutions from the center of the city, the relocation of the capital of non core functions ease, offers a great opportunity for the historic building leases, reuse

Prince Gong House

Actively cooperate with the central institutions and Beijing City, 9 units of long-term occupation of national key cultural relics protection units in the mansion in 2002 relocated to vacate, after the restoration of the mansion opened in 2008; the Beijing cultural relics protection units, located in the east coast of Shichahai fire de Zhenjun temple, the cultural relics department, jointly invested in Chinese Xicheng District Taoist Association, the government, in 2002 to vacate the repairs, will occupy the army hostel and nearly 50 residents from 2008, repaired as Taoist activities open;

In the appeal to the community, the army machine will be on 2010 its long-term occupation of the national key cultural relics protection units of large high mysterious temple returned to the Imperial Palace museum management, 2015 to repair, repair after opening in 2017. These historic building leases, reuse, provides the experience for the Beijing city there are a lot of heritage buildings occupied, should actively promote within the city.

The last century since 50s, a large number of cultural relics by the central government and the Beijing municipal units occupied, some were used as the office, some have been used as a residence, and some are as factories or commercial facilities.

At present, the city's more than 40 seats in the house (including the 15 seat above the level of the palace courtyard) only Gongwangfu opening, other palace occupied palace buildings (including alcohol palace, Qing palace, Pro Pro Shun Cheng junwangfu, norichika palace, Shun Cheng junwangfu, Zheng Qin palace, the palace, the Prince Hui Li the prince, low-cost etc.) are due to historical issues by the institutions or household occupancy.

Beijing CPPCC members, former director of the Beijing Municipal Bureau of cultural relics Kong Fanzhi January 2016 proposal calls for the development of Beijing Palace Heritage unit protection and open planning. He pointed out that most palace was social tenants occupancy, cause palace construction disrepair, or structural deformation, serious corrosion; or tile surface collapse, overgrown with weeds. At the same time, because of their life, such as fire safety hazard is very serious. As a kind of important historical buildings of the ancient capital, the palace building can not play its due role in social education.

He pointed out that the existing problems of Beijing palace courtyard, is caused by the history, is the result of years of accumulation, the problem is not only difficult, and the occupancy of each palace is very complex, relying solely on the local power of Beijing cannot be solved:

The first is the property rights relationship is complex, Beijing Palace are almost all departments of the central government, all have their own requirements for property rights; two is the occupation complex, the central organ, career, all types of enterprises, units, large occupation relocation funds; three is part of the palace has been for a single use of living of workers, a large number of residents. The relocation is a huge capital investment, resulting in the use of its protection, has become a difficult problem in the protection of cultural relics in Beijing.

Kong Fanzhi believes that at present, Beijing is implementing the development strategy of non capital function, ease the adjustment of industrial structure and the adjustment, Beijing should take the opportunity to resolve the relocation of the occupied units and households palace. Especially put forward suggestions:

The palace building into the city to carry out the non capital function and ease the coordination within the scope of the central departments, joint research to solve the palace buildings in the old city reconstruction "in the process of protection and utilization; research the development of Beijing's protection and utilization planning, formulation of occupation units, the relocation of the residents, the annual open repair schedule and time schedule so, to solve the government departments on the implementation of year by year; the Palace should use planning protection, according to the division of responsibilities and responsibility will be included in the annual work plan schedule.

In addition to Beijing palace building, there are a large number of religious buildings and hall building units occupied by each, temple, the hall building is also an important carrier of Beijing culture, also should be included in the scope of key leases. These cultural relics building leases, after the renovation can be restored to its original function, or as a public cultural service places open, sharing for the whole society.

- make full use of municipal units and non core functions of the capital relocation vacate housing and land resources, with the central organization of heritage buildings occupied property replacement, to achieve the historic building leases, repair, opening, to be shared by the whole society and cultural resources.

Through the relocation of municipal units and non capital core functions of ease and vacate the housing and land resource utilization, revitalize the stock of assets, to obtain sufficient income, nurturing the protection of the old city, a historical and cultural city of Beijing protection fund, focus of heritage buildings to vacate and repair.

Encourage social forces to intervene, in cooperation with relevant organizations, to raise funds for religious buildings leases, repair, open; cooperate with the local government to raise funds for the guild construction leases, repair, open. The partners according to the specific investment, obtain property or the right to use the related building. All rights reserved.


Former Xinhua News Agency reporter, now the the Imperial Palace museum research librarian. The system of academic thought, Liang Sicheng for many years engaged in the protection of the ancient city of Beijing and city planning and other issues, the author of "city", a book.

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