One hundred years of Tilanqiao prison, into all the unknown story......2017-03-11 02:09:15 1430 ℃
In Google maps, Tilanqiao prison without a name, just southeast of Hongkou District in a large square black blue roof.
In 1903, the Shanghai Municipal Bureau took 6 taels of silver walls erected here, built prison.
110 years, held here over ordinary prisoners, also turn off the progress of literati, revolutionaries, traitors, and even the Japanese war criminals, in a different context, it is called "city of death", "East first prison", and "Oriental bastille".
In the ancient Qing Dynasty Qianlong period, there is a name for the Wusong River tributary xiahai Pu through this, there is a blessing of the sea for fishermen xiahai Pu temple side, in order to facilitate the pilgrims pilgrimage, built a six feet wide and three feet small wooden bridge, known as the "Tilanqiao" - the pilgrims are always carrying a basket, band a tribute. But that was a long time ago, and the prison made the meaning of the place permanent.
"The earliest Tilanqiao prison, the door opened in the now Changyang Road No. 111, then gradually expanded, the beginning of 1916, the prison gradually extend northeastward. By 1935, the basic shape of the prison, and now the road south of Changyang Road, north of Kunming Road, next to Zhongshan Road, the three side of the road." The work in Tilanqiao prison for more than and 40 years, Xu Jiajun took out a piece of paper, draw us sketch in the prison, the prison places "later, the Kunming road to Changyang Road, the road around the prison, as part of the prison."
Since the Opium War, Shanghai's land began to be outsiders separatism. The British initially built this prison management has been changed, from the Municipal Council, the Japanese invasion of China, the puppet regime and the national government, to the end by the new China took over, Tilanqiao is microfilm modern China, also leading to the civilization of the offbeat bridge.
1937, the prison was bombed by Japanese aircraft, the figure is being renovated to see the situation of the prison was destroyed.
Funke, a Holland scholar who studies the history of prisons, argues that prisons are a symbol of prestige all over the world". In London, Pentonville prison (Pentonville) was put into use in 1842, in London in the building is not in Congress's most expensive and modern places, and "prison history is also a history of globalization".
Tilanqiao prison was born in the wave of reform movement 100 years ago. At the end of nineteenth Century, to study abroad China recorded more than of the gentry local customs and practices, the prison is also quite a lot of attention. In 1876, Li Gui in the business circles around the world, the U.S. prison respected endless: a clean and tidy environment, dining room, bedding changed seven days, can cure the sick, and the local prison! "Where is the tour, not only not be aware of its prison inmates, prison time, also forget their body in prison." In 1890, Xue Fucheng went to England, also referred to the British prison full of praise, "Kang prison also cool clean, not stuffed for disease, and a school, library, in the kitchen". Not only did they marvel at the facilities of the prison, but they were impressed by the management of the Western prisons and the way of civilized education. Compared with the Western prison Qing Dynasty Fang Bao "prison miscellanies" described in the dark and inhuman bad environment, there is a world of difference.
In 1887, the Mixed Court (the Mixed Court is the modern history of Chinese foreign concession for the judicial organ) British experts pointed out in the report: the municipal control of the jail "is beneficial to civilization, to understand the use of Chinese not barbaric method of punishment is effective, and the brutal punishment prevailing in Chinese empire."
In May 18, 1903, Shanghai Tilanqiao prison enabled, its official name is "the Shanghai Municipal Bureau of prison police", because it is located in the "Ward road" (later renamed Changyang Road), also known as the "Ward road gaol".
Tilanqiao prison room corridor
This is the first Chinese history of modern prison, located in the press concession, also known as "the West".
Compared to the western Chinese gentry respected prison, China civil society to the "first reaction West prison" is panic. Shanghai's two largest newspaper "Declaration" and "news" reported in prison in jaundice tragic situation. On the same day, the "Declaration" and even comment on "how the West prison is very clean, no torture extort, get killed, was the Chinese prison for more?" Spread a lot of "West kunue prison already mostly, so a close call" rumors. Tilanqiao prison was opened, a song named Fangquan firebugs that she was put in prison for three years to the west, should choose "hanging in the room".
From 1901 to 1906, the "Declaration" had not said what the West. Well, often wrote around the West prison drawbacks: a cold bath, the victims of all diseases; all night sitting, more prisoners suffering from foot swelling; don't eat in line with the Chinese habit; cannot enter visitation; the language barrier, "the affection of diaphragm".
The October 1904 "Declaration" reported: "in the public concession Prison Criminals, per person per meal for a bowl of rice and some water. Not enough food, so that people have increased mortality." In May 4, 1906, Howard road prison warden criminals because of unbearable abuse and poor diet to resist, was the warden publicly killed 4 people, injured many people.
In May 18, 1906, the "Declaration" was published on the front page "on the business change west prison thing", by the song Fangquan comment in "West Chinese criminal, not in prison and fear of the West in prison, and the charge into, also many students who are tortured to death and less." This article from the Municipal Council, the municipal council meeting to discuss more than once, that false reports of adverse effects, even afterproposals legal proceedings. This conflict, after negotiations, finally, the "Declaration" sent reporters to visit the West in prison, and in the newspaper on June 18th issued a glowing PR draft ended.
This is a crucial shift in public opinion. Since then, the introduction of substantive measures of the Qing government improved the prison. In 1907, the Qing government adopted a prison reform act, the capital city and port should have at least a model prison, in accordance with the construction sector or cross design; Xingbu also supports the punishment and improvement of equal status.
A few years later, the first modern prison built by the Qing government, is located in Beijing bridge capital model prison, in Xuantong two years (1910) on 1912 was completed. The completion of the Qing Dynasty did not fall.
The old Tilanqiao prison room in prison
Dove cage and imported lock
At that time, the prison reform tide, most of China's model prisons areIn London's Pentonville prison onHowever, supervision of Tilanqiao prison of the British consulting Singapore and the Montreal authorities, the last reference to the layout of the building of American prison cell, the traditional wooden doors into the fence.
The two row of the cell, each of which is dove cage size, back to back, three side walls, a hollow iron fence. I'm sure I can't escape." Xu Jiajun opened a historic photo, pointing to the iron gate lock said: "this is England, Hoyt Bo Huo lock manufacturing company,There are three key lock lock tongue, a dozen centimeters long.
From prison to the present, we did not change the lock, has been used now. It is a fine steel, fell on the ground clank sound, the sound is very clear."
Tilanqiao prison in 20s during the period of appearance
Prison corridors are divided into inner and outer corridors. There is a wire mesh over the two corridor, through the wire, the upper floor can see the lower floor,A guard patrol can see three layersIn summer, the air can flow up and down.
"Before the British administration was also set up a table, see the table to go to this place, take the key to open, there is a marked total control room, go to the ring after it to you in this place, this is also the year of imports, in order to prevent the lazy, to keep don't walk."
In the 80s of last century, for the expansion of the venue, the two corridors between the barbed wire removed, and then sealed with steel cement. The corridors are wide." Xu Jiajun said.
In 1933, Tilanqiao prison underwent a major expansion, the expansion of the prison has a "ten" word prison building special close male foreign prisoners, and a "shaped building special off foreign prisoners. "" prison "separated and imprisoned Chinese prisoners where there is elevator, each cell has 8 square meters, equipped with a single bed, a small desk stool, fixed, even there is a toilet and a lamp. Lighting and ventilation is also better. Foreign prisoners will be employed as a gardener and laundry, all prisoners wearing a blue serge uniforms, not wearing any prisoners standard. In the past there is a section of the prisoners to send water to send rice small tracks, now removed." Xu Jiajun said.
"" prison "Chinese food is much better compared to the prison. At ordinary times, foreign prisoners have bread, tea, vegetables, soup and even steak supply, taste and even consider the preferences of prisoners. A June 1935 in the municipal archives, investment tender for ward road gaol foreign prisoners needed food list: broccoli, onions, potatoes, fish, beef, barley, Russian oil, fruit, olive, orange etc..
Chinese prisoners prison clothes according to the length of time, color, different styles, work is mainly making mats, clothing, printing and other printing products, all the Shanghai Municipal Council are printed in prison.
In 1946, after the victory of Anti Japanese War, held a number of Japanese war criminals Tilanqiao prison. Japanese prisoners of war in the "cross floor" prison room.(above)
Almost from the ward road prison, congestion and concomitant disease. The most serious one is 1916 beriberi popular, followed by the 1917 influenza pandemic, and tuberculosis has always existed, universal and lasting.
A special survey of 18 months in 1920 found that nearly half of all inmates in the prison sentence were suffering from tuberculosis, and about 18% of them had an acute attack in prison. Because of overcrowding, the Municipal Council released from custody of prisoners prison inspections are carried out after the approval by the end of 1920s.
In June 1917, a Fudan student Jin Guobao visited Tilanqiao, wrote "visit West prison reformatory and remember", he told the prison laundry interest. Interior set up two machines, one of its boiling water. Clothes into the inside, the disease. To kill microorganisms in. After a few minutes, remove the other into a machine, not a few minutes, the water has been filtered out." Also see another room, on a platform. Criminals weigh their bodies every month, most of them increase, and fewer people "ask doctors to study them". That is the way to prevent the spread of infectious diseases.
Tilanqiao prison "cross building" dome map
Part of the problem is the lack of food. The prisoner's health and budget, are responsible for the public health department and the Municipal Council, between the two are often out of step. After 1932, due to political instability, further reduce the quality of food. In 1939, the prison had to in the diet adding dried fish debris to strengthen nutrition. In 1941, under close medical supervision, as a cost saving measures, the prison had imposed a March "cut quantitative test", the so-called "pounds eat rice", gradually reduce the criminal provisions of the prison every day in the grain basis, has been reduced to a minimum amount of observation, prisoner's minimum rations. At that time to eat rice pounds criminals, pale, face blue, some in the weighing when not fainted, even sent to the hospital, soon died, the mortality rate reached the highest point.
In the whole history of Waterlow prison, no prisoners successfully escaped. The most serious incident occurred in April 9, 1929, 59 prisoners awaiting execution for two years, while the guard into the prison provided prisoners went to take a bath when the guards took the gun, trying to escape.
The escape failed, four Indian guards killed a British guard shot and injured, the death Dutch act. After the incident, the patrol guards are allowed the gun into the dormitory, when necessary only with batons. There is one in 1948, three a Shanghai BRIC robber Chen Yuansheng with the same monitor room borrowed to hacksaw blades of male nurses in the prison hospital, the window of iron railings sawing, medical tape, coated with ink. In August 24, 1948, sneaking away, Chen Yuansheng was arrested only in August 30th at the golden priest Road (now Ruijin road two).
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