(q) the composition and decision of the federal budget and defense budget

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(q) the composition and decision of the federal budget and defense budget

2017-07-27 10:35:10 210 ℃

Two thousand and seventeenyear<12Three>3monthSixteenOn the 19th, the Trump administration unveiled a program called "American priorities: a great budget for the United States again"Two thousand and eighteenBlue Book of the budget for the fiscal year, a blueprint for Congress's first federal budget after President Trump took office. The blue book mainly deals withTwo thousand and eighteenIn the fiscal year, the optional expenditure portion of the president's budget amounts toEleven thousand five hundred and twelveMillion dollars, compared toTwo thousand and seventeenThe congressional appropriations act of fiscal yearEleven thousand six hundred and forty-eightOne hundred million dollars has been cut1.2%. Among them, the largest increase in the amount of the Ministry of defense budget increasesFive hundred and twenty-threeMillion, an increase of10%Secondly, the budget for the VA increasedForty-fourMillion, an increase of5.9%. The biggest cuts were budget cuts for the Ministry of health and public servicesOne hundred and twenty-sixReduced by $1 billion16.2%Second, the international development agency budget has been cutOne hundred and nineReduced by $1 billion28.7%The budget for the Ministry of education has been slashedNinety-twoReduced by $1 billion13.5%.

In fact, the president's budget application is a policy statement, which embodies the president's unique style of governance and governance. However, the application is ultimately just an application for the federal governmentTwo thousand and eighteenThe complex game of how much money can be spent, how much money is spent, how much tax is taxed, and how it is taxed in fiscal year has just begun. Subsequently, various interest groups on behalf of the political forces or simmering, or barely veiled, in the United States federal budget decision-making platform formally launched the "fight", the final results will be signed by President Trump "Two thousand and eighteenFederal appropriations act of fiscal year. The bill is the United States as a whole reflects the political will, the distribution of interests "logical", has important reference value for the whole period of Trump, accurately grasp the American domestic and foreign policy. Among them, as the highest proportion of the selective expenditure, the defense budget will remain the focus of attention and the focus of the game, and its adoption has a benchmark significance for understanding the military strategy of the United States in the next few years.

The composition of the federal government's revenues and expenditures

Revenues from the federal government The federal government's income can be broadly divided into two categories: tax revenue and non tax revenue, most of which are tax revenue. In addition, the bonds issued are not included in federal income. Non tax revenue is mainly composed of business income and regulatory fees, such as federal savings income, federal land use fees, traffic fees, regulation and judicial charges (such as immigration, passport, copyright etc.). In recent years, the overall financial situation in the United States has been deteriorating, and the fiscal deficit has increased rapidly. Accordingly, the United States government has paid more attention to the non tax revenue, and the share has been greatly improved.

Tax revenue is the main source of federal revenue in the United States. It is mainly composed of personal income tax, payroll tax and enterprise income tax. The personal income tax is the federal government's largest source of income, and the corporate income tax as main general funds in the federal budget, usually used to pay interest on the debt and operating cost of defense, most government departments. The payroll tax is also known as the social insurance tax, usually designated as the federal budget of the trust fund to provide funds for the elderly, survivors and disability insurance plans and medical insurance plan.

withTwo thousand and seventeenyear<1Two3>2Congressional Budget Office announcedTwo thousand and sixteenFederal income in the fiscal year, for example:Two thousand and sixteenThe federal government's total revenues in fiscal yearThree point threeAbout $1 trillionTwo thousand and sixteenAmerican yearGPDAggregate17.8%. Personal income taxFifteen thousand four hundred and sixtyAbout $100 million, about the total revenue46.8%Corporate income taxThree thousandAbout $100 million, about the total revenue9.1%Payroll taxEleven thousand one hundred and fiftyAbout $100 million, about the total revenue33.8%, including payment for the elderly, survivors and disability insurance planEight thousand and one hundredOne hundred million dollars and pay for the Medicare programTwo thousand four hundred and seventyOne hundred million dollars; other revenues account for about $1 billion9.3%Including the Federal Reserve earningsOne thousand one hundred and sixtyBillion dollars, consumption tax, aboutNine hundred and fiftyMillion dollars, various fees and finesThree hundred and ninetyCustoms duties of $100 millionThree hundred and fiftyAbout $100 million, inheritance and gift taxTwo hundred and tenBillion dollars, etc..

Federal spending

The federal government expenditure is mainly composed of three parts: mandatory expenditure, selective expenditure and debt interest, more than half of which are mandatory expenditures. Mandatory spending also called the direct expenditure refers to, without being subject to the annual appropriations bill, but on the basis of substantive legal expenses, mainly used to pay the U.S. government undertake all kinds of social welfare and social security projects, such as social insurance and medical insurance etc.. Selective expenditure is part of the expenditure is determined by the annual federal budget and appropriations process, which is decided by the substantive law rather than the annual appropriations bill, mainly for the payment of national defense, government run, foreign affairs, education, and other categories of Veterans' benefits generated by the project cost. Although the overall proportion of alternative expenditure is far lower than the mandatory spending, but because of its flexibility and operation space, so it has become the focus of the president and Congress of the struggle, also is the focus that people pay close attention to the United states. Debt interest ratio is relatively small, used to pay the annual interest accrued by the federal government's accumulated liabilities.


Two thousand and seventeenyear<1Two3>2Congressional Budget Office announcedTwo thousand and sixteenFederal spending in the fiscal year, for example:Two thousand and sixteenThe federal government spent about $100 billion in fiscal yearThree point nineAbout $1 trillionTwo thousand and sixteenAmerican yearGPDAggregate20.9%. Mandatory expenditureTwenty-four thousand two hundred and ninetyAbout $100 million, about the total expenditure62.3%Selective expenditureEleven thousand eight hundred and fortyAbout $100 million, about the total expenditure30.4%Spending is about Chinese, selective protectionFive thousand eight hundred and fortyBillion dollars, about the expenditure49.3%Debt interestTwo thousand four hundred and tenAbout $100 million, about the total expenditure6.3%.It is worth noting that, from the development trend, mandatory spending of the federal government showing a rising trend, including the elderly, survivors and disability insurance and social security income part is relatively stable, and the medical insurance and subsidies accounted for part of the

One thousand nine hundred and sixty-twoFederal spending deficit in1%Increase toTwo thousand and sixteenNear year29%. Part of the mandatory expenditure is governed by the actual provisions of the law and, in comparison with the annual appropriations bill, the difficulty of change itself is relatively large. In addition, most of this expenditure is directly related to people's lives, and the difficulty of change can be imagined.

The federal budget decision process

A complete annual federal budget preparation, review and execution cycle in the United States

Thirty-oneIf the audit and evaluation are carried out, the time will be longer.Preparation of the president's budget request

withTwo thousand and seventeenThe US presidential budget request for fiscal year. As early asTwo thousand and fifteenIn the spring of 2008, the president submittedTwo thousand and sixteenThe budget and management office will release soon after the fiscal year's budget requestTwo thousand and seventeenFiscal budget planning guide, and the person in charge of sending a letter to each administrative departments, determine the budget limit for each department, and provide relevant guidance, since the annual budget decision process of the U.S. federal government officially launched. After that, the budget departments of the administrative departments begin to prepare their budget applications, and the budget and management office will closely communicate with the departments during this period and work together.Two thousand and fifteenyearSevenIn September, the budget and management office issued a proposal for the preparation and submission of budget estimatesA-11Announcement, the announcement will be each department budget work to provide more specific guidance materials, total related projects involving various departments shall submit its funding calculation method, structure and format of the budget schedule,MAXThe use of computer systems, etc..NineIn September, departments will submit their initial budget estimates to the budget and management office.TenJulyElevenIn September, the budget and Management Office reviews the budget draft submitted by various departments, and may hold hearings whenever necessary and direct dialogue with relevant personnel of various departments.ElevenIn late October, the budget and management office usually provides briefings to the president and his senior advisers on budget preparation, and recommends timely feedback from the president to various departments.Two thousand and sixteenyear1Before the beginning of each month, each department carries out budget management, database data input, prepares related paper materials, and finally completes the DepartmentTwo thousand and seventeenBudget request for fiscal year. Later, the budget and Management Office aggregated and integrated into the president's annual budget application, which was submitted to the president for review<1Two3>2The month1A Monday's deadline for Congress (the president's inauguration of the budget will be eased). In addition, the Ministry of finance is responsible for the preparation of revenue budget, the budget and management office is responsible for organizing the preparation of expenditure budget, and income and expenditure budget to integrate. Throughout the process, the president can exert influence at any time, intervening in the budget and management office and in the administration's budget.Congress sets up and passes budget resolutions

The president submitted budget request after the Senate Budget Committee immediately launched a review on related issues and held hearings, listen to the director of the office of management and budget, including the chairman of the Federal Reserve, the administrative departments of leading interpretation and testimony on the budget request, and collect the relevant functions of the committee's views of Congress report. At this point, the Congressional Budget Office will review and report on the president's budget application. On the basis of these activities, the budget committees of both houses have set up budget resolutions respectively. Budget decisions set the United States in the future

FiveYear-TenThe total budget for the year, including total expenditure, income, financial deficit or surplus, and public debt, respectivelyTwentyFour functional areas determine the specific annual budget cap, which is in fact the equivalent of Congress defining the boundaries and framework for the creation of the annual budget. In the budget resolution system, respectively in the house and Senate vote after each, depending on the circumstances, held a joint meeting of both houses, coordination and analysis of the two version of the budget resolution may, compromise, principle should beTwo thousand and sixteenyearFourmonthFifteenThe day before they were voted through a unified version of the budget resolution. Although the budget resolution without presidential approval also has no legal effect, but can provide a unified framework for congressional review of the president's budget request, and provide the basic guideline for other related to the budget committee then, thus become the important means to prevent the Congressional Budget fragmentation and total control.Congress prepared and approved appropriations legislation

Only the budget resolution for the United States federal budget to determine the overall framework and specific funding for each project is depends on the more precise the appropriations bill, between appropriations bill and the budget resolution, and a related authorization bill. The United States will prohibit any unauthorized grant of funds, and the amount may not exceed the authorized amount. The so-called annual budget Authorization Act refers to the Committee of the relevant functional areas of the authority that has the power to authorize expenditure (the house of Representatives has

FifteenAn authorization Committee, the SenateSeventeenAuthorized committee) according to prior to the adoption of the budget resolution, authorized legislation respectively drafted by their counterparts in federal agencies and the federal budget, mainly from the legal aspects of the U.S. government can decide "what", which can set up a specific project. For example, the US Senate and house of Representatives military committees are responsible for drafting, focusing on the annual authorization legislation of the Department of defense. After, as with ordinary legislation, the committee voted to pass the vote by the house and Senate assembly, and then submitted to the president signed and approved the formal entry into force. Most of the committees in the Congress are authorized committees, and on the basis of prior legislative authorization in their respective jurisdictions, the Appropriations Committee can then make appropriate appropriations legislation in accordance with its mandate.The appropriations legislation mainly sets out from the legal level how much money can be spent on determining how long each item can be spent". Currently, the appropriations committees of the Senate and house of representatives are set up separately


The Appropriations Subcommittee, in principle, corresponds to the main administrative branches of the United States government, such as defense, homeland security, the domestic and environment appropriations subcommittee. The Subcommittee of areas under the jurisdiction of the president's budget request for review, such as hearing need interest hearing problems, on this basis, the committee will draft the bill of this field, the bill does not exceed the previous budget resolution to determine the budget cap. After the Subcommittee voted, it was handed over to the Senate (house of Representatives) Appropriations Committee, and all the members of the Senate (house of Representatives) voted to pass it. stay


After the appropriations bill was introduced, the house and the Senate convened the joint conference to reconcile each other's contradictions and eliminate differences. The two houses voted separately on the consolidated appropriations bill.The president signed the appropriations bill, and the bill came into force. The appropriations bill passed by Congress will not take effect until the president signs it, and it will be implemented in the new fiscal year. The process of decision making in the federal budget described above is ideal. In practice, between the two houses of Congress, Congress and the president are far less systematic in their design.The United States Constitution provides that if the president does not approve the authorization or Appropriations Act,


Within two working days, a written objection is returned to the house which has submitted the bill for reconsideration. In the event of reconsideration, the house of Representatives shall


The majority passes the bill, and thereafter the house shall present the bill with the president's objection to the other chamber, as the house of Commons does2/3The majority passed, and the bill came into effect immediately. In fact, because of the difference in party affiliation, the bill was rejected by the president in Congress2/3Most of them are extremely difficult, so the president usually only threatens to use the veto, which will make the bill difficult for Congress to pass and submit to the president for signature. This often leads to the start of the new fiscal year, but there is a lack of a appropriations bill that the federal government will not be able to pay legally. At this point, Congress will often make temporary allocations based on previous fiscal spending through a so-called continuing resolution, and the normal functioning of the federal government can be maintained. If Congress and the president of Congress, even continuing resolutions have not reached a consensus, or no overdue through continuous new resolution, will lead to the so-called "government spending, the government shut down most of the project must be stopped, many workers were forced to return home.Two thousand and eightAfter the 2008 financial crisis, this situation has become the norm, not a year12A Appropriation Bill will be availableNinemonthThirtyThe day before successfully passed in both houses, and executed by the president's signature, the total number of year month the U.S. government can only rely on the continuing resolution to maintain the operation.

Decision making process of the US defense budget

The Department of Defense's annual budget decision process is no different from other administrative departments, and is also within the big decision-making cycle of the nested federal budget. Just in the defense budget


The above is a selective expenditure, and occupy about half of the share of alternative expenditure, so it is the largest operational space, most of the pork, paying close attention to.

Preparation of the defense budget As with other departments, the annual budget preparation of the US Department of defense was launched after the submission of the previous budget application, essentially before the budget was formally implementedTwenty

April. The difference is that in order to strengthen the huge defense budget control, after decades of running in, the United States Department of defense troops formed a unique process, mainly relying on the current planning, planning, budgeting and ImplementationPBBE) system to manage the defense budget.PBBEThe system is from the U. S. Department of Defense<12Three>3The core system in a large decision process consists ofFourThe phases of each other.A completePBBEThe running cycle is roughly<12Three>3Year, that is, at least at the same time<12Three>


individualPBBEThe process is running continuously. Specific to the preparation of the national defense budget, mainly related to planning and planning and budget these two stages. Planning stage, the main task is based on various strategic reports, refining the priorities of the U.S. military, and further analysis of the future development of the U.S. military needs of the project, the end of this phase is marked annuallyFourDefense planning programme guideDPPGThe introduction of.DPPGThe "input" file mainly<12Three>3Class: America (Army) issued the "national security strategy" "national defense strategy" "four year Defense Review Report" "national military strategy" and other strategic documents, these documents established the gist of the U.S. armed forces construction and use; two is the chairman submitted by the chairman of project proposals "commander," submitted to the comprehensive list of priorities "and the National Guard Bureau submitted a" ability gap assessment and recommended that the types of documents, these documents from the armed forces "use" angle of refinement of the project requirements; three is the guide to President of the office of management and budget making. After a comprehensive analysis of the above documents, the Department of defense has begun to draw upDPPGThe overall objectives, priorities and objectives of the US military development are clearly defined.DPPGSetting up an overall budget for the junior units of the Department of defense, defining the overall framework, is the overall guide for the preparation of the project objectives memorandum and budget estimation proposals by the relevant departments.In order to ensure consistency and balance between project development and budget support, project planning and budget preparation are implemented at the same time after planning stage. Specific to the planning activities, there are two key time nodes, first, the requirements of the armed services, the Department of defense operations and special operations command in the annualSevenBefore the end of the month to submit to the Department of defense after two years of the futureFiveFiscal year, for exampleTwo thousand and sixteen

yearSevenSubmitted before the end of monthTwo thousand and eighteenFiscal year-Two thousand and twenty-threeThe project target Memorandum for fiscal year two; DoD's review of the project objectives memorandum should be in placeElevenCompleted by june. For budget activities, the primary task is to document the objectives of the memorandum1Prepare budgets for the year, for exampleTwo thousand and sixteenyearFourBeginning of OctoberTwo thousand and eighteenThe planned budget for the fiscal year, and the ending time of the budget activities will be the following year1In the early part of the month, before the president's budget deadline1Months.Defense budget legislation There is no difference between the defense budget and other departmental budgets through the Congress, as well as annually<1Two3>2JulyNineThe end of the month. Specifically, in the preparation of the budget resolution at both houses, the Senate Armed Services Committee and the House Committee of the armed forces will separately review the defense budget submitted by the president and submit it to the president budgetSix

Submission of assessment opinions to their respective budget committees during the week. The budget resolution passed after the Senate Military Commission immediately launched the national defense authorization legislation, Senate Appropriations Committee under the National Defense Committee has officially started funding legislation, according to legal arrangements in the vote, and in the two chambers coordinated again after the vote, finally submitted to the president signed.