China's 096 nuclear reactor and then why the new reactor can not be used on the aircraft carrier2017-01-19 01:28:44 641 ℃
Original title: China's 096 nuclear reactor and then why the new reactor can not be used on the aircraft carrier
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Recently, the domestic Jiangnan Shipbuilding Group in the process of open recruitment, the emergence of the nuclear power plant professional post demand. As many people suspect, this is likely to be one of the signs of China's future development of nuclear power aircraft carrier.Figure: PWR is absolutely mainstream design and the past and present visible future kernel powered ships, liquid metal reactor has been the United States and the Soviet Union were proved to be the failure of products are not mature, as the gas cooled reactor on the ship, at least in the ion reactor what, when our generation is still alive is all you.
And specific to the "China carrier will adopt what kind of future nuclear power" this problem, although there is no public information can refer to; but according to the United States and France (the only two nuclear powered aircraft carrier equipment) the lessons of history, there are two should be confirmed. The first is not the direct transfer of any nuclear aircraft carrier reactor 09X series of nuclear submarines, but to the development of specialized naval power reactor -- including 095 new nuclear reactors, 096 nuclear submarines use the legendary.Figure K463: submarine nuclear power cabin was dismantled. The boat is a double shell design, inside the package is thick spherical shell.
For the reactor, the aircraft carrier compared with the nuclear submarines are two different: first, the overall tonnage of the ship is different, the size of the power system is installed in different sizes of second. For example, in the same day with 33-35 (61.1-64.8 km / h) for high mobility ideal maximum speed under attack submarines have 10 thousand tons of drainage amount is very large, the "sea wolf" is less than the tonnage; and for the 40 thousand ton aircraft carrier, but also is a medium-sized standard.
The most critical limitation comes from the volume of the power system. The submarine due to hundreds of meters under water pressure, the housing must be made of high strength pressure vessel; and the pressure shell diameter is quite limited, so the nuclear submarine reactor design must sacrifice power performance, meet the control requirements of the volume. For example, the sea wolf class nuclear submarine of the United States, have in the submarine pressure shell of great diameter, technology level of the United States at the end of the 80s, the reactor power is only 61 thousand horsepower; while in the same period of the Nimitz aircraft carrier, a single reactor power is 140 thousand horsepower.Figure 094: a nuclear submarine, the waves -2 missile is longer than -1 waves, so more than 092 degree of kyphosis much worse
This is the Chinese limited especially large, one of the key reasons for domestic strategic nuclear submarine is not a configuration, is the pressure shell diameter do not go up, and the submarine launched strategic missile height is too large; the result is that the missile tube high pressure shell of a big cut, can only be used to cover the formation of a rectifier. The same, it also means that the total power of China's nuclear submarine reactor must be small.
To push the boat with a small heap, only two final results. One is the arrangement of a lot of reactors, the number of up to the total power reactor; at the cost of the overall ship design efficiency is very low, and the space occupied large tonnage, and poor reliability, particularly in combination with transmission power, efficiency loss is very great.Figure: for the aircraft carrier, 2-4 high power large (with respect to the submarine) reactor is the most efficient design. However, the current situation in China, the current level of power system technology to achieve Nimitz, the possibility is not very high.
In this regard, the development of the law of the United States is very noteworthy. In the era of low power reactor should be reflected in the United States, "enterprise" aircraft carrier with 8 A2W reactor (total power of 280 thousand horsepower), and to the Nimitz class aircraft carrier, the total power is unchanged, as long as the two A4W reactor. The A2W reactor has been developed specifically for the aircraft carrier model, single reactor power is much larger than the same period of the submarine pile.
The second outcome is similar to the French De Gaulle aircraft carrier. De Gaulle tried to save money (French aircraft carrier built without carriers plan, not willing to spend money to build new reactors), the direct use of the 2 nuclear submarine K15 reactors, the total power is only 80 thousand horsepower, resulting in a maximum speed of only 27 aircraft carrier section, and can not support a large number of aircraft required continuous ejection of steam.Figure: De Gaulle aircraft carrier from an economic point of view almost failed. Nuclear powered aircraft carriers must be large enough tonnage, enough quantity, in order to give full play to the advantages of economy and combat
The objective that De Gaulle still has a strong fighting force, but in the performance / price ratio, the fundamental identity, sorry the nuclear aircraft carrier of any ship related to nuclear power, making maintenance can be said to a different set of system based on the price and the occupied resources are very expensive. The most simple example, whether big or small power, and replacement of nuclear fuel reactor maintenance is a very time-consuming laborious.
Of course, the carrier can not directly use the submarine reactor, does not mean that the technology between the two reactors can not be universal. In fact, traces the development history of American aircraft carrier reactor, it is the first submarine reactor according to the amplification, and improved; a big difference even in the later of the product itself, but common in the design and manufacture is still very much. (author: Hou Zhi Jian)
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