The US Navy has distributed "ink bombs" to soldiers: to eliminate the fear of the latter being attacked by sharks.2018-08-04 10:25:25 202 ℃
Reference News Network reported on August 4 According to the US Quartz financial website reported on July 27, the US Navy developed a "shark-shaking agent" during World War II.
The report said that the fear of the unknown is human nature, and there are many such daunting things in the air battlefield at the beginning of World War II.
When the US military first flew over the warm waters of the Pacific Ocean, the pilot was afraid of the sea below, except for the tension brought by the biggest wars to date. Endless, opaque, velvety waters hide hidden dangerous animals, or at least rumors.
The picture shows a shark that has been daunting for the US Navy officers and soldiers.
Mary Roach wrote in the book "Mutter: The Science of Humanity in the War", in the state of anxiety at that time, some US Navy officers and men began to gossip. The sailors and pilots rumored to each other the story of soldiers who were forced to abandon the ship or abandoned the machine in the dark waters and were swallowed by sharks. In one of the stories, an Ecuadorian naval pilot crashed at sea and was attacked by sharks as he dragged the colonel's body to the shore. Here the shark is portrayed as a bloodthirsty scavenger and can't wait to tear off the body's limbs as a free meal. They were quickly smeared into sea monsters.
This special story came to the ears of Henry Field. Field is the chief anthropologist of US President Franklin Roosevelt (this position does not seem to exist anymore) and is also an employee of the CIA's predecessor, the Strategic Intelligence Agency (OSS). In a formal report about the urgent need for sharks, Field passed the story to the president. Roosevelt instructed and instructed Field to start working quickly.
In fact, the threat of sharks is basically assumed. Although there were many rumors like the ones that Field wrote in the report, there were no records of US Navy personnel being attacked by sharks.
In any case, the US Navy decided to fund the work because it thought it would be easier to reassure nervous soldiers than to convince them that sharks are not a problem. Roach said to the commercial insider
: "The main goal of shark sharks is actually what they call 'powder pills.' This is just to make them feel better."
Sometimes In this way, Field is actively taking on this task, with the primate zoologist Harold Kulic, who works for OSS, and the expert of the Komodo dragon, W. Douglas Burden, and the university. Stuart Springer, a chemical technician who dropped out of school and worked as a fisherman. This miscellaneous army is the best team they can find: after all, no one really knows about sharks at the time.
With the help of several employed chemical engineers, including Julia Childe before the start of the cooking career, Field's team tested about 100 possible shark-preventing agents with white spotted sharks. The white spotted shark is a small shark that has never been involved in a shark attack. The team put some promising sharks in the shark sink to see if they would swim. White spotted sharks are indifferent, except when they encounter rotten shark meat - they don't seem to be able to stand this.
OSS selected a mixture of copper sulphate, maleic acid and some extract of rotten shark. Copper sulphate and maleic acid also have a certain effect in the test. In addition to the difficulty of finding real sharks in the sea to detect this shark-reducing agent, the team also realized that the number of shark-removing agents needed to actually expel sharks was too large for soldiers to carry.
According to Roach, the Navy was annoyed that OSS had not made progress, so he took over the work. They eventually borrowed the skills of squid and octopus to develop an ink bomb. "Ink" contains a small amount of copper acetate, which may make groups of sharks invisible when trying to eat. The ink will eventually dissipate in the vast sea, making swimmers vulnerable again, but nevertheless, from 1945 to the Vietnam War, soldiers will be given so-called shark-preventing agents.
The military finally realized that the sharks ranked extremely low in the danger of fighting. Although many sharks take a bite from a corpse (a free meal), compared to an obese seal and fish, living people are not particularly satisfied with sharks.
For sailors and pilots who may fall into the sea, the real effective survival measures are to float on the water, find food and fresh water, and keep the body warm. But drowning, hunger and low body temperature are intangible, just like war anxiety. It is reasonable to say that it is easier to use sharks as sea monsters to make scapegoats, because sharks with sharp teeth are a visual concern. (Compile / Wang Haijun)
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