Behind Huawei's Folding: Tens of thousands of people have global voice in research and development of 5G.

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Behind Huawei's Folding: Tens of thousands of people have global voice in research and development of 5G.

2019-03-01 15:46:38 47 ℃

  • This is the 2518th original article of Qinshuo Friendship Circle

I attended the annual World Mobile Communication Congress (MWC) in Barcelona these days. This year, there are more than 2400 exhibitors and more than 100,000 participants. The most sensational product is HUAWEI Mate X, a 5G folding screen mobile phone released by Huawei.

This expensive mobile phone will not be available until the second half of the year at the earliest. We only saw the demonstration at the scene. No touch is allowed. Yu Chengdong, CEO of Huawei Terminal, said that folding is a key technology of folding screen mobile phones, because in general, long-term folding always leaves traces, and it is difficult to achieve absolute smoothness when opening.

Huawei began to solve this problem three years ago. Finally, Huawei adopted four-layer structure design, the upper layer is the screen protection layer of polymer material, then the flexible screen, then the soft film supporting film, and the bottom is the rotation axis. Among them, the design of rotating shaft is the most critical. Huawei has assembled scientists and engineers in mathematics, physics, materials, high-precision motion and industrial design. From the principle of motion to the design of sub-functional modules, to the selection of materials and the treatment of different surfaces, Huawei has repeatedly validated the prototype design of the rotating shaft, which can be folded many times and is still flat as new without creases.

In addition to the spindle, another impressive thing that impressed me at the conference was that the folding screen mobile phone was equipped with Huawei's self-developed 5G multi-mode terminal chips-7nano Baron 5000 and Kirin 980 chips. Multimode supports not only 5G, but also 2G, 3G, and 4G, which has the advantages of reducing switching between modes, better performance and lower energy consumption.

Baron 5000 can support the widest band, all operators can deploy the network, all bands can be used. Its speed is also very fast, downlink support to 4.6 Gbps bandwidth, upstream support to 2.5 Gbps bandwidth; in the millimeter wave band, the fastest to reach 6.5 Gbps, if the LTE double connection is superimposed, the fastest to reach 7.5 Gbps, 10 times the experiential rate of 4 GLTE. (Note: 1 Gbps means 1,000 Mbps per second)

Yu Chengdong demonstrated Hua5G Mobile Routing Pro on the spot, through which a 1 GB HD movie can be downloaded in 3 seconds. In the Huawei exhibition area, we saw live scenes of Barcelona Beach. These scenes were captured by an 8K high-definition camera 2,000 meters away from the beach, and then transmitted to the large screen of the exhibition area through the 5G network built by Huawei and Vodafone, Spain. Zhang Quanling, a member of the group, is a TV host. She said that if we go on like this, there will be no need for satellite companies for live TV broadcasting. Others say that when the upload rate goes up, the trembler can make a bit longer video.

Huawei Mobile Phone was born in Huawei, a "technology giant" with a golden spoon, which is its most unique place.

< p> is like Go. If you can play chess in the layout stage, you will have a strong fighting power after the middle of the game. Huawei today can make amazing products on the C-end, not one or two, but batches of products. The most fundamental reason is that Huawei has accumulated technology from the B-end and has entered the period of new technology eruption. After a few days'visit, I would like to share with my friends that China can make a difference in the field of technological innovation. If China has a group of companies like Huawei that continue to invest in R&D in more industries, why does an innovative country have no future? Why do you get stuck in the neck when you can't move?!

When I first participated in MWC in 2016, Ren Zhengfei said to us, "I think development should be gradual. A sudden leap will occur, but it will take a long gestation process. I don't believe that the Great Leap Forward may succeed, so our company didn't make the Great Leap Forward. Hold on to strategic opportunities and maybe someday you will hear the knock of God at the door. For example, our breakthroughs in algorithms by mathematicians at Russian institutes have helped us save a lot of money from 2G to 4G.

Ren Zhengfei has cited this example many times. After the breakthrough of the algorithm, the operators can upgrade the software from 2G to 3G to 4G without replacing all the hardware devices. In Ren Zhengfei's opinion,

industrial revitalization is based on basic research, and the theoretical breakthroughs of scientists point out the direction of industrial technology development. Huawei is a leader in the 5G era, thanks to breakthroughs in basic research. In July last year, Erdal Arikan, a Turkish professor and the discoverer of 5G Polar Code, was awarded a special prize at Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen to pay tribute to his outstanding contribution to the telecommunications industry. Arikan published a paper on Polar codes in 2008, which opens up a new direction of channel coding and helps greatly improve 5G coding performance and reduce design complexity.

Huawei team believes that the core function of 5G is to connect and interconnect all things. In 2010, Huawei recognized the potential of polarization codes as excellent channel coding technology. Based on Arikan, Huawei made further research and made many breakthroughs in the core original technology of polarization codes after years of efforts. In 2016, Polar code became one of the 5G standards. Huawei's 5G R&D has been launched in nine R&D centers around the world, attracting more than 500 outstanding scientists from all over the world.

| Huawei Exhibition Area

At present, Huawei has started 6G research and development. First of all, it is necessary to find the theory that can make a major breakthrough in the basic direction worldwide, and then go to industrialization. Science and technology, science before, technology after, but most companies in China can not do scientific traction, technological innovation is not much, mainly imitation and partial improvement. Huawei began to follow, but was not satisfied with it. It was determined to catch up with R&D and run step by step. The 5G era began to lead.

Take mobile SoC (system-level chip) as an example. SoC is generally divided into BP (base station chip) and AP (application processor including CPU and GPU). In AP field, Huawei's representative work is Kirin chip, which people are familiar with. In the field of BP, Huawei started the development of LTE chip as early as 2008. In 2009, Huawei chip and Huawei terminal set up a joint project to jointly develop baseband. In early 2010, it launched the first terminal chip Baron 700 to support TD-LTE, which can support both LTE FDD and TD-LTE. Baron has a history of almost 10 years. In this direction, only Qualcomm and Huawei have the right to speak. When Huawei first developed chips,

Huawei established the theme of snow mountain above 6000 meters above sea level, and Baron was the name of snow mountain at 7013 meters above sea level. After ten years of sharpening a sword, Kirin and Baron became the two swords of Huawei. How many people in Huawei make chips? More than ten thousand people. In the MWC Huawei exhibition area, we visited the X-zone which embodies black technology and saw more technology exhibitions.

Huawei's base station can integrate operators'requirements from 2G to 5G with a set of equipment, which is as simple and convenient as building blocks. In Korea, operators in order to consider security, the base station more than 20 kilograms can not be installed by individuals, so the smaller the base station, the better. But it's not easy. To have high power and low power consumption, it needs good heat dissipation capability. To reduce weight, new materials and integrated design are needed. The volume and weight of Huawei filters have been reduced by more than 70% than before. The materials used in the filters were tested by scientists in more than 200 materials, which took five or six years. Guo Ping, Huawei's rotating chairman, said that Huawei pursues minimalism without sacrificing performance. "For example, if a 64T64R antenna is made by traditional technology, a 5G antenna is wider than a door and can not be installed at all. On the beach of Barcelona, the wind blew away. In response to this situation, we use the new material "integrated oscillator", which reduces the number of parts by 99%, and the radome also uses the lightest material, which reduces the weight by 40%. The AU (Active Antenna Unit) is only as wide as a knapsack and takes wind resistance into account. It passed the test of Typhoon Level 15 in Shenzhen last year. Minimalist site installation is also very simple. Just use the 4G site, and even install it on the lamp pole. Minimalist sites greatly reduce operators'capital expenditure and operating expenses. Taking the rent of European sites as an example, we can help individual sites save 10,000 euros per year in rent.

p>Huawei's technological innovation is all-round. For example, some base stations cover parks, others cover buildings, different scenes, coverage angles and depths are different. So the chip of base station should be intellectualized and integrates intelligent algorithms adapted to various scenarios. Now 32 algorithms can be supported, and in the future 64 or 128 may be supported. This also requires more transistors on the chip, and solve the problem of heat dissipation. When Premier Li visited Belgium Microelectronics Research Center last year, he saw that precision lithography technology has been used to shorten the distance between the circuits on the chip and improve the communication efficiency and computing speed. At present, three nanometers of chips have been produced. Ren Zhengfei said, "If the bandwidth is increased to 3 nanometers and 1 nanometer, if it reaches the limit, it can not meet the needs of human beings, and graphene can not replace silicon at this time, what should we do?" We just stack the chips, but the biggest problem is to get the heat out of the middle of the two chips, which is also cutting-edge technology. Thermology will be the most advanced science in the electronic industry, and our research in this area is also leading.

We also see a lot of black technology, such as in optical network, Huawei has achieved a historic breakthrough in optical amplifier, which can increase the transmission capacity by 50% on the same optical fiber; in high-end core router, it can heat directionally because of the new technology of carbon nanotubes; in computing and storage, Huawei has far more computing power than Intel. Although some flexibility is sacrificed in thread computing and Nvida's parallel computing, they are especially applicable in the field of directional computing, such as Antarctic Science Examination, Petroleum Exploration, and so on. Guo Ping proudly said that we are constantly breaking through the limits of technology by adding more and less -- "In the case of optical fibers, as long as a blade is inserted and a fiber is pulled, the bandwidth can be as high as 200G." It's unbelievable! In the absence of optical fiber scenario, operators can use microwave, the traditional microwave bandwidth is only about 1G, can not play the role of 5G, Huawei through structural innovation to achieve 20G bandwidth.

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Huawei's technological innovation, some are breakthroughs in algorithm, some are breakthroughs in physical level, some are breakthroughs in material technology, some are breakthroughs in design concepts, and these aspects push each other forward and pull each other up, the more and more. The deeper you do, the more advanced you are.