Under the action of multiple factors, the new power battery technology has emerged

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Under the action of multiple factors, the new power battery technology has emerged

2021-11-27 00:07:52 37 ℃

Before editing: Since this year, accompanying the high songs of the new energy vehicle market, the power battery industry is not "lively". Under the driving of market and demand, in the tide of raw material price increase and competition, it benefited from the development of new materials and new processes, more and more new battery technology came to the stage. Some of them are about to be produced, and some prospects can be diluted. These changes have given new energy vehicles and power battery industries more vitality and vitality, but it also means that there must be certain variables in the market. In the face of this situation, how to make decisions, how to carry out layout, will be a major test for enterprises.

Recently, the latest batch of "New Energy Automobile Promotion Application Recommendation Types" issued by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology showed that GAC's new energy launched a new model AIONLXPLUS. It is reported that the car has more than 15.8kWh, which is only 15.8KWH, which is only 15.8kWh, 100 kilometers. Previously, Guangqi's new energy sources have been introduced to this new model, and its long-lasting mileage is mainly due to spongeonic negative electrode battery technology.

In the past two years, the power battery in the" internal volume "in performance, safety, fast charge "Survey, you can achieve better technical five-flowers. Under the driving of the size and penetration rate of new energy vehicles, the pace of power battery technology innovation research and development is accelerating, and a new variable is brought to the reshaping of the industrial pattern.

Silicon negative battery

It is understood that GAC EAON LXPLUS is equipped with a new nickel-cobalt-manganese triple lithium battery with a system energy density reaching 205WH / kg. Unlike ordinary nickel-cobalt-manganese trifluid lithium batteries, the negative electrode of the new battery has added a silicon wafer like a sponge. This design makes silicon expansion and contraction in the charge and discharge process, which will not be broken, and simultaneously, like a sponge water, allowing the silicon negative to play a large capacity, storing more energy, its core advantage is sharply reduced The quality and volume of the battery.

Guangqi new energy official information shows that through this autonomous "spongeonic silicon negative electrode battery technology", in the case of equivalent, the power battery cell cell can achieve a volume reduction of 20%, and the weight is reduced by 14%. This new battery current energy density can reach 280Wh / kg, and the future is expected to increase to 315WH / kg in the future.

At this stage, my country's power battery is mainly based on artificial graphite, but its gram capacity is close to the theoretical value, it is difficult to further improve, so new negative electrode materials and techniques for developing lithium batteries have become the focus of R & D.

Commercialized silicon material is generally a silicone composite system. As related technologies are gradually mature, their industrialization applications are gradually advanced. Statistics from Xinyi Information show that in 2020, my country's silicon carbon negative material shipments were 0.9 million tons, accounting for approximately 2%.

The wind direction target Tesla, which is called the new energy vehicle industry, turned its attention to silicon negative technology a few years ago. From Models, Modelx, Tesla is incorporated into the silicon material in the graphite negative electrode of the power battery. In the 21700 battery used on Model3, the ratio of silicon is again improved, and the energy density is increased by about 20% higher than the previous generation of 18650. It is worth paying attention to Tesla, also said that the latest 4680 battery will be introduced into the silicon negatively replacing the original carbon-based material. It is also known that Tesla has recently acquired the US battery startup SIILON, and the latter has "large-scale battery negative" containing silicon particles "patents, which has been transferred to Tesla.

New China's new forces are not willing in the application of new technologies in power batteries. In January of this year, it is said that it will be delivered 150kWh battery pack in 2022, and the nano-coated ultra high nickel material will be used. The negative electrode is used to use the pre-solid electrolyte, and the monomer energy density can be reached. 350WH / kg. Our 118KWH high-profile power battery in April this year, its 118KWH high-profile power battery adopts "silicon-donate supplement" technology cooperated with Ningde Times, the official call has the highest energy density of 300Wh / kg, with 200,000 kilometers of zero decline and "" The characteristics of never self-igniting. International, Panasonic, Samsung SDI's cylindrical battery has previously introduced a silicone carbon negative electrode. In addition, Toyota, Mitsubishi, Hitachi is also the primary silicon-based negative material technology patent application enterprise.

In China, mainstream power battery suppliers have seen the development potential of silicon-negative batteries, BYD, Ningde Times, Guoxuan High Society, Beitry, Shanxi Shares, Zhishen, Bike, Wanjie, have launched a related layout. For example, in the early years, National High-tech introduced new energy density reached 210WH / kg of lithium iron phosphate battery new product. The company said this performance is improved, and the key "high cache silicon negative material and advanced pre-lithiuming technology".

According to reports, the silicon carbon negative material can greatly improve the energy density of the lithium battery due to its large capacity, which is the development direction of the new generation of negative electrode materials. The research report of Northeast Securities shows that the lithium battery negative electrode from the graphite system to the silicon base will be the future upgrade direction. As the energy density of the power battery is improved, the silicone carbon negative electrode is combined with high nickel-three-membered materials. In the next two years, with the high-nickel-three-yuan material technology, the industrialization of the silicone carbon negative electrode is coming.

New Energy and Intelligent Network Independent Researcher Cao Guangping said that the current silicon carbon negative electrode material of the silicon negative electrode or high silicon content is that the gram has a large amount, theoretically, a few times or 10 of the existing graphite negative electrode. More than double, thus using silicon is used to make a large energy density of high lithium ion batteries. Silicon is carbon-based elements, silicon or silicon carbon negative electrode materials to achieve embolifying lithium and deod lithium in electrochemistry. "However, since the volume expansion is large in the process of silicon in the inconite, after delying lithium, it is easy to collapse, so theoretically design is large, poor service life." He said.

In this regard, there are industry insiders that silicon carbon negatives are suitable for "partners" that the life expectancy is also relatively slightly short high-nickel ternary positive electrode, and the production cycle life satisfies conventional use requirements, with high energy density battery cells.

"Now, the cost of silicon carbon negative is slightly higher, and there is also a challenge of volume expansion, low first-acting and non-ripening technology, and is expected to be solved with these problems. "The relevant person in charge of a new energy car company said.

"Before the lithium negative electrode or lithium mixed negative electrode industrialization, silicon or silicon negative is very likely to have a certain market window period. The length depends on whether it can supplement itself and the problem of next-generation lithium negatives to overcome." Cao Guangping think.

Sodium ion battery

This year, Ningde era successfully took "fire" sodium ion battery. At the new line conference, Ningde era has introduced a sodium ion battery with a battery cell energy density up to 160WH / kg, and plans to increase the energy density of the next generation of products to 200Wh / kg. In addition, Ningde Times sodium ion batteries are obvious in fast charge performance, charged for 15 minutes at normal temperature, and electricity can reach more than 80%; in low temperature environments at zero 20 ° C, it can also have more than 90% discharge retention ratio, system Integration efficiency can reach more than 80%.

Currently, the sodium ion battery is still in the early stages of industrialization, and the power battery companies have layout related technologies and capacity. Ningde Times said that it was planned to form a sodium ion battery industry chain in 2023. In addition, the sodium, sodium sodium, sodium, and sodium, and the like are also related layouts. International, British Fraradion, Japan Panasonic, Toyota and other foreign companies are also in the industrialization of sodium ion batteries.

It is understood that there is rich in sodium in my country, extensive distribution, low cost, and can be used to support sustainable economic development technology. Hu Yongsheng, chairman of the Sino-Science Board, pointed out that they have developed high-capacity, long life, ultra-low cost, environmentally friendly new soft carbon negative material - high temperature cracking anthracite, a key basis for the use of sodium ion battery negative material, inventive patents Give authorization in China, USA, Japan.

According to data, my country's more than 80% of lithium raw materials rely on imports, and its continuously climbing prices also make the industry under pressure. In contrast, the sodium resource reserves is large and the refinement is simple. According to the sodium seafood, it benefits from a lower material cost, and the sodium ion battery is usually 30% to 40% lower than that of the lithium ion battery.

The research report of Guangfa Securities shows that in 2025, the domestic sodium ion battery potential application scenario demand is 123GWH, and the price of lithium iron phosphate batteries is measured, corresponding to 53.7 billion yuan. Space.

Previously, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology replied that the relevant departments will support the conversion of sodium ion batteries to accelerate innovation and support advanced product capacity production capacity.

"The sodium ion battery is currently small and quantized, but it is necessary to have a large-scale application requires the system, the quality off, the laundry, the use is closed, and the further promotion is limited to the low energy density." Cao Guangping introduced the road .

Industry experts pointed out that sodium ion batteries can be supplemented as a current power battery technology route, but it is necessary to face many challenges in large-scale commercialization. For example, the sodium ion battery is heavier, and as a power battery, it is necessary to achieve breakthroughs on the energy density. In addition, the material supply of the positive and negative electrode of the sodium ion battery, the electrolyte and other materials have not yet formed. Sodium ion battery future application scenarios or mainly in the fields of energy storage, low-speed electric vehicles. The research report of CITIC Securities shows that under the era of energy change, sodium ion batteries are obvious in terms of resources, and the cost advantages is obvious. In the next few years, with the increase in industrial investment, the technology is mature, and the industrial chain is improved. Commercial applications in the fields of storage capacity, to a certain extent, to give a supplement to ripe storage technology such as lithium ion batteries, lead-acid batteries.

Lithium metal battery

From the development of silicon negative electrode technology, the power of the energy density of the power battery has been extended from the positive electrode to the negative electrode. In this industry context, a lithium metal secondary battery using metal lithium as a negative electrode material is also more attention.

Compared with the lithium ion battery, the positive material of the mixed lithium metal battery is almost exactly the same. As the negative electrode material, the theoretical capacity of lithium metal is 3860 mAh / g, about 10 times the graphite, can be combined with the existing high capacity positive electrode system. High energy density lithium metal batteries, with its material itself, can achieve more than 40% of the conventional lithium battery or more, reaching 400Wh / kg or more.

Recently, the mixed lithium metal battery supplier SES released the Apollo lithium metal battery with a capacity of up to 107AH, which is said to be the largest lithium metal battery in the current global monomer capacity, and is also a single lithium metal battery in the world.

According to reports, SES is building a Shanghai Super Factory, which is scheduled to be completed in 2023, with a total area of ​​30,000 square meters. The super factory is located in Jiading International Automobile City. The completed production capacity will reach 1GWH, which will become the largest lithium metal battery factory in global capacity. SES founder Hu Qi Dynasty said that the possible time point of hybrid lithium metal battery industrialization is expected to be in 2025.

It is reported that the mixed lithium metal battery technology route can improve energy density and improve security than the lithium ion battery. Cao Guangping said that the mixed lithium metal battery used a lithium metal negative electrode and a thin solid electrolyte layer, which can greatly increase energy density.

Domestic mainstream battery companies also saw the future development space of mixed lithium metal batteries. Ningde Times on November 4, in the investor interactive platform, the company has always followed the international frontier research, established 21C laboratory for forward-looking technology research, currently promoting new technologies including metal lithium batteries, all solid state batteries layout.

Pen Yanqiu, the Advanced Battery Research Institute of Yiqi Lithium Energy, said that in recent years, Li Lithium will focus on the research of metal lithium batteries, through systematic analysis of the principles of key processes and related equipment, adopting new metal lithium materials, new equipment Development, parameter optimization, etc. The development of integrated equipment achieves a fully automatic lamination process, providing reliable technology support for high-proportional metal lithium secondary batteries.

Some insiders pointed out that although the storage capacity of the lithium metal battery is equivalent to 10 times the lithium ion battery, it is facing the "card neck" in commercialization, that is, when the lithium metal battery is charged, the lithium will not be uniformly gathered in Electrode. This accumulation will greatly shorten the life of the power battery, and may result in short circuits even.

"The development of lithium metal battery technology has three problems, one is to easily grow lithium delegated crystals, which pungens the diaphragm, which affects safety; second, lithium negative poles can easily expand the volume, severely affecting the battery Life; three, the chemical properties of lithium, can be reacted in the environment such as moisture air, so production needs to be carried out under special conditions, there is a lot of processes to be improved. "Cao Guangping told reporters. Peng Yanqiu also said that lithium metal secondary battery distance to realize commercial applications still have a long way to go.

Recently, a new study announced by the University of Harvard University, combined with lithium metal, solid electrolytes, and made a new breakthrough. The lithium metal solid-state battery developed has shown a very stable state. Under the high energy density setting, the charge and discharge cycle can still be more than 10,000, and the life expectancy of the electric vehicle can reach 10 ~ 15 years. "Full blood" 10 ~ 20 minutes.

4680 large cylindrical battery

Recently, Yi Lithium can release an announcement saying that the subsidiary Yiwei dynamics is intended to sign a contract with the Jingmen High-tech Management Committee, in the investment of 20GWH passenger caching battery production line and auxiliary facility project, 16GWH square Lithium iron phosphate battery production line and auxiliary facility project, the total investment of fixed assets in investment project is approximately 6.2 billion yuan.

Liu Jincheng, chairman of Yip Lithium, said that the big cylindrical battery project will be built in Jingmen, may be the 4680,4695 battery production base worldwide.

In fact, Panasonic, Tesla, Bick, Honeycomb energy, etc. also lay out 4680 large cylindrical batteries, and some companies' products are about to get up. Not long ago, Panasonic issued 4680 battery new products, storage capacity is 5 times that of existing batteries, and it is planned to be produced in Japan in March 2022. Panasonic said that 4680 large cylindrical batteries are designed to meet the requirements of Tesla Electric vehicles, and the production cost is halved. This year, Panasonic has established a 4680 battery test line in Japan. Panasonic also stated that if you can produce this battery in a higher efficiency than peers, you will consider a large-scale investment, and you can supply to Tesla. In addition, Samsung SDI and LG energy have also completed sample development of 4680 batteries in performance, currently being tested to verify their structural integrity.

The cylindrical battery is ripe, low cost, but the core is not easily scattered, and the effect of thermal management is slightly poor, and the volume energy density is slightly lower after group. In this regard, companies have improved their existence through different innovations. Lin Jian, chief scientist of the Bike Battery, said that by the optimization of positive and negative electrode materials and structural design, the progress of the Bike's total ear cylindrical product is expected, and the fast charge performance is 3 times on the basis of energy density. The product has been sampled for some customers. On the basis of meeting market demand, the test results are better than expected.

Yang Hongxin, Chairman and CEO of Honeycomb Energy, believes that the market prospect of the big cylindrical battery is broad, and it has the advantage of high-performance sports cars, SUV and other fields. This is a breakthrough, and the cylindrical battery can be competed with squares and soft bag batteries. This year, the honeycomb energy will also cut into the field of large cylindrical cells.

Compared with the traditional cylindrical battery, the performance of the 4680 battery is significantly improved: one is the increase in space utilization, the increase in the volume of the cylinder can reduce the number of battery monomers; the second is that the production cost is lowered, the single energy density increases, meaning the amount of electric core Reduce; third, fast charge performance improvement, 15 minutes can be charged to 80% of power, and the peak of power density can reach 1000W / kg.

Due to historical reasons, my country's square power battery has a large specific gravity, and the cylindrical battery is applied. Now, many vehicles and suppliers will re-put their eyes on the upgraded large cylindrical battery. Driven by Temla domestication, the amount of loading of domestic cylindrical batteries gradually returned, reaching 8.35GWH in 2020, accounting for 13% of domestic new energy vehicle battery loading.

Lin Jian said that the application potential of large cylindrical batteries is very large, especially at high-end passenger cars and commercial vehicle markets. In addition, it can not only match the whole vehicle, but some short-distance travel tools and terminal devices are equally applicable. The application value of cylindrical batteries in new energy vehicles still exists, and its high intellectual and low cost advantages can still find suitable living space in some sub-segment. With the mass production, the big cylindrical battery is favored by more car companies.

Text: Zhao Lingling Editor: Pang Guo Xia layout: Wang Wei