Project No. 1, 16 years after rural water shortage

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Project No. 1, 16 years after rural water shortage

2022-05-13 18:17:28 23 ℃

Surgery of 300 billion yuan.

Wen | Chinese Business Tao Lue Yang Qian

In September 1919, Zhu Qinglan, then the governor of Guangdong, encountered a trouble. A small -scale war broke out under his governance, the reason is: grabbing water.

According to research, Shacun and Cangtou Village in the Huangpu area lived in each other, drinking a small river for a long time. The resources are limited. Therefore, the villagers in the two villages may be dug and drainage, or the card is blocked. However, Cangtou Village belongs to Panyu County, and Shacun is affiliated with Zengcheng County. The two counties and counties grid have jurisdiction and cannot handle cases across the district. It was not until it evolved into a large combat that the public case was given to Governor Zhu.

After receiving the report, Zhu Qinglan ordered the provincial defense army to send troops and stop fighting. On the one hand, the cadres are appointed to form a leading group with the two counties and counties.

According to the survey, the leadership group made a decision -there are many Datian Shacun Village, taking 75%of the water; Cangtou Village Oda less, take 25%of water. In order to keep Yong'an, a sibling monument was set up as According to , so far.

Fighting because of water is not alone in modern history. From the water, Guangdong, Fujian, to the lack of water in Shanxi and Shaanxi, there have been similar records in the cities and counties. There are more than 30 disputes in the history of the Chaoshan area, of which three large -scale fighting, more than 230 people. In Hubei, fighting weapons from flat burdens, iron 锹 to birds, and explosives are more complicated than righteous and group equipment.

After the founding of New China, the rural population surged, but water supply did not keep up. The distribution of water resources is unevenly distributed and the per capita possession is small. Due to the seasonal water deficiency of the drought, the engineering deficiency of the landform, and the water quality shortage caused by the hydrological conditions, the natural reasons for drinking water is difficult.

Drinking water is difficult, so it has become a collective memory of rural residents in the post -70s, post -80s and even post -90s. In many areas, drinking water in life is directly taken from natural water sources such as river, lake, stream, and ponds. There is no water in the dry season, drinking mud in the waterlogging season, and every family needs to prepare water tanks. After a long time, the green algae in the tank were unable to describe it.

However, since 2006, the phrase of "Drinking Water" is accelerating bidding farewell to rural China.

From water -free, to Qingquan running, there is a super project that costs 16 years and costs 300 billion yuan.

【01】

In 2004, China, which had just across the SARS epidemic, ushered in a drought. At the peak, many provinces across the country had made a lot of water shortage.

Inner Mongolia, which was short of water, has a cumulative rainfall of less than 20 millimeters from March-May, and the thick soil layer of the dry soil in the dry area exceeds 30 cm. It is still dug three iron 锹 . By mid -June, a total of 97.5 million mu of cultivated land in Heiji Liao and East Inner Mongolia were drought, 3.17 million rural population, 2.88 million large livestock had no water to drink. The Ara Shan League with a serious disaster, more than 10,000 farmers and herdsmen have to take a 10 -kilometer road in order to get a bucket of water. Even so, the country still died 1.55 million livestock.

Even in the abundant water resources and Fujian and Zhejiang, drinking water cannot be guaranteed. Small and medium rivers have dried up, and water conservancy projects have decreased. Even the water level of the Xijiang River approaches the lowest value of the same period. In Yunfu, Guangdong, the villagers in the two villages competed for a well, and the sword was tense, which alarmed the leadership of the town government and proposed a new well to stop the dispute. Many years later, this incident even became an interview question for the national exam -what should I do to deal with the villagers fighting for water?

Different areas, similar reasons, the roots of rural water shortage in the north and south are exactly the same: insufficient infrastructure, drink water to see the sky.

The grass -roots people are miserable, and the industry and agriculture are dragged back, and the competent ministries and commissions naturally have become the most stressful part. At that time, the Ministry of Water Resources and the "General Commander of the National Flood Control and Drought Resistance) were scorching the water shortage. They must command the supply of water and drought -resistance and protection of the grassroots, but also to cope with the provinces who came to the emergency help. Strict accountability.

All aspects of the water conservancy chain are actually pondering the way. From unified scheduling of surface water to the source of emergency and combat reserve water; from using car to transport water, to locally exploration and machine wells. This year's drought resistance campaign spent 9.2 billion yuan in the country, using 1.98 million cars, and 640,000 tons of gasoline alone. During the peak period, 86.4 million people were put in the country during the country. Among the 16 Chinese, There is one for the water.

Joining together, finally the year of the disaster passed. However, whether it is water adjustment or well, it is an expedient plan under the rush. It is said that at the "Defense General" meeting of the year, a central leader threw a sentence: "Urgent urgency cannot be saved, and the next time I can't save it, what do I do?"

In addition to the amount of water, the problem of water quality is also very worrying. China's geological conditions have created a large area of ​​sedimentary areas, extensively producing supermodels, bitter salt water and heavy metal water. The process of heavy industrialization in the new century has increased the excellent emissions of ammonia nitrogen, chloride, iodide, heavy metals (lead, zinc, arsenic, mercury, hexavalent chromium and cadmium). There are hidden health hazards and are not suitable for people and animals.

At the end of 2004, there were 943 million people in rural China, accounting for 72.5%of the country's total population. Among them, the population of unsafe water has more than 320 million. How to ensure that there are water and rest assured water at all times in this part of the rural population? This kind of major event related to the country and the people's livelihood cannot be solved by only one or two ministries and commissions. Unlike "quarreling on the table, kicking under the table", the controversial high -voltage demonstrations are constantly controversial. The argument on the safety of drinking water in rural areas, but the official teachers are well -known, holding high beating all the way. In the two sessions on March 5, 2005, Premier Wen Jiabao directly tested in the government work report -our goal of struggle was to allow the people to drink clean water and breathe fresh air.

Seven days later, the Central Committee held a symposium on the Population Resources and Resources and Environment.

One year later, the National Development Reform Commission, the Ministry of Water Resources, and the Ministry of Health took out a joint plan. Responsible for reviewing this plan is the China International Engineering Consulting Company, which once gave the South Water and the East of the West, and the West Qi East.

This is the famous "Eleventh Five -Year Plan" of the National Rural Drinking Water Safety Project. It has no suspense to obtain the rapid approval of the State Council. As a result, a century -old project that affects China's 900 million population officially kicked off.

【02】

The plan is approved, but the first step is Wanli Long March . Before planning, the ministries and commissions participating in the participation faced a question: who should take the lead in this project.

Solving rural drinking water is both a moral and political project and a popular project. But no matter how large the macro purpose is, it will not help the right to practice. It stands to reason that life has always been the Ministry of Water Resources and professional counterparts. In the future, when the provinces are implemented, the Ministry of Water Conservancy will also be commanded and scheduled. It seems that the Ministry of Water Conservancy is all right. However, there is a key issue hidden here: funds.

The great leader said a word, "No rice in his hand, the chickens can't be called." Whether it is the western gas loss or the water conservancy of the Three Gorges, the larger the project, the more funds need to be guaranteed. The problem of drinking water in rural areas did not start to build civil engineering until the 21st century. The reason was not that the country did not pay attention, but that the right to do with the right to require corresponding financial support, otherwise things would not be done.

In the 1950s and 1960s, the state organized a series of basic construction of farmland water conservancy, the most famous is Henan Hongqiqu. Although these "storage, quoted, and mentioned" irrigation projects, although they solve the difficulty of drinking water in some local farmers, it is just the fire of the stars in the country and cannot be alarm. The reason for the climate is very simple, no money.

▲ On April 5, 1965, the main channel of Hongqi can channel, and the people of Linxian people concentrated on the source of the water sluice to celebrate the source: National Human History

By 1980, the Ministry of Water Conservancy held the first rural human drinking water seminar in Yangcheng County, Shanxi. The leadership of the ministries and commissions means that Drinking Water is included in the agenda of government work. The measures taken out are very limited -to use the method of work generation, and then draw some funds from small farmland water conservancy subsidies as support for each region. After all, there is still no money.

This support has a term at the fiscal port -sprinkled pepper noodles. The squeezing and squeezing bands of money, but three or two drops of spring rain, nothing to help. In the pattern of dinner in the central and provincial fiscal stoves, once the central government has difficulty in finance, it can only rely on local fighting.

In Guangdong, the rural drinking series project was launched in 1984. It can be so early, inseparable from a premise -financial rich. Lan Xiaohuan, an associate professor at the School of Economics of Fudan University, pointed out in his work that in 1988, Guangdong paid 1.4 billion yuan in central finance, and then increased by 9%each year. However, in 1988, Guangdong's budget revenue was 10.8 billion yuan, and the 1.4 billion yuan paid only 13%. In the second year, the provincial budget revenue increased by 27%. Whether it was the increase of 9%or appropriation to build rural drinking water, the burden was not a problem.

Guangdong's strength is absolutely crowned, but other provinces do not have this pride. If you want to solve the rural drinking water , you can only think about it. The countryside in the suburbs of Shanghai is stained with the light of urban expansion and pipeline extension. Jiangsu, where the collective economy is developed, mainly funded by villages and villages. Several provinces rely on the prestige of the provincial party committee secretary, and they also made special financial funds. In Gansu, the "121 Rainwater Collection Project" was implemented; in Guizhou, the "desire project" was implemented; the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region had engaged in the "380 drinking project".

In an extremely lack of water, the water protection of rural population should even expect the PLA. In 1990, a cadre named Li Guoan was appointed by the Beijing Military Region as the head of the Water Engineering Regiment, and opened the time of finding water in the "desert".

Li Guoan's main work is exploration and excavation of water in Inner Mongolia and Hebei. In the first four months of his office, he inspected more than 4,000 kilometers of border -defense hydropologies with illness, the schedule was 24,800 kilometers, and then 110 glances were launched on the Badan Jilin, Tenggri Desert and the border line.

There is a very legendary story. In the Dingzi Village, Wuchuan County, Inner Mongolia, Li Guoan stood on the top of Daqing Mountain and poked the stick on the ground. "The positioning is here." Six days later, it really took a glance here for a day. 660 tons of high -quality wells out of the water.

The positioning is so accurate, and naturally based on Li Guoan's judgment of water separation and water -containing rock layers, from the "looking for water leaders" to the "desert water god", it depends on professional accumulation and selfless dedication. The footprints of this regiment were subsequently spread all over the northern Xinjiang, Yunnanchuan, Shanxi, and Hebei. However, the Beijing Military Region's Water Engineering Regiment was originally a field -to -water force. Although it is reasonable to ensure that the people use water, they are not their job. This situation is not unclear. But the urgency of obeying is one of the methods of administrative governance. Rural people are difficult to drink water, and they do not care about who is their post and who is the supervisor.

In fact, since the 1980s, even the central government has relied on non -mainstream channels to solve the problem of drinking water in rural areas -in 1985, the National Aiwei Association used a US $ 370 million world bank loan to implement the "Chinese rural water supply and environmental sanitation project". Since 1991, the Ministry of Water Resources and the United Nations Children's Foundation have jointly completed the three -phase rural drinking water cooperation project. From 2002 to 2005, the International Development Agency of the United Kingdom has been providing a gift for rural water supply to the Ministry of Water Resources. At the most important moment, even the Women's Federation came up -with the theme of "Love of the Earth · Mother Water Cellar", it organized special charity donation activities.

Therefore, on the question of who took the lead in the "Eleventh Five -Year Plan", although the comrades of the Ministry of Water Resources had a small complaint, they knew very well in the system. It is very good for fundraising, dispatching resources, and restrictions.

【03】

As soon as the "Eleventh Five -Year Plan" was approved, a package of rural drinking water became a hard indicator.

There are two important things in the plan, one is: strive to solve the safety of rural drinking water before 2015. The other is: to solve the safety of rural drinking water safety, the local government is responsible for the main responsibility, and the central government gives guidance and investment support.

The latter one is simply that the central government pays for the central government.

The expansion of the tax base and the advancement of the reform of the tax system, the value -added of the state -owned assets directly under the central government has made the central financial budget revenue increasingly higher and higher in the total budget revenue of the national fiscal budget. In other words, the central government has become stronger and stronger. It is also getting stronger.

The emphasis on the central leadership and the pressure of white paper and black words, coupled with the increasingly strong financial guarantee after the new century, cleared the main obstacles of rural drinking projects. During the construction of the "Eleventh Five -Year Plan", the state completed a total investment of 105.3 billion yuan and the central government borneed 59 billion yuan.

Former Minister of Finance, Liu Zhongti, said a word, telling the truth- "Finance is the ability of the country, the ability of the country to do, and no financial resources. Whether it is popular for compulsory education or disaster relief, it is empty."

Although the central government has an attitude and a financial guarantee, the difficulty of the "Eleventh Five -Year Plan" rural drinking water safety project is still unimaginable.

In five years, it is necessary to solve the problem of drinking water safety in 160 million people and more than 150,000 administrative villages. In the definition, the concept of "drinking water" includes four indicators: water quality, water volume, water use, and water supply guarantee rate, which is lower than any item, which means that drinking water is "unsafe".

The achievements of these indicators are a problem for the central ministries and commissions and governments at all levels of the executive.

At the central level, the "chief commander+chief referee" must be placed on the central level. It is necessary to coordinate the global allocation of resources, but also formulate goals, and propose a clear stage KPI according to local conditions. At the local government level, a group of elite soldiers must be arranged to deliver qualified projects.

Engineering tackling, completion and economy are key. However, China is broad, many areas of natural conditions, and various extreme situations in hydrology are basically worried about what to come.

For example, in Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Xinjiang, these areas are either located in high -cold and high altitude areas, or remote mountain pastures. The construction conditions are poor and the construction difficulty is high. In the Dashi Mountains and Karst landforms in Guizhou and Guangxi, the mountains are steep, and the surface cannot be stored on the surface. It can only build decentralized water cabinets and pools. Per capita project investment can be several times higher than the national average investment.

In administrative science, if one party wants to do, the other party has both willingness and ability to do well. Based on this principle, in the actual operation of drinking water safety projects, a large amount of power has been decentralized to governments at all levels. Only they are the most clear how to spend the least money and do the best thing. However, how to supervise and restrict local governments, the mystery is to build rural drinking water safety projects into an important indicator of provincial government performance assessment.

Starting from the "Eleventh Five -Year Plan", the same standard can be found in all provinces: the provincial leaders are the leaders of the team, and the development and reform committees, water conservancy, hygiene, finance, land, environmental protection, housing urban and rural construction, agriculture, forestry, etc. The leading group of rural drinking water safety work participated in the department. On the first floor of the city and county, a miniature version is used.

From 2006 to 2010, as the primary task to solve the problem of people's livelihood, China's rural drinking water project ushered in the highest peak in history.

In the Northeast District with good groundwater conditions, most of the large -scale and centralized water supply projects were built in the construction of multiple villages; in the economically developed East China, the characteristic plan is the overall planning of urban and rural areas, and the urban pipeline network extends; The water source of the led is the core of the project; in the northwestern region with the worst conditions, the flexible strategy of "finding stable water sources and using water source projects" is adopted. In addition to the tackling of villages and villages across the country, the main administrative officials in North China have heard an exciting news: the projects that are being implemented in the south and north and the middle line of the water areas. Hebei and other provinces and cities.

▲ South Water Diversion Middle Line Qianqu Hebei Province Handan City Handan City High Score No. 2 satellite image (April 16, 2018) Source: China High Score Observation

The "god assisted" from the South -to -North Water Diversion means huge benefits -the water adjustment of the South -to -North Water Diversion Project, and the replaced local high -quality freshwater, can be used as a permanent water supply for the entire North China region to develop large -scale joint films to concentrate water supply.

This situation of "opening up the second pulse of Ren Du" can actually be attributed to another exquisite century project. In the eyes of many people, the super engineering involved in the country seems to be the process of "unity and hard work", and the results of "huge cost -consuming and scientific and technological research". The wonderful plans of publicity are often hidden.

【04】

In December 2010, the National Development and Reform Commission, located at No. 38 Yuenan South Street, and the Ministry of Water Resources, located on No. 2, 2nd in Bai Guang Road, each bid farewell to the "Eleventh Five -Year Plan" receiving year.

In the past five years, 221,000 newly -built centralized water supply projects have appeared on the land of Shenzhou, and the proportion of concentrated water supply population has increased from 40%at the end of 2005 to 58%at the end of 2010. 190,000 administrative villages and 210 million rural population drinking water safety issues have been resolved. In addition, there are 661,000 new decentralized water supply projects, which guarantees more than 10 million rural population, and has since been absent from the shortage of water.

The smoke of the "Eleventh Five -Year Plan" was not scattered, and the content planning of the "Twelfth Five -Year Plan" embarked on the journey.

In June 2012, the "Twelfth Five -Year Plan" of the National Rural Drinking Water Safety Project "was officially approved by the State Council.

"Drinking water safety is related to the vital interests of hundreds of millions of farmers. It is the most concerned, direct, and most realistic interest issue in rural people. It is an important part of accelerating the construction of new socialist rural areas and promoting equalization of basic public services."

If a summary of the rural drinking water safety project, it is "concentrated strength to do major events."

In the history of New China, this model has solved many problems. Its success is to have three essential elements: the central government that has a large number of resources and can act independently, coordinate and control the central government, as well as a strong administrative system of manpower capital and comprehensive organizational.

These three major elements, like the endowment of the three major systems, originated from the special history of our country. Not every country has it, but it also brings a lot of criticism such as "distortion" and "resource mismatch".

However, after another ten years, according to the latest data of the Ministry of Water Resources, as of the end of 2021, 8.27 million rural water supply projects were built across the country, and the penetration rate of rural tap water reached 84%. The target of 88%from 2025 is only one step away. Today, this tackling battle has reached the 16th year. It has gone through three five -year plans, with a total investment of 300 billion yuan, and 550 million rural population has benefited. This is not even criticized by critics.

On June 2, 2019, Longchi Village, the cliff village of the mayor of Yichang County, Yichang, Hubei Province, finally connected tap water. ), I drank the clear Ganquan. A "Longchi Flying Line", after a year of hard construction, diversion water from the water source of the valleys in the neighboring village, crossed 1480 meters across the sky, and finally entered 305 households, which benefited 1012 people.

In May 2020, Xinjiang Jiashi County, which has been lacking for many years, made up his mind to adjust the water of the Gazi River from Glacier Snow Water for 120 kilometers, laying 1827 kilometers of pipe networks, and let 473,500 residents in the county drink "sweet water". Essence

▲ Source: "Annual Report on Rural Water Conservancy and Hydropower Work in 2020"

At the end of June 2020, 7 poor counties in Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan completed the end of rural drinking water safety projects. It achieved 440,000 drinking water unsafe people as scheduled as scheduled. It also ended the problem of solving the safety of poor people in my country.

No country is a piece of white paper, you can apply beautiful pictures casually. What can be done and what cannot be done. In fact, there is no theory of "all seas".

In China, the belief of "a large river wavy", countless people who listen to commands, can fight, are willing to take root in the grassroots level, hard work and hard work, and overlap the three major system endowments unique to China, forming an effective development strategy and policy. These strategies and policies that exist in various fields are all the so -called "Chinese models".

The starting point of this model is probably very simple: make the Chinese live better, more magnificent than most magnificent visions.

【Reference Information】

[1] "Eleventh Five -Year Plan" of the National Rural Drinking Water Safety Project "

[2] "Twelfth Five -Year Plan for Rural Drinking Water Safety Engineering"

[3] "Thirteenth Five -Year Plan for Rural Drinking Water Safety Engineering"

[4] "Inside: Chinese Government and Economic Development" Lan Xiaohuan Shanghai People's Publishing House [5] People's Transportation Press

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