"People who destroy capitalism" are re -rule the United States?2022-06-23 18:07:24 13 ℃
[Text/Observer Network Zhou Yi, Editor Zhang Guangkai]
"People who destroy capitalism" are the title of a new book published by the United States. Once the book was published, it immediately attracted the attention of almost all mainstream American media, including the New York Times.
Why? Because of the theme of this book, it directly provides the most sensitive nerves of American society--
To resolve the inflation crisis, do you have to sacrifice workers?
Since the beginning of this year, the world is discussing the possibility of the United States falling into "salary-inflation spiral": Since 2021, the US labor market has staged a rare landscape with a significant increase in wages and greatly improved the status of workers. American inflation.
Many people think that in the 1970s, American workers' welfare increased, leading to rising corporate costs, and thereby promoting the "wage-inflation spiral" that increased the price and inflation rate of commodity and inflation. In their opinion, compressed workers' treatment is the only way to control inflation.
After the Federal Reserve interest conference meeting on May 4 this year, Fed Chairman Powell made it clear to reporters that he hopes to reduce inflation by reducing wages; former US Treasury Minister Larry Summers also said on Monday, " To curb the continuous high fever, the U.S. unemployment rate needs to be maintained at more than 5%for a period of time.
The Federal Reserve has arranged inflation as the primary task. Will more people want to unemployment in the future?
Bloomberg report screenshots
"People who destroy capitalism" tells the story of layoffs, unemployment and adjustment.
In the 1980s, Jack Welch, then General Electric CEO, reversed the laborer market in the welfare country's time through a large number of layoffs, and became a landmark case for the United States to go out of inflation at that time.
The "shareholder first" value theory that Welch practiced was the long -term impact on the corporate community and even US capitalism. The new liberalism has re -obtained the dominance of the capitalist world. It was not until the 21st century that the US Democratic Party's leftist trend gradually returned.
Is the United States today calling for another Welch -style character to return?
Opposing the welfare of workers and emphasizing the priority of enterprises is now in many places in the United States and even the world. The author of "Destroyer" and "New York Times" reporter David Gelles opposed it.
In his opinion, the differentiation of the rich and the poor caused by Welchism is the root cause of destroying the entire economy. If you want to save capitalism, there are better options, such as levy taxes on large enterprises and the richest personal personal taxes.
But the Financial Times commented on this: "Welchism is difficult to reverse, at least in the United States."
Social Darwinist -style employment attitude
When serving as General Electric CEO, Welch proposed the theory of "maximizing shareholders value", which set the high and low stock price in the short term and the amount of shareholder wealth as an absolute criterion for measuring the performance of managers -of course, Welch reflected it later that it reflected it. Disadvantages: This will cause business operators to be obsessed with chasing short -term interests.
In terms of operation, Welch took out the three -board ax: layoffs, acquisitions and financial melting.
For the first five years, Welch took the first five years, and the 410,000 universal employees were cut off for 1/4 for the last elimination. The management and management methods are for profit, and capital no longer "hee hip -hop" with the workers. The company quickly showed its calm and even cold side.
From the perspective of the American academic community, this is like a law of survival with Darwin's evolution theory.
"People who destroy capitalism" wrote: "WelChism's worldview (WelChism) has adopted Darwinian attitude towards the labor market. They have a self -privileged belief: those who have not succeeded should be for themselves for themselves for themselves. Unfortunately responsible. The poorest of us should eventually get their destiny. "
When the company needs it, some people will lose their jobs, and they will not complain about anyone.
Many people may be repeating the same mistakes now, but this "company" is the US government.
According to the algorithm of the former US Treasury Secretary of Summes, in order to allow inflation and fever, the United States needed a two -year unemployment rate to 7.5%, or a five -year unemployment rate of 6%, or a one -year unemployment rate reached 10%.
Low unemployment rates and low inflation rates are not available. Since the Federal Reserve has determined to suppress inflation is its primary task, unemployment will inevitably.
A grain of the times will become a mountain on the individual and family.
"People who destroy capitalism" caused discussion, not just because people care about layoffs. People are also concerned about whether the United States will do whatever means to maximize their interests -even if they want to sacrifice ordinary people. People want to find the shadow of the present and future from the past.
People who destroy American capitalism
In the 19th century, Marx wrote "Capital" to seek socialist replacement capitalism.
However, in the second half of the 20th century, many of Marx's demands seemed to be realized in capitalist countries.
With the prosperity of the economy, the US economic fairness increased significantly at that time: companies, workers, and governments enjoyed relatively harmonious balance, and workers 'wages increased simultaneously with workers' productive forces. It seems that everyone is happy.
This is the era of "welfare countries" of various countries in the United States and Europe.
In the eyes of some people, it is the best time that belongs to capitalism.
The reason does not rule out the discovery of the conscience of capitalists and the self -improvement of capitalism, such as paying attention to long -term growth. However, there were obvious external reasons at the time -such as the Soviet Union in the east of Europe. In the pen of "People who destroy capitalism", the "Exemplary Big Companies" that had treated a large number of fairly treat employees at that time. The most typical example was General Electric -then people called it "generous electrical" (generous electrical "( GENEROUS ELECTRIC).
As long as a employee did not do anything that was injured and heavenly, he had no reason to be cut off.
But after Welch took office, GM immediately turned to the iron -fist layoff mode. People call Welch "Neutron Jack", which means that his layoffs are just like the Chinese bomb explosion: the house is still there, and people are gone.
Welch's "Simplified Soldiers and Simplified Politics" did clearly obstacles the later business development. However, Welch later reflected the destructiveness of the theory of "shareholders value first" behind the layoffs: strengthening short -term doctrine orientation, harming employees' enthusiasm for work, paying too much attention to profits, and harming customer interests. "It squeezes value rather than creating value."
The Financial Times commented article that Welch's "shareholders first" concept comes from the theory of Economist Friedman. Under the halo of Welch and General Electric, it spreads like a virus in entrepreneurs: tough cost reduction such as layoffs, extreme efficiency drivers (such as the last elimination), hero worship of CEOs, pursuing the financial field of the financial field The income is not focused on the industry ...
This has shaped the current capitalist world and also announced that the era of "good capitalism" is over.
New Liberalism Change the United States
Standing in the country's vision, this is related to another American past.
In the 1930s and 1970s, the Economics of the Western politics and the Economic circles became expanding fiscal policies during the economic crisis, increasing employment and stimulating the economy; when inflation, fiscal and monetary policies eased.
The problem of this set of theory is quite obvious: the cure is not cured. It only relieves the problem and cannot solve the problem. The actual consequences of alternating it are "stagnation": economic growth has slowed down, while inflation has intensified.
If the government is disabled, people want the market to work. New Liberalism became mainstream Western economics in the 1970s to 1990s. The theory of "maximizing shareholders' value" behind General Electric layoffs is a manifestation of neo -liberalism.
Investigating its essence, neo -liberalism advocates the concept of "market universal" and "market free allocation resources can reach the most efficient state". This means that the expansion of capital will break away from most of the shackles and fully release its activity.
This also means that capital will also release its plunder and destructiveness, in order to pursue returns, regardless of everything.
This is like you need to bump a door to get out of trouble, but you must release a monster full of the world.
From 1981 to 2001, Welch guided business reform, GM's revenue increased from $ 25 billion to $ 130 billion. In 20 years, the company's revenue scale has expanded by 4.2 times.
In 1973, in 1973, the per capita income gap between the richest country and the poorest country in the world was 44: 1; in 2000 it soared to 727: 1. This means that the gap between the rich and poor worldwide in 27 years has expanded by 15.5 times.
It is worth mentioning that the year Welch became a general electrical CEO, one thing happened:
Reagan is the 40th US president.
In Reagan's package of economic policy, he advocates vigorously reducing the government's intervention in the market and relieving the government's regulation and supervision of the market; advocating reducing tax rates; Reagan also advocates cutting social welfare expenditures and suppressing trade unions strike ...
General Electric Reform and Reagan's economic policy are like new liberal "company version" and "national edition".
Relying on this policy, General Electric has achieved high growth, and the United States does get rid of inflation.
But this is not exactly a good thing.
"The Capitalism" wrote: In Welch, "Insidious Ideology" finally found a perfect master. Welch used all the power of General Electric to make shareholders go to the top of the reality, and at the same time created a new, cruel Cutthroat Era of American Capitalism.
The most innocent worker should do a big pot for big inflation?
At the time of the publishing of "Destroyer Capitalism", the US economic pressure is large, not only to inflation, but also facing the decline in GDP for two consecutive quarters. High inflation overlay the risk of economic recession, and "stagnation" is nearly.
Wall Street Journal: Fed and the White House messed up inflation
In addition to the rise in commodity prices brought about by the epidemic and international situation, the most obvious cause of American inflation is obviously the Fed of the Fed since 2020.
Unlike many people think of "the Fed's money to workers, consumption has driven inflation", in fact, the Fed's policy has always been preferred to save companies.
The U.S. -launched outbreak -out subsidy plan launched in March 2020 allows more than 10 million unemployed people to receive more than $ 600 a week. According to data from the US Department of Labor, as of July 2021, the United States issued a total of about $ 794 billion in relief. In comparison, one month after the outbreak of the epidemic in March 2020, the Fed's balance sheet expanded $ 2 trillion, mainly used to inject liquidity into enterprises.
In 2021, in the $ 1.9 trillion economic stimulus plan launched by Biden, most of them flowed towards the enterprise sector. Among them, 600 billion yuan was used for infrastructure investment such as bridges and roads, accounting for the largest proportion; followed by the support of $ 300 billion in manufacturing.
With sufficient liquidity support, the rapid expansion of production and replenishment in American companies has largely pushed the demand for commodities, and caused a short -term imbalance in supply and demand in the recruitment market, leading to rapid rising wages.
The rise of ordinary Americans's income is not for the sake of big inflation.
At the operation level, the rescue of enterprises is also very easy to cause unfairness. Compared to small companies that really need bailout, large companies that control more rights to speak often give priority to funding support.
The "bailout gold" even flowed directly into the pocket of the rich.
The United States Genesis Medical Corporation received an over 300 million US dollars in 2020. This money should have been used to improve the environment of nursing homes and reduce new crown infections. However, the company launched a giant award for the executives, and the CEO only won $ 5.2 million.
As of February 2021, more than 2,800 residents have died of new crowns in the nursing home of Genesis Medical. US Congress Senator Elizabeth Warren condemned that the company's greed is unimaginable.
Similar chaos is far more than that.
When printing money and spending money in the United States, capitalists, executives, and government relations households often give priority to benefits.
Now that the United States has a high fever because of inflation, this time is the idea of ordinary people's salary.
They want workers to be wronged and sacrifice themselves.
In May this year, the United States announced its interest rate hike 50 basis points. Powell said that higher interest rates will limit the recruitment needs of the enterprise, "then we have the opportunity to reduce wages and reduce inflation."
The "Lean" website founded by the American left -wing media and the former Democratic presidential candidate Sanders Classes Circeta commented that this is equivalent to Powell that his tools to deal with high inflation are to restrict employment opportunities and lowered low. salary.
"In order to fight against inflation, the Fed declared war on workers."
"Welchism is difficult to reverse, at least in the United States."
Can we really solve the economic difficulties of the United States at the moment? Not necessarily:
In terms of consumption, unemployment does not mean to cool down inflation because there is a time difference. After losing their income, they will consume savings to maintain a basic life, which will still support inflation -maybe inflation may not fall, and ordinary people will starve to death first. The US residents' savings rate fell to 4.4%in April, which was the lowest since October 2008.
In terms of supply, the impact of the epidemic, the conflict of Russia and Ukraine, and the price increase of commodities are intensifying the risk of lack of supply and rising costs in the United States. The United States has set up a trade tariff barrier for a long time, and has also binded its own hands and feet. At this time, if the company shrinks and the personnel are eliminated, the supply risk of the United States may continue to increase and further affect inflation.
From this point of view, the problem that radical interest rate hikes cannot be solved, I am afraid that large -scale unemployment cannot be solved.
From this perspective, the British and American media are not only discussing Welch's layoffs and "shareholders value first" theory.
Everyone is also asking: Why is the United States?
"People who destroy capitalism" believe that the "shareholder value supremacy theory", including layoffs, excessively pursue short -term interests. "Welchism" destroyed the soul of American companies and made American companies no longer pay attention to long -term growth.
The author of the book also puts forward a series of suggestions, such as adopting a wider "stakeholder capitalism" -In addition to serving shareholders' interests, it should also take care of the well -being of employees, customers, consumers, and care about the surrounding environment. Essence
However, the Financial Times pointed out that although certain measures have become the characteristics of European corporate capitalism. But even so, the recent resistance to this "stakeholder's capitalism" can also show: "Welchism is difficult to reverse, at least in the United States."
The problem in the United States is not only on the company.
The New York Times believes that many of the author's thoughts of "Destroyer" are half -life. The author proposes some model progress plans: for example, abandoning the "toxic business myths" that given the United States seriously imbalance, increasing wages and welfare, and the richest personal taxes to large enterprises and the richest personal taxes -but he did not point out whether these reforms can Or how to achieve it. "Because he did not study the deep and strong American political foundation behind the entire system."
In the United States, and in other places, workers are probably the party who will eventually pay.
Human society is always developing, even if people have to pay for it.In the period of economic prosperity, people can always see the words "social development" easily from this sentence; but only when facing a crisis, ordinary workers will realize that the cost of social development may just happen just happens to be just happening.He himself -even those policies that make inflation are out of control are not signed by himself.If you are unemployed, then for an enterprise, this will return to the "Social Darwinist" American labor market values depicted by the Welchian era in "The People who Destroy the Capitalism": "Those who have not succeeded should be for themselves for themselves.Unfortunately responsible. "It is terrible that this problem is not far away.
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