Chan Ningan's masterpiece, the most classic T word horizontal array, hurts the Italian Navy Motor Pan Corner2021-12-03 18:05:40 60 ℃
Abstract: T prefix lineup, is the dream of every naval fleet commander of the battlefield situation, so you can maximize the firepower of one's own advantage, and the enemy fire is the most difficult to play bad situation, who can say that basically occupy cross the T-head, it is equivalent to the naval battle won. Mada Pan angle naval battle that the British Navy during World War II champion Cunningham orchestrated classic T prefix of war.
Figure 1: The Battle of paintings Mada Pan angle
T-head formation, is the dream of every naval fleet commander of the battlefield situation, so you can maximize the firepower of one's own advantage, and the enemy fire is the most difficult to play bad situation, we can say basically who occupy T Wang Tau word, it means to win a naval victory. Mada Pan angle naval battle that the British Navy during World War II champion Cunningham orchestrated classic T prefix of war.
Andrew Brown Cunningham generals really belongs to God's favorite, especially in the face old rivals the Mediterranean when the Italian Navy. If someone says in his November 11, 1940 That night surprise the director of the naval port of Taranto in Italy, is owned by the carrier, master wins the air superiority will not use force, he will be March 28, 1941 -29 Mada Pan angle naval battle Japanese director will tell the world record with iron, upright surface naval battle, it was still a winner.
January 7, 1883, Cunningham was born in the small southern Las Mansfield Dublin, Ireland, in other words, if according to the current administrative divisions of the state, his native Britain, but not Ireland, but Ireland was part of the British territory . But Cunningham's parents were from Scotland, regarded as the ancestral home of Britain. Father was a professor of anatomy at Edinburgh University, so his family was quite generous. In 1893, only ten years old, is still resting on the father and mother of small arms like a baby cord care Cunningham is sent to the family of the British Royal Navy College is located in Dartmouth study. This is the main training institutions British Navy junior officers, known as the British naval officer "cradle", the school system for 1-4 years. The main courses are common courses naval literature, foreign language, arithmetic, physics, chemistry, astronomy, navigation, gunnery, etc., and professional training. He began his naval career. Before school, his father asked him, "Are you willing to join the navy?" Was ten small Cunningham almost without hesitation replied:. "I also want to be willing to admiral."
Figure 2: spirited Cunningham, HMS note written on a buoy behind him, meaning His Majesty's warships
In 1897, fourteen-year-old Cunningham ended the knowledge of learning theory, be brought to "Great Britain" Training Ship conduct class training ship, officially became a Navy lieutenant cadets. April 1898, fifteen-year-old Cunningham graduated with honors graduated from the "Great Britain" No, he's among the best in math, pilotage achievements are the wait.
From 1899 to 1902, the young Canning Anshao Wei with "Doris" gunboat took part in the UK and Istanbul Second Boer War, for the first time experienced the baptism of war.
In 1902, nineteen-year-old Cunningham has received professional naval officer education in Portsmouth and Greenwich. Cunningham promoted to lieutenant in 1903, serving on the board before the fearless Mediterranean fleet, "agitation" sign. Six months later, in September 1903, Cunningham was appointed first mate destroyer "locusts" number. In 1904, Cunningham was promoted lieutenant, has served on "Northampton" No, "Hawk" and "Suffolk" cruiser.
In 1908, Cunningham for the first time by an independent command, became No. 14 torpedo boat captain.
In 1911 twenty-eight Cunningham was promoted to major and become a "scorpion" destroyer captain.
1914-1918 Cunningham's "Scorpion" was incorporated into the Mediterranean Fleet sequence, and outstanding performance in the Dardanelles battle.
April 1918, for Cunningham quite appreciated by Admiral Roger Keyes tune he became "Canal Peterborough" destroyer captain, 加入凯耶斯 under the command of "Dover Strait patrol" and outstanding performance in the war of Tak several times. 1922, 39, Cunningham promoted to lieutenant colonel and was appointed the sixth destroyer squadron commander, took command of a fleet, although only a modest fleet of destroyers.
1923 transferred to the first destroyer squadron commander. 1926 to 1928, Cunningham became chief chief of staff Lieutenant General Kou Wen, serving in the Americas and West Indies Squadron.
In 1929, Cunningham, 46, went to the Imperial Defense College studies. After graduation the following year promoted to colonel, was transferred to the new battleship "Rodney" captain, but he was a bit strange for this ship type, and thus difficult to operate the battleship is not a good impression.
Figure 3: "Rodney" USS No.
In 1932, the forty-ninth year of Canning An Juited Major General, as a commander of the Mediterranean Fleet Exceder Forces, and rose its own flag in the "Coventry" number, and the first time she has its own flagship. Due to excellent business capabilities, Caming Announces in Canning, 1937. In 1938, Roger, the first sea service minister, Luo Jue, the Ku Ning Anchor as his deputy, which is undoubtedly a bright future in the eyes of others, and dreams of dreams. However, it is not so much as "Shui Bao", but it doesn't look like this. Soon, he is tired of being boring in the office, and the Brake House strongly demanded back to the first line when "water" . His request was approved in 1939, and the new position is the commander of the Royal Naval Mediterranean Fleet. This is a very tricky and challenging position at the time. Because the Mediterranean Fleet at that time was distorted by the former commander Dudley Pound, there was no energetic. At the age of 56, I just promoted to the ganglian, and the new official took Yes, Chan Ningan rose from the flagship "tired" battleship, and launched the wind and fire rectification in the full fleet. With Kun Ningan long-term The prestige of the Mediterranean fleet, the rectification of the actions is progressing smoothly, and a large number of unmanned officers and the water soldiers have been retired from the ship, replaced with newcomers, after a few months of rectification, the Mediterranean fleet who once in a pool finally rejuvenated. Vitality, Can Ningan won the title of "Bath's superior jazz". Because of his full name, the first letter is just A, B and C (Andrew Browne Cunningham), so he has a fun nickname in the Royal Navy: "General ABC".
On November 11, 1940, the attack on the Taranto Junang, not only created the aircraft carrier, the Japanese sneak attack pearl port is actually the enlarged version of Tarranto, but also changed the two countries in the early days of the World War II. The Navy's power contrast in the Mediterranean - the number of battles has become 4: 3, and the British army is excellent. Smell the bold Italian gave up Tarrant's base, withdraw the fleet to Naples, the Naples in the north, gave the UK to the British, and the UK Royal Navy has achieved absolute strategic advantages in the Mediterranean area.
Figure 4: Hiking Taranto
But the Italian ally the Germans do not allow the Italian Navy to the Italian Navy so embarrassing, letting the British in the Mediterranean is unscrupulous to intercept the German shipping ship to the African Legion. This is too "sorry" African army who is fighting in the northern non-blood. The Germans sent Air Force to bomb the Royal Naval Mediterranean Fleet on March 16 in Crete's base, and then said to the Italian ally: We hit the British "tired" and "Parm" battleship! In other words, in accordance with the Germans, at this time, the British Royal Mediterranean Fleet only "Warriors" can fight, and the contrast of the Mediterranean intersection is once again "Goli" (German Air Force Marshal Golin The pet is twisted into the Italian side.
"The German Navy Staff believes that the current Britain has only one battles in the East China Sea, that is, the 'Warriors' is in good preparation. We expect that the UK will not transfer the heavy ship from the Atlantic in the near future, and there is no indication that the British The fleet will reinforce the Mediterranean. Therefore, the situation in the Mediterranean is beneficial to the Italian fleet than ever. British's frequent sea transportation from Alexander to Greek port, the Greek army is constantly gaining people and equipment from these vessels Supplement. This provides a very good sea attack target for the Italian Navy. The German Navy Staff He believes that the Italian Navy's offensive at the South Sea of Crete will seriously threaten the UK's supply line to Greece, and the UK carrier ship The team did not escort the ship, the Italian Navy may even completely cut off the British soldiers transportation. "Italians believe that the Italian Navy Staff Dikadi will decide to decide to Aegean and Crete South The Zos Island Sea is a force reconnaissance, waiting for the British transport fleet.
In order to attack this time, the Italians also countless money, there are four different scale Italian fleets from different mast ports from different portals: the Italian Royal Naval General Order Angelilo Iykino Navy Personally, I personally took the town of Xinrui's battleship, "Vito Veno", the defenders of the 8 destroyers and the thirteenth destroyer team, sailed from Naples Port; the first cruiser team The commander Carlo Catano Navy will be the heavy cruise overseas ship "Polle", "Zara" and "Sommy" in the ninth destroy ship's four destroy ships sailed from Tarlando The third cruiser team commander Santini Navy will be a heavy cruiser "Trieste", "Trento" and "Bolzano" three destroyers in the twelfth destroy ship The escort will be sailed from Messina. The eight-crucial team commander Leftonia's Navy will be under the light cruiser "Garibo No." and "Aburuqi" to guard the defenders I sailed from Brindi West Port. The total strength of the Italian Navy This dispatch is 1 battleship, 6 heavy cruise overturizers (the Italian Navy has only 7 heavy cruisers), and 2 light cruisers and 13 destroyers. There are also three RO.43 water aircraft ("Venus" is equipped with 2, "Abu Luzi" is equipped with 1). Figure 5: Italy Navy "Veno" battleship
The Italian's combat plan is: First, the eighth cruiser team went deep into the Aegean Sea under the unified command of Catano, cruising to the eastern end of Crete; battleship team and the third cruise team in Iykino Under the personnel in Cavos Island, the British warships and vessels encountered along the way, and after completing the mission, return to the base on March 28. The German Air Force promised to provide the Italian fleet covers the entire disconnection. But in fact, the Germans put the pigeons of Italians regardless of the promise of the enemy's notification or the secret of the air.
First of all, the air strike on March 16 only caused a slight damage to the three main battleships of the Mediterranean Fleet, soon it was repaired. Second, when the Italian fleet completed the assembly in the East of Messina in March 27, the air cover provided by the German Air Force did not appear in the air cover of the German Air Force. Instead, the third cruiser team found the British "Sunderland" water patrol machine that was implemented such a routine patrol mission at 12:20 on the 27th. The British got the message of Italian dispatched. The British transport ship on the Aegean sea will be avoided in advance, and the Mediterranean fleet in Alexander Hong Kong will also be sent out. Italian's whereabouts have exposed, but the Italian government is worried that if the cancellation of the Cancellation will cause strong dissatisfaction in the German ally. So far affecting the interests of the Italian Tekgan Peninsula, it is strictly made Eyakino to continue to implement the original planned action.
Can Ningan, who received an enemy, first ordered the transportation fleet of the East China Sea, emergency into the near port to avoid, and then ordered the main force of the Mediterranean Fleet from 19:00 on the 27th. In order to deceive the axial spy in Alexander Port, Can Ningan conducted a series of successful deception, so that Germans and Italians did not know about the huge Mediterranean fleet of the British Navy.
The strength of the Mediterranean main fleet of the Hong Kong is the "Tats", "Warriors" and "Parm"; the aircraft carrier "Avia" (although the Minister of the Air Ranko "Glorious" air carrier in 1941 1 Month, in Malta, the Western Sea was hit by Germany. He was hit hard, and he was forced to drive into the US Norfolk Shipyard. However, the new service sister ship "fear" joined the Mediterranean fleet to fill the "Glorious" Airlines); Shipborne Aviation of "Answes" is the 13th "Tube Virtual" fighter of the 803 and 806 fighter squadron, 4 "sword fish" torpedo planes and 829 attacks on the 826 attack machine squadron 10 "big blue and white fish" torpedo machines; the second (one), tenth (one) and the fourteen destroy ship (all) 9 destroyers.
In the early morning of the 28th, the Henry Plidhm Will Navy will command the cruise team (light cruiser "Orion", "Ajax", "Pes", "Gloucester" No.) and Second (most), the tenth (one) destroyer team (4 destroyers) is close to closer. The British can also get the Royal Air Force 84th, 113th, 113th, 113th Squadron, who is stationed in the Crete Malham Airport, "Brentheim" bomber and the Royal Navy's 815 attack machine squadron "Sword The air support of fish "fish" torpedo machine. The total strength is three battleships, 1 aircraft carrier, four light cruisers, 13 destroyers and 63 aircraft.
Figure 6: A glimpse of the British Navy Mediterranean Fleet when World War II
At 7:45 on March 28, 1941, Weipei Er cruiser cruiser detachment squad found the third Italian, after receiving the report Cunningham command Weipei Er Italians will go in the direction where his main fleet lead (this when the main fleet and 100 sea miles away from the cruiser units also). 7:58, Italy also found Weipei Er fleet, a third count will Santini cruiser commander units on hand heavy cruisers, a light cruiser Weipei Er not to the eye, regardless of the indication Yiyajinnuo retreat until reinforcements arrived, but high-speed fleet command rushed up. 8:12, "Trieste" heavy cruiser 203 mm gun fired the first rounds Ma Dapan naval angle. 17 minutes Houweipeier ordered to fight back, too far away because the two sides, both sides did not get out of the hit on the radio forty minutes. 8:55 Santini suddenly stopped firing steering retreat, and who are charged with the task of Weipei Er ordered to lure the enemy in hot pursuit, chasing after two hours but a battleship broke into detachments of Yiyajinnuo fire network, the observed "Veneto" HMS 381 mm gun muzzle flash, knowing the lost Weipei Er "very conscious" ordered whole fleet turn, "make every effort to put tobacco! all turned to 180 ° ! full speed ahead! "- Royal Navy dignified death can not say" retreat "is the word. After about Cunningham on "war weariness" was heard Weipei Er of these three commands via radio calmly told: "He must have seen the enemy main fleet destroyer if you worked on for some time (Canning! Ann is a senior commander of the destroyer team), so do not wait until a further detailed report, you'll know what he encountered. "
After receiving the report Weipei Er "north enemy battleship!", And 9:39 Cunningham ordered the "awesome" was released on 826 Squadron 6, "albacore" torpedo each mount a torpedo in the two "tube-nosed Yan" escort fighter to provide support Weipei Er, attacked the Italian fleet.
When the time Weipei Er fleet in Yiyajinnuo three bread Cataño folders and Santini three fleets, the situation is extremely critical, "awesome" was the assault team flew over the battlefield. But sad reminder that first of all they were greeted not Italian artillery, but Weipei Er Italian fleet has been shelling tortured neurotic anti-aircraft guns were hand shot to the violent anti-aircraft fire, but fortunately "neurotic" gunners who associate head poor, did not cause any damage to the "awesome" was the assault team. At the same time as the torpedo planes escorted the two "tube-nosed Yan" fighter shot down, wounded Luftwaffe flew over the battlefield JU88 bombers each one, which is the German air force on Italian fleet air support only time in this sea battle.
Figure 7: Say good Luftwaffe air cover it
Assault team commander, squadron commander of the 826 Lieutenant Commander Gerald Santer did not mind one of us nervous, and immediately launched a torpedo attack on the "Veneto" battleship. Although there has been no victories, but the success of interfering with the Italian attack on Weipei Er fleet, making Weipei Er light cruiser escaped. Also destroyed Yiyajinnuo continue and the courage to fight the British, scared he ordered the withdrawal of all combat, to the north west section of high-speed 28 retreat at 11:30.
Weipei Er at 12:24 and the main fleet Cunningham confluence, although he did not suffer, but could not planned to lead over the Italians, Cunningham was very unhappy. Although he immediately ordered the entire fleet at full speed chasing the Italians, but in the Mediterranean Fleet battleship "Barham" number can only reach a maximum speed of 22 knots, while the Italians can go 28 knots, how to recover anyway to catch up , the only hope is to attack the fleet of "awesome" aircraft and bombers on the island of Crete.
Figure 8: British "awesome" aircraft carrier
From 12:05 assigned to 15:10 British air force launched air strikes four times to the Italian fleet, two Royal Air Force "Blenheim" Bomber implementation; once the Navy's 815 Squadron "Swordfish" Implementation of. The first three air strikes did not cause any damage to the Italian people. But by the fourth "dreadful" 3 "albacore" on aircraft carrier, two "swordfish" made at 15:10 in the "tube-nosed Yan," the fighter escort two victories: 829 attack squadron commander Lieutenant Dailiaier Stead driving "albacore" torpedo suddenly into the distance "Veneto" bow torpedo dropped 900 meters, followed shortly by air defense "Veneto" No. fire hit crashed into the sea, all three crew members were killed; but he dropped the torpedo hit "Veneto" was the port stern area, destroying the left propeller, while allowing instant "Veneto" was 4000 tons water , paralysis in the sea, fortunately losses tubes are effective, in ten minutes, "Veneto" ship restored to 10 knots, the six heavy cruisers and 11 destroyers, two light cruisers and destroyers sixth (eighth cruiser detachments under squad ahead of two destroyers return) to Brindisi in Yiyajinnuo command to guard stumble Taranto return to 10 knots, which gives an excellent Cunningham chasing the Italians Chance.
Figure 9: "albacore" torpedo planes
19:30, from "awesome" No. 6 "albacore" 2 "Swordfish" and from Crete 2 "Swordfish" under the command of Major Sant to single lightning strike way to attack the Italian fleet. 19:45, Lieutenant Williams driving "albacore" launch torpedoes hit the heavy cruiser "Bora" No, resulting in the ship completely lost power, paralyzed on the sea. As the scene was chaotic, to find "Bora" was already gone when the 20:15 a. Yiyajinnuo out of deep feelings, "Bora" was (when he served as the first commander of the detachment cruiser "Bora" was his flagship, he was familiar with every officer of this ship), he almost the first cruiser units will not hesitate to order Cataño "Zara" No, "Fiume" heavy cruiser and destroyer units of the ninth "Gioberti" No, "Alfieri," No. " Ollie Jani "and" Carducci "number four destroyers to the" Bora "was dragged back. Figure 10: Italian Navy "Bora" and "Zara" heavy cruiser
Italy has had to pin down who do not hold the desired Cunningham after receiving the message wounded "Veneto 'numbers almost could not believe my ears, excited Cunningham ordered the fleet to prepare for, when the fleet guns Barnard reminded him that long battleship fleet has been a long time no night live-fire exercises, Cunningham dissatisfaction, said: "you are a group accustomed to the easy life of a coward. I want to eat dinner, and after dinner if I did not you high morale, even if this matter. "
Enjoy a sumptuous dinner after Cunningham mood, at 20:37 ordered to prepare the midnight oil, the message is full of flavor Nelson: "Weipei Er cruiser to catch up after being hit by enemy battleships, second and tenth four destroyer squadron immediately attacked; if there is no enemy battleship was sunk, battleship fleet will then join; if not encountered enemy battleship cruiser, we will detour north, then west, want to reach the enemy tomorrow morning. "
Weipei Er fleet at 20:40 found the "Bora" was paralyzed, and treat it as a "wounded enemy battleship." Cunningham After receiving the message 21 to the main fleet command "weariness" number, queue "Warrior" and "Barham" was entered into the battlefield to 20 knots, aircraft carrier "terrible" case No. useless, ready to turn out. 22:03 "Warrior" was found in "Bora" No, when Cunningham's main fleet of cruisers and all gun Weipei Er team will be "Bora" was aimed at locking ready to fire when the destroyer " Stuart "was found to come to rescue at 22:23" six ships Cataño fleet Bora "number. Cunningham responded quickly, and immediately ordered the attack to give up, "Bora" No, all guns (24 381 mm, 20 152 mm and 20 120 mm gun) instead aimed Cataño fleet and seize classic T-shaped head bit array.
Since no shipboard radar, night fighting capability of infinitely close to zero fleet Cataño know nothing, the entire fleet of attention has focused on the towing "Bora" was, 22:27, when the weight cruiser " Fiume "was ready to" Bora "was shot streamer when it was the British destroyer searchlight number of dogs shone bright, incidentally, also lights up the" profile Zara "and" Alfieri "destroyer of . Subsequently vocal shells in the Italian head pouring down, "Fiume" in the first time suffered a baptism of two 381 mm artillery shells "war-weary" was an instant loss of combat effectiveness, the superstructure was torn gunfire were seven and eight down, helpless ship tilted to the right, the ship ignited a raging fire, completely into a waste ship. Then British transfer calmly fire, aim "Zara" was fired. "Zara" was to suffer in a very short period of time fourteen salvo, hull leaning to port, all the guns have been silenced, has become a Hulk. Meanwhile destroyer "Alfieri" was also ravaged by 381 mm heavy artillery shells into a pile of scrap metal, helpless burning in the sea.
3 minutes more shooting time, the British fired a total of 100 rounds of 381 mm artillery shells, excitement was too far gunners even own destroyer "Griffin" No, "catastrophe" was the aircraft carrier and "awesome" No. as to the target. Two destroyers as timely and flexible steering, luck has not been damaged, and the "awesome" was personally strictly prohibited in Cunningham's shot only retrieve a life. Then the main fleet ceasefire by ships entering the light sweep the battlefield, sank the Italian destroyer "Carducci" was at 23:30. "Gioberti" and "Oliver Jani" was taking advantage of the chaos-speed to leave the battlefield.
Figure 11: British "Warrior" battleship
At 2 o'clock on March 29, the destroyer "Jaweis" has brought a fish thunder to the dying "Zara". This unlucky battleship will sink to the sea at 2:40. . At 3 o'clock, "Jaweis" rely on the "Polola", the boarding team rushed into the "Polle" deck, "Polle" survived 257 Italian Navy officers and men into captive. After receiving the captive, the destroyer "Nubians" was separated from the "Polola" to the "Polola" at 4:03. Can Ning An Asked the Reply to the Captive Fleet Power Generation: "Six lying on the hammock, 50 mild injuries, a senior officer has a hemorrhoids." In this, Can Ningan helpless Shricking, callback: "I am not surprising." This battle Kun Ningan commanded the Mediterranean fleet with one fish mine, 3 crew members sinking the Italian Navy three heavy cruisers and 2 destroyers, the first cruiser team The commander Catano navy will be buried in the following 4,400 Italian Navy officers and soldiers. Make the Italian large water surface ship never have a large-scale active action throughout 1941. Even if the UK Royal Navy lost the Crete base, the loss of the German Air Force was forced to withdraw to Malta Island and Alexander, the Italian Navy did not have any happening.
For this sea battle, Kan Ningan's own evaluation is very in place, "There is no doubt that the motor Panjiao war makes the enemy have honestly have honestly, and the smooth progress of the Action of Greece and Crete, and the development of the situation is also The impact of this battle. "
[Originally published in "Weapon" magazine]
(This article is from the network)
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