At the end of 1949, Chairman Mao visited Soviet Stalin, saying: I have long been hit by hitting.2022-01-15 12:07:57 16 ℃
In December 1949, when the new China has just founded it, Chairman Mao led the Chinese delegation to the Soviet Union, to the 70-year-old birthday.
As the world's two major proletariat leaders, Chairman Mao and Stalin have long have already had a letter from a letter, but this is the first time two meet. When Chairman Mao saw Stalin, he said such a saying: "I have been hit by people who have been hit, there is something to say ..."
Chairman Mao and Stalin
What is the reason, let Chairman Mao have this feelings? The origin of this is, but the length is long.
China's revolutionary process is in many times
After the death of Lenin in 1924, Stalin has established the status of its Soviet leaders through a series of means. As the head of the international communist movement, Stalin later passed the Third International, and the revolutionary cause of China was influenced and even interference.
In the past 30 years, when the second domestic revolutionary war entered the later, Stalin demanded Wang Ming to implement the "left tip" error route in the CCP. The result of this route is a heavy loss in the CCP during this period.
After the start of the Anti-Japanese War, the Communist International also instructed the Communist Party to implement the right incorrect route. Fortunately, the Chinese Communist Party has adjusted in a timely manner and eventually achieved the victory of the Anti-Japanese War.
If it is also understood two times, then two things happened to make Chairman Mao worried.
In 1945, when the Anti-Japanese War was about to win, the Chinese Communist Party had held more than 900 million people, and the combat power exceeded the Kuomintang army. Seeing that Japan is going to surrender, China's fate after the war has become an international community very much attention.
After the end of the anti-Japanese war, the Military conflict between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party continued, and the civil war was touched. When Mao Chairman is preparing to take the next step, Stalin sent a telegram from Moscow.
Chairman Mao looked at this telegram, it was reluctant to shut himself in the cave, and he was not willing to go out. It turned out that Stalin reminded Chairman Mao, telling him that China must not have a civil war, otherwise the Chinese nation will destroy.
After watching the telegram, Chairman Mao said on the spot: "I don't believe that the people will die in order to turn over to the owner, the nation will die?" He is very confident. Since this day, the Soviet Unity has flocked to the Dalin.
It turned out that, I have been a year ago, that is, in the second half of 1944, Chairman Mao has always hoped that the Soviet Union supported the Chinese revolutionary cause. On September 22, he said when he talked to the Communist International Embassy Liaison Fragilov, said that China's situation is still very complicated and needs Moscow participation.
You know, for the Soviet Union, the Communist Party of China has gave help. When the Japanese militarism threatened to the Soviet Far East, the CPC was decisive to the Chinese border to shocked Japan. Therefore, Chairman Mao is satisfied that the Soviet Union is willing to extend a helping hand to the CCP.
In a report in December 1944, Chairman Mao clearly pointed out: "After the end of the anti-Japanese war, we must take China!" And this is also the goal that Chairman Mao has been pursued in years. In 1945, when the CPC held, Chairman Mao also put forward the big city in Japan, putting eight big cities in the big city.
As the Soviet Union declared the war in Northeast in August 1945, Chairman Mao immediately asked the Eighth Route Army to fight with the Soviet army. But soon, I unconscious Chiang Kai-shek issued an order, requiring the Eighth Route Army to stop moving, and may not act without authorization.
Chairman Mao learned that after the news, he continued to send 9 groups of troops and the Kuomintang to compete for the northeast, and secretly organized armed uprons in major cities in China. From Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, the Northping, Tianjin and Baoding, to the North Ping, Tianjin, and Baoding in North China, and prepare for armed uprising.
Obviously, once these uprons are successful, the Chinese Communist Party will take over half of China. At such a critical moment, Stalin's telegraph is coming. Chairman Mao is of course angry. When such a good time, I don't know when I have it.
As the leader of the communist, Stalin's opinion Chairman Mao can't consider. Ultimately, these uprising plans in major cities are forced to cancel.
Soon, Stalin sent a telegram and asked Chairman Mao to go to Chongqing to negotiate with the National Government Chiang Qi. In the telegram, it emphasizes that the current world and China need peace, and Chiang Kai-shek has once again issued an invitation, let Chairman Mao go to Chongqing to negotiate national affairs. In such a situation, if the Communist Party has rejected, it is unable to obtain two recognition in the international and domestic. And once the civil war broke out, the responsibility will be bored by the Communist Party.
For the security issues of Chairman Mao to Chongqing, Stalin said that there is no need to worry, the United States and Soviet countries will guarantee the security of the Communist Party.
This two telegraphs say that the content is reasonable. But in fact, there is another important reason: on August 14, the Soviet Union has officially signed the "Sino-Soviet Assistant Alliance Treaty". During the meeting of both parties, the National Government asked Stalin, the central government wants to realize the nationalization of the army and establish a national unified regime.
Stalin listened and said it was very much. He immediately said that China should have only one government, a military.
At the same time, under the recommendation of the United States, Chiang Kai-shek made a negotiation proposal to Yan'an, invited Chairman Mao to go to Chongqing. At this time, Stalin is here to join the Chinese Communist Government. This can guarantee China's peace and stability, and it is also conducive to the continued strength of the CCP in China. Thus, the two telegraphs will be delivered. Chairman Mao's mood at this time is not difficult to understand.
Although there are Mi Su, the two countries are mediating, but soon, the country's civil war is still inevitably burst. As the PLA gradually occupies an advantage, the victory is tilted to the Communist Party. In April 1949, when the People's Liberation Army was about to launch a battle in Nanjing, Moscow sent a telegram to the CCP.
This is the fourth thing that make Chairman Mao worried. The telegram pointed out that if the Liberation Army has passed through the Yangtze River, China will face the situation of splitting, and once again, there is a situation in the South and North Dynasties.
This time, the chairman of Mao Mao did not listen, but continued according to the original plan.
In the end, the People's Republic of China was established on October 1, 1949. The next day, the Soviet government became the first country built in new China. After 2 months, Chairman Mao began this visit to Su.
Chairman of the founding of the founding Chairman, I wanted to go to Moscow but was repeatedly refused by Stalin.
In December 1949, he went to the Soviet Union, which is the first time in Chairman Mao. In fact, before this, Chairman Mao has repeatedly put forward Moscow, but they have been rejected by Stalin.
In the spring of 1947, Chairman Mao made a first time, asked the Soviet Union, think of Moscow. After Dalin learned, it was initially agreed.
Chairman Mao is very excited, specially in building a simple airport in a valley field in Shanxi, waiting for the Soviet flight to pick him up. However, due to the fact that the country's civil war is still in progress, the deer is dead, and the Dalin is in a cautious consideration, and finally refused. He wants Chairman Mao to be busy with domestic warfare, waiting for the war again.
Wait until the second year, as the Kuomintang army loses losed, China's situation is clear. At this time, Chairman Mao once proposed to the Soviet Union, indicating that it is necessary to report to the Sufang for the future policy policy. As before the same year, Stalin agreed again, and prepared for the Chinese Communist Party.
To this end, Chairman Mao set up a complete set of heads, from the hat, clothes to the shoes, and it is available. I didn't expect it. When I arrived, the Soviet Union had a message. It is said that Chairman Mao is not the time, Moscow's central committees will go to the wheat, which is not convenient to meet.
After the pigeons were put twice, Chairman Mao was very depressed. But Stalin has been unreasonable, and there is no way.
After the founding of the People's Republic of China, in October 1949, the importance of Zhongsu relations was self-evident. Although the Soviet Union quickly recognized the new China, there is an important issue between the two countries to handle it, which is the "Sino-Soviet Association Treaty" signed by the Soviet Union and the National Government.
Since New China has been born, the treaty four years ago continues to inherit, or after abolishing, it is an imminent thing.
Just, December 21st was the 70th birthday of Stalin. Chairman Mao decided to borrow the opportunity of his birthday, and travel to Moscow Tonglin to deliberate how to deal with this treaty.
Chairman Mao faced the treaty question Stalin's initial attitude
On December 6, 1949, Chairman Mao finally boarded the special column to the Soviet Union. After 10 days of trip, he finally arrived in Moscow on December 16 and saw Stalin in the Kremlin on the same day.
Thinking of the exchange history of two people in the past two decades, especially the "guidance" of Stalin to the Chinese revolution. It has repeatedly refused to come to the Soviet Union before, Chairman Mao is a five-flavor. .
In the face of Stalin's welcome, Chairman Mao said: "I have been hit by people who have been hit, there is nowhere to say ..."
Stalin listened to this, immediately interrupted him: "The winner is unjured, can't condemn the winner, this is a general axiom."
Stalin means that since your Chinese Communist Party wins, there is nothing to blame. This is also judged from some of the mistakes to China before he himself.
Chaser Mao Lalin said this, it is not convenient to say anything, decide to enter the key points of this visit - the issue of the treaty.
Chairman Mao just introduced the Chinese Communist Party of Treaty to the 1945 Treaty, and did not expect it yet.
Stalin's meaning is: Before you come, our Soviet Central Central has already held a meeting, think that the treaty could not change and must be retained.
Why is the Soviet Union want to keep this treaty? It turned out that according to Treaty, the important railway long railway in the Northeast China will be managed by China and Su, and the Lushunkou has also become the naval base shared by the two countries. In the Dalian of the important port of Northeast, it became Freedom Port. The validity period of these three provisions is 30 years.
Obviously, this treaty has serious damage to China's sovereignty and benefits, which is the cause of Chairman Mao and the Party Central Committee to deliberate this. It is so resolute, how is it?
In the next few days, Chairman Mao has repeatedly proposed this matter to Stalin, but they have not received a positive response. Chairman Mao tried to mention Dalin, as Zhou Enlai, who is a foreign minister, I want to come to Moscow, Stalin agrees? Stalin immediately understood the intention of Chairman Mao. He said straight, I have nothing to talk to Zhou En, let him come over. Chairman Mao once eaten a closed door.
Seeing the birthday of Dalin on December 21st, Chairman Mao is in a hurry.
After the birth of the birthplace, Chairman Mao did not return to China to continue Tongs Dalin.
On December 21st, the Dalin 70-year-old birthday, the Moscow Grand Theater held a grand celebration. The Communist Party leaders in many countries came to the scene, and I wish the world's proletarian leaders.
Chairman Mao came again, and many gifts were prepared. From Xiang embroidered Stalin like a porcelain in Jingdezhen, it can be said to be full of love.
In this birthday celebration, Stalin is very enthusiastic about Chairman Mao, arranged his seat in his right. However, during the entire celebration, Chairman Mao is serious, and there is no smile. Obviously, he is still worried about the matter of the treaty.
After the celebrations, the leaders of the Communist Party of China began to return to China. Mao Mao did not go, but continued to stay in Moscow.
In the next few days, Chairman Mao has been staying in the hotel room and does not participate in any public event. According to the police guards around the Chair, the Chairman Mao has been with temper. At that time, the Soviet Union arranged him to visit Leningrad and rejected by Chairman Mao as a reason to be physically discomfort.
After Dalin learned, he was very embarrassed. He knows that Chairman Mao is dissatisfied with the Treaty, but after all, it is a socialist brother, and he is not good to return him.
Slin, when young
Just when the two sides were in a deadlock, international public opinion began to ferment.
Since Chairman Mao has not publicly exposed it for many days after participating in the Comment on Dalin, it has been discounted for many days, and the international is high in due to serious differences in Zhongsu.
After seeing such a news, the Soviet Union was very passive. Stalin found a Chinese resident ambassador to the Soviet Union, please let Chairman Mao came out.
When Chairman Mao learned, decided to accept the Sudon Taszist reporter to respond to this rumor.
When the reporter asked Chairman Mao, Chair Chairman Mao made clearly replied: I came to Moscow this time, in addition to gratifying Comrade Solin, there is an important reason is to discuss the issue of the Chinese Soviet Union Treaty.
The reporter then asked: When did you return to China?
Chairman Mao replied: this depends on the situation of negotiations.
After this interview issued, international public opinion began to calm. Chairman Mao is also ingenious to use this way, put pressure on Stalin and the Soviet Union.
Stalin finally let the new Zhongsu Treaty sign
Seeing that the treaty was challenged by Chairman Mao, Stalin knew that it was still dragged down. On January 2, 1950, he sent Foreign Minister Molotov to see Chairman Mao and told Talin to agree with China to sign a new alliance treaty.
See Dalin finally learned to Linkou, Chairman Mao was in this way. That night, he swept the depression of these days, and the emotions were very high.
That night, Chairman Mao wrote to Zhou Enlai, telling that Stalin has agreed to the Chinese conditions, asking him to prepare immediately, trying to arrive in Moscow soon, negotiating with the Soviet Union.
This matter is solved, Chairman Mao can finally be exposed to the long-lost public. He went to St. Petersburg to visit the Winter Palace, and also experienced the Soviet subway and went to the movie to watch the movie.
On January 20th, Zhou Enlai came to Moscow in a line. But at this time, the Chinese people did not expect that the Soviet Union had already drafted a new treaty, and the text was reviewed in China.
Chairman Mao and Zhou Enlai look at it, good guys, the main content of this new treaty has not changed, just changed a name. The Soviets can really have a heart.
Chairman Mao immediately made Zhou Enlai to restart, and corrected the content that is not conducive to China in the old conditions. On January 26, this new program was submitted to the Soviet Union.
Two days later, the Soviet Union returned the text back. There is almost no modification above, and the solution is basically consent to China.
Why did Stalin and the Soviet Government have made concessions this time before the attitude. According to relevant materials analysis, on the one hand, the Soviet Union as a socialist boss, urgently needs China's great helper; on the other hand, the US position is also swaying about the position of New China, and the Soviet Union is worried that China may be affected by the United States. Pulling and producing a huge adverse effect on the Soviet Union.
In the end, February 14, 1950, the two countries officially signed the "Sino-Soviet Friendship Alliance Hardware Treaty". Chairman Mao has finally ended the long trip to the Soviet Union and departed back home.
Commemorative stamps after signing the Treaty of the Sino-Soviet Friendship Assistance
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