Museum of minimalist history2022-05-19 18:26:40 14 ℃
Today (May 18) is the International Museum Day.
The International Museum Association announced the theme of the 2022 International Museum Day -The Power of Museums and released a poster.
Today, the Pickup Museum has become a trend. The various museum architecture and countless treasure collections condense the history, memory and achievements of human civilization. It is like a city's window, which is the oldest secret of human history.
So, where does the museum originate? Does it exist in itself or have a long evolution?
1. Museum is related to "Muse Goddess"?
To talk about the origin of the museum, you can first find some clues from its English name "Museum".
"Museum" can be traced back to the ancient Greek period. Its roots originated from the Greek "μουσεῖον", which means that it is related to a word that we are familiar with, that is, "muse".
Nine Muse Goddess on Mount Apollo and Panasus Mountain
In ancient Greek mythology, Muse is a youth goddess in charge of painting, music, poetry and other arts and sciences. They often sing and dance during the Austrian Mountains, and they are the sources of inspiration for singers and musicians. "Μῖονσε 正" refers to the place where the goddess is worshiped.
The ancient Greeks believe that the museum is a condensed place, philosophical research institution or muse temple. Due to the far -reaching influence of ancient Greece on European culture, the word later evolved the concept of "museum".
About the three centuries BC, a museum in the ancient Egyptian land, named "μουσεῖον" (Muse Temple). Its construction is mainly to preserve and repair King Alexander Alexander's conquest in Egypt, and in the war, there are countless precious artworks "displaced" in the war.
... The museum is also part of the palace. There is a public passage, a open talk room with a seat, and a large restaurant. Scholars in the museum can eat together. These people not only shared property, but also a priest responsible for managing the entire museum.
In this luxurious temple, scholars are free to speak freely and learn to communicate knowledge. Its functions are similar to museums in the modern sense.
2. The germination of modern museum
In the 14th to 15th centuries, a world-rear Renaissance movement swept Italy. In the center of the movement of the movement of the movement, the legendary Midi family was born.
The Medici family (Medici) made a family in the financial industry, and later achieved the rule of Florence by accumulating huge wealth. This is a nobleman who pays special attention to "art". Its pioneer once said: "Money can be transformed into permanent art through funding."
While in the head of Florence, the city's large number of colleges, churches, and monasterys ... In addition, the Metizer family also generously sponsored the world -famous world -famous sponsorship artists (Masajo, Michelangelo, Da Vinci and other world -famous world -famous world -famous world -famous world -famous world -famous The art masters have been taken care of), and they have acquired a large number of private art treasures and antiques, which have accumulated countless treasures.
In order to display these collections, Cosmo (the second -generation heir of the Midi family) transformed the new layer of Palazzo Pitti into "antiquities", which was specially used to display large -scale sculptures and ordered at the same time. The famous architect, Vasari, designed and constructed an administrative office institution, Uffizi, and then runs through two places by a corridor.
Uffiz Art Museum Source: The official website of Uffiz Art Museum
In 1581, this huge project was officially completed. After the repairs, the collections in Petti Palace were moved into the Uffizi Palace in a stream of streams. This palace became a veritable "Uffizi Gallery".
Da Vinci, Raphael's paintings, Michelangelo's large -scale sculpture, the creative manuscripts of a large number of masters, the arts donated by the statues, churches, monastery and private artists ... These rare treasures gathered together to paint together Then the "Uffizi Gallery" art collection is brilliant.
The establishment of the Uffizi gallery has gradually transformed from a religious place that is closely related to the "Muse Goddess" to a modern museum with collectibles as the core, representing the germination of modern museums.
3. The birth of the world's first museum
In the 17-18 century, with the rise of the European Enlightenment, the concept of "equality" and "democracy" was deeply rooted in people's hearts. More and more scholars call on private collections to deal with the public opening, so that more people can expose art. Under such a trend of thought, the royal nobles donated their collectibles to the Academy of Art.
The British aristocratic Ashmorin is one of the outstanding representatives. He donated all the currency, badges, weapons, clothing, clothing, art, archeological unearthed cultural relics, national folk cultural relics, and various animal planting mineral specimens to Oxford University and asked the university to build a "museum" storage and display collection.
Portrait of Elias Ashmor
Image source: Instagram @ Ashmoleahmuseum
In 1683, the Ashmorin Museum established a system of opening to the public and implemented a ticket entry.
The Ashmorin Museum is recognized as the world's first public museum, the first museum with modern significance, and the largest and most rich college museum in the world.
Oxford University Ashmorin Art and Archeology Museum
Picture source: Museum official website
The Renaissance moves people curious about nature. The significance of the museum also transformed from a place with religious meaning to a treasure room for celebrities and nobles to collect strange and treasure. After the Renaissance, the collection of museums was more diverse. With the development of the Enlightenment, equalism practiced in the museum, and the private collection opened to the public.
After more than a dozen centuries of twists and turns, today, museums are art and cultural exchange venues that each of us can visit and visit. It is a spiritual corridor that we can be briefly protected in the earthly world, and it is also a passing time for history overlooking the wind and rain.
4. The establishment of the museum in China
The "museum" has a long history, and its history can always be traced back to the distant ancient Greek era. So, how did the museum be established on the vast China?
At the beginning of the 20th century, the rapid development of the Chinese national capitalist industry, the ideological liberation movement represented by the new culture movement made the west wind gradually, which laid the foundation for the establishment of the museum in China.
Zhang Ye is a well -known educator in the late Qing Dynasty and a patriot. During his overseas inspection, he recognized the importance of education for national rejuvenation. After returning to China, he actively advocated the establishment of a national museum in Beijing and "gradually promoted the provinces, and the prefectures and counties."
Picture source: Jiangsu Education Museum (Digital Museum)
In 1905, Zhang Ye established the Nantong Museum on the banks of the beautiful Luohe. With his personal assets, he purchased 29 people near the Nantong Normal School he founded by his own assets, relocated more than 3,000 barren mounds, and built the ground. The drawing design display cabinet, after thousands of difficulties, finally made the museum take shape.
Nantong Museum Tower Source: Nantong Museum official website
Nantong Museum is the earliest public museum founded by the Chinese, and it is also the birthplace of the China Museum's career. Zhang Ye is the pioneer of the Chinese Museum. After that, museums or display rooms have been established all over the country:
In 1905, the servant of the Ministry of Scholars Yan Xiu opened an educational display room in the Chenghuang Temple in his hometown; in 1906, Tai'an founded the Museum of Education; in the same year, Jingshi Le Shan Park (now Beijing Zoo) was opened as the Agricultural Testing Office of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commercial, and the natural specimen was displayed. Soon, Duanfang's personal collection in Haiwang Village, Beijing Liulichang founded China's earliest private museum, Taozhai Museum, which promoted the popularity of the museum in the people.
After the 1911 Revolution, the wave of museums across China was more prosperous.
On July 9, 1912, the Ministry of Education of the Republic of China decided to set up the preparatory offices of the National History Museum, with Guozi Supervisor as the site.
In 1912, the Ministry of Education of the Beijing Government of the Republic of China set up a National History Museum in the National Son of the State, with "Taixue utensils" as the initial main exhibition. In 1918, the National Museum of History moved to the Memorial Gate of the Forbidden City, with Wumen City Tower and East -West Goose Wing Tower as the display room. The National History Museum is the predecessor of the National Museum of China and the first museum prepared and managed by the government in China.
In July 1918, the National History Museum's preparation office was relocated to the Duanmen and Wumen of the Forbidden City
After the establishment of the Republic of China, the Beijing government's internal affairs department began to receive various cultural relics in Liaoning and Rehe Palace in the Qing Dynasty, including the three generations of Yi Ding, the two dynasties, calligraphy and painting, ceramics, silk embroidery and literature. In 1914, the re -site reconstruction room of the Wuying Hall, Wenhua Hall and Xian'an Palace of the Forbidden City was coexisting into the "Beijing Antiquities Exhibition Center", which was used to manage the cultural relics of the two -line palace palace.
Wuying Hall Picture: The official website of the Palace Museum
The Beijing Antiquities Exhibition Institute is the earliest open cultural relics exhibition agency opened to the public. It competes with the meteorology of the Forbidden City's court.
In the mid -1920s, the establishment of the Palace Museum opened an important page of the history of the development of the Chinese Museum.
The Forbidden City (also known as the Forbidden City) is the palace of the twenty -four emperors of the two generations of the Ming and Qing dynasties for more than 500 years. After the demise of the Qing Dynasty, the last emperor, Aixinjueluo Puyi, was expelled from the palace, and a large number of golden beads, strange treasures, ancient books and books were left in the Forbidden City.
To this end, the Palace Museum has an antiques, libraries, and literature museums under the Palace Museum, organizing manpower to organize cultural relics, open up exhibition rooms, organize various display, and edit various publications, public information, and publicize. After a year of intense preparations, the Palace Museum held a grand college in front of Qianqingmen on October 10, 1925.
Nowadays, the Palace Museum has become one of the places for checkuping in the Forbidden City of Beijing. People are competing to see this mysterious palace and their treasures, spy on the prosperity of the dynasty, and witness the changes in the world.
Wumen Map Source: Palace Museum official blog
This year, the theme of the International Museum Day is "Museum's Power". It can be the power of collection, academic power, exhibition power, public education power, the power of public love, the power of the youth in the Z era ...
What kind of story do you have with the museum?Did it bring you special power at some point?Welcome to leave a message below the comment ~
China Museum Pioneer Hongbo.com under the Great Age
Public Museum's Origin Chi Yongmei in Europe
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