In 1950, China recovered the sovereignty of Dongjiao people, the United States took the lead in protest, and the chairman responded: Resolutely execute2022-06-24 06:12:30 13 ℃
In the summer of 1900, the Qing Empire made a "Boxer" campaign that shocked the world. In Western society, they said that the Chinese moved to fight against foreign powers as "boxing chaos".
In order to calm down the "boxing chaos", the powers formed the Eight -Power coalition forces invaded China and fought in the North China and the Qing Army and the Boxer Regiment.
During this war, the powers landed from the Bohai Sea to Tianjin, and at the same time, a war in Beijing was also a war -the righteousness of the Yinghe Tuan siege Dongjiaomin Lane and the Xishku Church.
Dongjiaomin Lane is the location of the embassies of Western countries, and there are also western hospitals, banks, post offices, and barracks. Since the Xianfeng period, this alley has become the place where the museum is in the museum.
After the Boxer Movement ended, Lieqiang directly drawn this street as the concession in the "Xin Chou Treaty", which is completely controlled by foreigners. The Chinese are not allowed to enter, and the Qing government has no right to enforce the enforcement here.
During the Republic of China, although there was no embassy in Dongjiaomin Lane, it was still the rental place of Westerners. There were consulates and barracks. This situation did not end until the establishment of New China.
During the war of liberation, after the PLA entered Beijing City, it passed by Dongjiaomin Lane to oath of Chinese sovereignty.
After the victory of the liberation war, Chairman Mao resolutely requested to recover Dongjiaomin Lane and never regress. In the end, Western countries were withdrawn one by one under the supervision of the People's Liberation Army. This "country of the country" with a history of nearly a century was completely recovered.
So why did the powers choose to live in Dongjiaomin Lane? The PLA recovered Dongjiaomin Lane. What happened during this period? What does Western countries react?
1. A piece of Dongjiang Rice Lane, the history of the ancient capital in 800 years
In Chinese history, no road is as famous as Dongjiaomin Lane.
The history of Dongjiaomin Lane has a long history and can be traced back to the Yuan Dynasty 800 years ago. Its original name was "Dongjiang Rice Lane".
The Yuan Dynasty Dingdu Beijing, Kublai Khan was named "Dadu", and the original site was now in Beijing. Most of them passed the Grand Canal Unicom Jiangnan, and the taxes and food in the south were transported to the capital through the Grand Canal, and then entered the granary from here.
In order to allow the canal water to the capital directly, the Yuan Dynasty government built the Tonghui River and reached the main city wall. The food is off the ship from the Tonghui River, the government is counted and taxed, and the merchants of all walks of life buy them to sell them.
The place where food was sold at that time was later called "Jiangmi Lane". During the Ming Dynasty, Jiangmi Lane was divided into two, forming Dongjiang Rice Lane and Xijiang Mi Lane.
However, Jiangmi Lane in the Ming Dynasty has not sold food anymore. The emperor moved some national departments to here, among which the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is the ancient Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Since the Ming Dynasty, "Dongjiang Rice Lane" began to receive foreigners. They were mainly representatives of vassal states around China. After the Qing Dynasty entered the customs, Manchu retained the original appearance of Beijing City, so Dongjiang Mi Lane was still used to hold diplomatic activities.
At this point, in addition to Hongzheng Temple in the Qing Dynasty, there are also Chun, Lian, Yu, and An Si Grand Mansion, as well as the Ministry of Rites and Households. Here is in front of the Forbidden City, far away from the people of the city, the "pure place" of the Manchu nobles.
In the middle of the Qing Dynasty, the "Dongjiang Rice Lane" set up a "welcome hotel" to receive foreign guests. The Russians first came here to set up an office and also built a church.
At the end of the Qing Dynasty, the Westerners who opened the gate of China also chose to open the museum here.
In modern times, Westerners have been using the "concession" in China. According to the literature records at the time, foreigners were not adapted to the living habits of the Chinese, so the Chinese people also felt that it was better to manage it by themselves.
However, after the Second Opium War in 1860, Beijing fell in place, and the Emperor Xianfeng agreed to the request of the powers and used Dongjiang Mi Lane to the power of the powers. All the institutions of the Qing government moved out of the station. people.
From this starting, Dongjiang Mi Lane has become the country of the powers in Beijing, and has a history of half a century.
2. "The sore on this Chinese face must be squeezed"
After the signing of the "Pro -Ugly Treaty" in 1901, Dongjiang Mi Lane was officially renamed "Dongjiaomin Lane" and became the embassy street of the powers. The fence is repaired here, the iron door is installed, and the artillery is on the shelf. The Chinese have no right to ask everything in it.
The fence of Dongjiaomin Lane once wrote a warning in Chinese characters: "Chinese do not transit, and do not shoot."
After the Manchuqing period, the Beiyang period was still in Beijing. At this time, the capital of China was still in Beijing, and the embassies of various countries were still located in Dongjiaomin Lane.
After the establishment of the Nanjing government in 1927, the capital moved south and was located in Nanjing. Most of the embassies followed, but this alley was still the concession of foreigners and had garrison.
Throughout the Republic of China, during the Japanese occupation period, this street did not completely return to the Chinese government.
After the end of World War II, according to the "Return of the Concession Agreement" signed by the National Government and the Allies in 1943, the National Government wanted to recover the street, but because the American soldiers lived in it, the progress has been slow.
It was not until the end of January 1949 that Peiping City was liberated peacefully, and the arrival of the PLA gave this ancient capital a new weather.
Beiping was liberated peacefully under the leadership of Fu Zuoyi. Before the PLA entered the city in early February, Chairman Mao and other leaders of the Party Central Committee discussed the specific matters of entering the city.
When talking about "Dongjiaomin Lane", Chairman Mao was very angry.
It turned out that Chairman Mao had briefly went to Beijing to study and work in Beijing after 1918. In the great ancient capital Beijing, the palace mansion was not in the restricted area. There was only one iron door of Dongjiaomin Lane. There were foreign soldiers standing at the door. The Chinese were not allowed to approach.
During the May 4th Movement of the year, Beijing students protested in Dongjiaomin Lane and conflicted with foreign military police.
Chairman Mao never forgets to Dongjiaomin Lane. He said to the comrades of the Party Central Committee: "Dongjiao Min Lane is a rotten sore that grows on our Chinese face, and must be squeezed."
The PLA troops including the tank forces, and Chairman Mao asked to drive the tanks and armored vehicles seized by Jiang Jun from Dongjiaomin Lane.
At that time, the citizens and foreign journalists in Peiping were full of roads. When the PLA entered Dongjiaomin Lane, the people broke out.
You know, starting from 1860, the alley under this imperial city is the Chinese restricted area. This PLA armed for armed forces through Dongjiaomin Lane, letting all Chinese people raise their brows.
The PLA armed forces were passed on to the West by reporters through the news of Dongjiaomin Lane, and governments of various countries also chose to wait and see, because China has changed a few times, but no one dares to go directly with the West.
Until October 1, 1949, the People's Republic of China was born and established the "Military Management Committee" in early 1950. Chairman Mao ordered "to recover all foreign barracks and other illegal occupation in Beijing."
At that time, Dongjiaomin Lane was also the Peiping consulate and affiliated military camps in the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands and other countries, but Beijing issued a photo conference: the consulate can be retained, but the barracks must be recovered.
Subsequently, the PLA sent troops to Dongjiaomin Lane on January 7 to inform the central government's decision to the consulates of various countries and submitted receiving orders.
The order pointed out: "The garrison of the garrison obtained by the treaty in China has now been recovered. On this power, foreigners' military camps in China, as well as buildings and other real estate, are requisitioned for military needs. The government disposes itself. "
The consuls of various countries were surprised that they had never encountered such a tough request for the Chinese government.
What they didn't know was that Chairman Mao had already set a foreign policy of "sweeping the house first and then inviting guests". The New Chinese government and the Nanjing government are completely different, and they will not "treat wid The west."
The New Chinese Government announced that it does not recognize all modern and foreign unequal treaties and removes all foreign military bases in China, which is not ambiguous.
3. The history of foreigners in China in China will not return
The "Military Management Commission" told the consuls of Dongjiaomin Lane that they could move out for 7 days, otherwise the PLA will be forced to take over here 7 days, and the consequences will be at their own risk.
At that time, the Six Gods of the Consuls of various countries had no Lord and had to ask for help to a relatively powerful United States.
On January 7, 1950, U.S. Consul Kolebo held the last foreign consular meeting in the history of Dongjiaomin Lane.
Ke Lejo danced unity in all countries, opposed this "receiving order", did not pay attention, and did not withdraw people. He submitted this to a diplomatic height and made the Chinese government passive.
However, several other small countries were not confident. Last year, the PLA's Live and Guns passed the embassy street. They felt that instead of discussing themselves, they might as well leave early.
The United Kingdom was very clever and immediately announced that the People's Republic of China was the only legal government in China. Therefore, the State Council withdrew the recovery order against the British consulate.
Seeing that the United Kingdom acknowledged China, Ke Lebo was not a taste in his heart. The United States still supported the Jiang's Taiwan regime in the south. It is impossible to recognize the People's Republic of China now.
Therefore, he had to write to the Beijing "Military Management Association" and the State Council to report the legitimacy of the American consulate in Dongjiaomin Lane, and even raised the previous treaty of the Qing government to reason with the Kuomintang's 1943 "revision".
However, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs returned his letter because there was no diplomatic relations between China and the United States, and China did not recognize his consular identity. A civilian could not submit letters to the Chinese Prime Minister.
On January 10, Chairman Mao took a special list to visit the Soviet Union. At the same time, he paid close attention to the reception of Beijing Dongjiaomin Lane, and issued a telegram to the progress of the newspaper many times.
On January 13, only one day before the receiving time agreed by the "Military Management Association", Chairman Mao issued a telegram and must recover the foreign military camps, which is not vague.
On January 14, the 7 -day time set by the "Military Management Association" had arrived, and the PLA came to Dongjiaomin Lane to receive the embassies and barracks of various countries.
U.S. Consul Kolebo also wanted to resist, and said to the Chinese representative who came to receive: "According to international law, this is the US property, and I protest on behalf of the US government on behalf of the US government."
Chinese representatives entered the US barracks and saw the traces of no moving inside. Representative Li Mihan told Kelebo:
The United States violates the order of the "Military Management Commission". The next time it is not a few of us, but a unit of the PLA. All the consequences caused by this matter are personally borne by Ke Lebo.
Ko Lobo was so angry that he ordered the U.S. military in the military camp to clean up and moved out of the barracks before dinner.
In other countries, the United States raised his hands to surrender, and also moved out of the barracks. On January 14, the barracks were handed over to the Central People's Government.
Since then, Dongjiaomin Lane has not had any foreign barracks and has become a normal street under the management of the Chinese government. This incident was very shocked at that time. Following closely, Tianjin, Wuhan, Shanghai and other places began to recover the concession.
These concessions have decades of history, which preserves a large number of colonial buildings, which records the century -old humiliation history of modern China.
The new Chinese government's measure of retracting the concession this time has quickly aroused heated discussions in the world. Western countries have not received such "treatment" for nearly a century.Ke Lebo recalled that this incident was no less shocking than the end of World War II. He said: "China has tough back to Dongjiaomin Lane, which means that Westerners' superiority in the East has been completely lost, and it will never return."
So far, the era of modern China has also been announced.
1. "PLA's Iron and Steel Crossing the" Kingdom of the Elementary School "-Mao Zedong instructed Beiping to pass through the Dongjiao Min Lane", Chen Dunde
2. "New China to retract the beginning and end of Dongjiaomin Lane", Xiao Ting
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