Tangshan earthquake: 240,000 people were killed in their dreams, Chairman Mao cried when he heard the news, and read the last document of life2022-06-24 12:28:57 15 ℃
(Speaking of a woman in history -Issue 56)
Natural disasters never stay away. It has always been accompanied by human history.
The earthquake is the most uncontrollable in natural disasters. Once it occurs, the mountains shake, the house collapses, the life is like ants, and the money is like dung.
The earthquake came to Tangshan, China at 3:42 at the night of July 28, 1976.
Tangshan Earthquake Movie Photo
At this time, it was the time for people to rest, so except those who needed night shifts, people in the city were sleeping.
Just a few seconds, yes, a few seconds.
The dark and ruthless hand of the devil opened in Tangshan and opened it for a few seconds.
In these few seconds, more than 650,000,100 houses were caught.
In this tragedy, Tangshan City is the most serious, and it is the extremely earthquake area, and the intensity reaches eleven.
The Yuehe River from Kaiping District in the east, the west to the Academy of Mining, north to the Coal Research Institute, and south to the Nvzhai Commune. The area of the entire polar zone is almost 47 square kilometers.
There are as many as 320 square kilometers with intensity ten degrees. The intensive nine -degree area is as high as 1430 square kilometers. There are 5470 square kilometers in the eight -degree area. Seven and six -degree areas are wider, including many areas, including Beijing. In the beacon of the Beijing Wanli Great Wall in the seven -degree region, there were also collapsed. The stone man and stone beast in front of the Cixi Tomb of the Qingdongling Tomb of Zunhua County was also shocked.
In these areas, the eleven -degree area is the most serious, and the houses are all collapsed in the earthquake and no residual. For example, the dozen -story building of Tangshan People's Hospital collapses instantly, and it directly becomes a pile of several meters of ruins. For example, the cement road in front of the ten middle gate of Tangshan was cracked, and the crack was more than 1 meter wide ...
The house collapsed, and Tangshan became the most heartbroken city in China in a few seconds.
Of course, it is naturally not the loss of the house, but the silence and injury of the lively life behind the ruins -242,700 69 people die; the number of serious injuries is 164,888 51 people; the number of minor injuries is 544,000.
There are three causes of such tragedy:
The first is the high population density of Tangshan, with a population of more than one million in Tangshan.
The second reason is the time of the earthquake, midnight! This time is the time when people rest, and no signature can be known. Most of the victims basically leave in their sleep.
The third reason is that the aftershocks after the first great earthquake. Within 48 hours after the 7.8 magnitude earthquake occurred, a total of 16 times of strong residue at level 5 or above occurred, and more than 900 aftershocks above level 3. These large and small aftershocks caused new casualties to the first earthquake survivors, allowing the students to witness the terrible disaster. If the death itself is a kind of pain, then watching the lively life died a little bit in front of him, it is even more desperate and sad. Let's take a look at an example:
On the night of the earthquake, the 25th 5th Hospital of Tangshan Army had a nurse on duty.
After the earthquake, the hospital's building was not spared and collapsed.
The nurse on duty was very lucky. She survived in the earthquake that night.
The huge floor slammed Feng Chengbo's lower body to the ground, so that when people saw her the next day, they had the opportunity to implement rescue.
However, this kind of lucky light soon went out!
Because after the earthquake, the road collapsed and interrupted. Although the rescue work has begun, many rescue tools cannot enter the scene, such as cranes.
The situation of Feng Cheng Bo was very bad, because the comrades used all the methods, and they still couldn't open the floor that was stuck in the ruins. At that time, if there was a crane, it could easily solve this problem, but the crane could not drive into the rescue scene at that time.
The rescuers could only watch Feng Cheng Bo in the hands of death.
What is worse is that Feng Cheng Bo lost too much blood and life is becoming weak.
However, the scene could not be transfused for her and continued her life.
Of course, there is another way that since she can't move the floor, then if she can amputation, she can at least keep her life.
However, the amputation was not realized at that time, there were no doctors, no conditions for surgery.
What should I do?
Rescue personnel, including her colleagues, the only thing that can do is to accompany her in turn, to comfort her, but all the comfort has become a pale and helpless manifestation.
During this period, I do n’t know where everyone got half a watermelon, and no one was reluctant to eat. She quickly took it and fed her with a spoon and a spoon of spoon. I hope she can add a little physical strength and hope that her life can continue.
However, Feng Cheng Bo knew everyone's painstaking efforts, and also knew that his life would end in this disaster. So, she made a request to the friends around her with a weak voice, so please help her comb her hair.
My friend met her request and started to help her comb in ...
The people around me just watched Feng Cheng Bo, who was in his twenties closed his eyes on the ruins ...
Watching people die is actually a cruel thing! Especially in similar circumstances, people's hearts will be greatly tortured and torn. In the face of terrible disasters, people first were fear and then numb. One survivor was Lu Shi, who said in memory of the post -disaster scene at the time:
"······ most of them crawl out of the ruins barely, so everything is used ... (don't distinguish between men and women) ... Wearing a Japanese battle cap ... There are shirtless wearing Japanese horse pants (the costumes of the Peking Opera Troupe) ... There is a white beard old man with a stick of sticks, bare and thin body, but a girl wears a girl underneath. The flower cloth skirt ... "These scenes, if they are usually uncoordinated, they laugh, but in that desperate scene, people have no response, and people’s hearts are dazed and upright. Desperate, spiritual fear is caught tightly -fear can also kill yourself. For example, during the rescue process after the disaster, the rescuers found that some victims died of being smashed, but the bodies of other victims appeared. Psychologists believed that this was the mental collapse and could not suppress after the disaster encountered the disaster. The fear made them subconsciously realize these behaviors.
Tangshan Great Earthquake Movie Picture
However, people will be "killed" by despair, but at the same time, they will also inspire their desire to survive. Here are three examples:
The protagonist of the first example is Lu Guilan. During the earthquake, 46 -year -old Lu Guilan was accompanied by her husband at the hospital. During the earthquake, she climbed under the bed with her instincts. After the hospital was shocked, because of the protection of the bed, she escaped.
However, because the rescue work is difficult, it is difficult to carry out. In the process, Lu Guilan's thigh was fractured and her blood pressure was very low. When she was thirsty, she drank her urine. When she was hungry, she grabbed the soil. In this way, she fought against the god of death for 13 days, which was really amazing! Thirteen days later, she was found by the rescuer -after treatment, she survived, although the rescued Lu Guilan had symptoms of acid poisoning at the time.
The protagonist of the second example is a newlywed couple. The male is Chen Junhua, and the woman is called Hao Yongyun.
After the earthquake, they were buried under the ruins, but fortunately did not hurt their lives.
Under the ruins of Hei, Chen Junhua touched a kitchen knife in the darkness.
The kitchen knife made the newlywed couple saw a touch of light in the despair of the darkness, so Chen Junhua began to block their ruins in the dark.
If it is cut off, they can escape. This idea made them give up their lives.
However, Chen Junhua chisen seven holes, all forced to give up because he could not cut off the cement noodles.
At this time, the only kitchen knife had been severely worn due to chiseling and became a triangular iron piece.
Nevertheless, they still did not give up, and continued to survive with this iron film.
They touched the radiator in the darkness, so they started hitting the radiator with the "iron film", hoping to say the sound and attracted the attention of the rescue staff.
At first, they still had the strength to knock. Later, because of hunger, their strength became weaker and weaker. Nevertheless, they did not give up. At the last moment, Chen Junhua, who was weak to the extreme, was almost knocking on the willpower of life and the final instinct. But it was this knock that at more than 6 pm on the 30th that people on the ground were heard. The rescuers dug the ruins on them and rescued them.
The protagonist of the third example is Wang Zilan. She is a nurse at Tangshan First Hospital.
When the earthquake occurred, she was also on duty in the hospital. As the house collapsed, she was trapped underground.
If you are lucky, then the only luck is that she has not smashed her body by the collapsed object, and in the dark, she touched a bag of precious glucose salt water.
Over a second and one second, in the dark despair, she heard that there were better trapped people around her, but no one could help each other. They were surrounded by ruins. It's like a god of death.
Soon, the people around her soon died gradually, without the moaning of people, and made the smell of the corpse. When she was desperate, she made her clockwork on her watch, as if the time on the watch was leaving, she was full of hope.
Portugal salt water is getting less and less -this poor life -saving food! Every time she drinks less and less, only when she feels that she has reached the limit, she will take a little bit. In this way, after 8 days of persistence, she waited for the rescue staff.
She was rescued!
Of course, many victims like them were rescued, but the reason for rescue was of course not only relying on their own efforts, but relying on rescue workers outside. After the disaster, the first to reach the earthquake was the disaster relief army with the main force of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, as many as 100,000. Because the disaster is unimaginable, a city has become a pile of ruins, and what I hear between the ruins is screaming and crying, moaning, and crying. The soldiers watched this scene and shed tears.
Tangshan Great Earthquake Movie Photos
Because before August 7, the various rescue tools and equipment had not arrived at the scene, and the PLA soldiers began rescue work. They moved the stones with both hands, opened the floor plate, and pulled out the steel bars. As a result, many soldiers' hands were worn, and the flesh and blood were blurred. More seriously, the nails of many soldiers were falling off for the cause, and their hands became blood hands!
Nevertheless, they did not give up because in their hearts, the people's lives are more important than nails!
If rescue work is a difficult task, then another task is as important as saving people. That is to curb the plague and corpse burial work.
As we all know, after the large earthquake, plague will erupt, and there are many precedents.
For example, a magnitude 8 earthquake occurred in Hua County, Shaanxi Province in 1556, and the number of deaths in the earthquake was as many as hundreds of thousands, but the plague caused by earthquakes caused more than 700,000 people to be killed.
Therefore, when the Tangshan earthquake occurred, the number of casualties was too serious, up to 20 million, and the season was summer. Above, various infectious diseases have increased.
The leadership group knew the terrible plague, so the second day after the earthquake, the order issued, and the large -scale buried corpse work began. In the early stage, the corpses were mainly buried. The toxic gases that are rotten and emitted by the corpse make people unbearable. Therefore, the troops responsible for the work had no protective equipment. They had to use alcohol cotton balls into the nostrils, wearing a homemade mask, and then spraying alcohol on the corpse.
This work is extremely difficult, making many soldiers poisoning due to the pollution of the corpse liquid, and the arms and faces are sores and sores.
This situation was not improved until August 1, because this day was specially used to dig a protective supplies for buried corpses, as well as professional items such as special plastic bags installed with corpses to Tangshan.
In fact, in the winter of 1976, in the winter of 1976, according to the requirements of the Ministry of Health, it was also carried out again, mainly because the bodies that were not deep enough were treated, or buried, or cremated. This is the last word, let's not mention it for the time being.
As mentioned earlier, a large number of mosquito flies attracted by the corpse became in groups, resulting in an increase in infectious diseases. While buried the corpse, on August 3, the Hebei Province Earthquake Rescue Frontline Headquarters immediately established a leading group of epidemic prevention to mobilize 21 epidemic prevention teams from all over the country, a total of 1,300 people, and rushed to the disaster area. In addition, various supporting equipment emergency transport areas include more than one million vaccines, 31 military anti -anti -spray cars, more than 51,000 sprayers, and 176 tons of disinfection drugs.
On August 5, the State Council's Earthquake Resistance Office faced such an emergency and mobilized the aircraft to spray drugs for flying and mosquito extinguishing. The conventional operation of the "An One Erroba" aircraft in front and back was as many as 95, and the ultra -low -capacity spraying operations were 46. The cumulative spray volume before and after is 45 tons, and the area is 85 square kilometers.
In addition to air homework, ground disinfection operations have been carried out. Finally, after the land and air cooperation, the density of mosquitoes fell 90 %, and the density of flies fell by 50 %.
Generally speaking, if it fails to deal with it properly and effectively after the earthquakes, the outbreak of plague is basically inevitable. However, the Tang Dynasty earthquake was an exception. In the case where the conditions were relatively simple at that time, the whole country worked together to rescue the whole work. The daring plague not only broke out, but also did not even have an epidemic disease.
After talking about the probably earthquake disaster, there is another thing, and it must be said -that night when the Tangshan earthquake broke out, Chairman Mao Zedong fell asleep because of taking sleeping pills. The staff hurriedly lifted the chairman to the stretcher and went to the residence of the "Twenty -Two" on the side of the swimming pool. In the morning, the chairman of the serious illness woke up and heard that the Tangshan earthquake was shocked and asked to move back to his old residence immediately. The staff couldn't help but finally did a job for the chairman to work, and Chairman Mao promised to live here for a temporary work.
In 1976, Chairman Mao and Hua Guofeng were together
At that time, after the central government was informed of the disaster, it immediately studied and formulated a earthquake relief plan, and then conducted specific deployment arrangements. Then, Hua Guofeng wrote a report on Chairman Mao in the name of Vice Chairman and Prime Minister.
When Chairman Mao was reviewing this document, Wang Xinde (Note: Wang Xinde is a member of Chairman Mao's medical team, neurological and elderly medical experts) in duty. He saw such a scene. Later The
"······ The earthquake reported by the chairman, regardless of personal illness, must be personally visible. The earthquake died more than 240,000 people, and other losses were difficult to estimate. After the loss, the chairman heard the news and cried -I first met the chairman and cried. "
On the day of the earthquake, the Central and State Council mobilized rescue teams such as the PLA and medical teams to rush to Tangshan.
At that time, Chairman Mao's body was also seriously ill, but he still insisted on reviewing and processing documents in person, especially the report of the Tangshan earthquake reports. Important role.
Soon, the Central Committee drafted the "Notice on Earthquake Rescue Relief in Tangshan Fengnan" (Document No. 13] No. 13), and sent it to Chairman Mao to instruction. On August 18, Chairman Mao read. No one expected that this became the last important document of the CPC Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Because shortly after that, the chairman's health situation has undergone important changes: On August 26, the chairman's heart disease had recurred, and the condition began to deteriorate on September 26. Then the chairman's condition has not improved. At 0:00 on September 9th It's us.
In 1976, for our China, it was the most unfortunate year: first, Premier Zhou left us at the beginning of the year, and then Zhu De left us on July 6, and then the Tangshan earthquake left us with more than 240,000 robe, and finallyIt was the great Chairman Mao left us.In 1976, a year of departure, a year of separation, a year of fixation!
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