The central plan plans to carry out the second long march, Zhang Xueliang: After another one or two months, the situation in the Northwest has changed

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The central plan plans to carry out the second long march, Zhang Xueliang: After another one or two months, the situation in the Northwest has changed

2022-06-24 12:30:15 12 ℃

On June 12, 1936, the Red Army's leading troops -1 Army 2 Division 4 (head Wang Kaixiang, and political commissar Yang Dezhi) successfully turned over Jinshan, and in the Division of the Gongdawei and the Four Army Army.

The two main forces were in the Western Sichuan Association, and the strength of the Red Army has been greatly strengthened. The central government proposed the strategic concept of "occupying Sichuan -Gansu and Shaanxi provinces and establishing a Soviet of the three provinces". This idea obviously contains the meaning of the Red Army's development north.

In the telegram issued by Zhang Guozhang, the head of the four -way army on June 16, there was a saying particularly noticeable: "In the appropriate period, an organizational expeditionary army is used to occupy Xinjiang." step.

The so -called "opening the international route" is to connect the Soviet Union and develop the Red Army.

One day later, Zhang Guozheng called the central government and asked the central government's decision to develop north. He believed that northern Sichuan was not conducive to our army's actions, and inadequate support, and the enemy had already learned that our army wanted to go north to go north. intention.

Zhang Guozhang's suggestion is to develop west or south: passing through the Aba area to the west, you can enter Gansu and Qinghai; south may enter Ya'an, Mountain and even southwestern Sichuan.

The central government believes that the two directions of Zhang Guozhang are not suitable, because the west will enter the region of ethnic minorities, and the customs and customs will not be conducive to development. The south will enter the hinterland of Sichuan, which means Essence

The Central Government suggested that Zhang Guozhang came to work and discussed this major issue together. This is the origin of the famous Lianghekou conference.

At the Lianghekou conference, Zhang Guozhen agreed to the central plan of the central government. He acknowledged that he went to the Aba area to go west to pass a grassland area, and it was the summer rain season at the time. Archive forces.

Zhang Guozhang said, "It should be decided to establish a base in Gannan. As for how to fight, the Military Commission should make specific plans."

The policy of the north was settled in this way. After the meeting, the Central Committee drafted the "Decision on the Fourth Army's Council of the Fourth Army", "Deployment of Mats Pan" and "About Songpan Campaign Plan". It also quickly launched a preparation for the planning of the north.

The Lianghekou Conference officially established the north plan. Its back to the north and relying on the Soviet Union, the strategic concept of the Central Plains was very bold and wise. This has been proven by the later facts.

The Soviet military adviser Li De has some different opinions in this regard. He believes that the Red Army's back to the Soviet Union will cause trouble for the Soviet Union and even endanger the security of the Soviet Union. In fact, these considerations of Li De are also worried about Zhang Guozhang.

According to Zhang Guozhang's memoir, during the Lianghekou conference, Mao Zedong proposed a plan to north in Ningxia, Gansu, and added that the Communist International had also called and asked us to approach Outer Mongolia. Zhang Guozhen immediately issued a question: When will the Communist International have this instruction? Zhang Wentian replied that before the Red Army left Ruijin, the central government received the telegram of the Communist International.

Another concern of Zhang Guozhang is that with his years of experience in Sichuan -Shaanxi base, the Red Army and local warlords are very confident, but fighting with Chiang Kai -shek's Central Army is a bit difficult. At this time, Hu Zongnan, Chiang Kai -shek's "嫡 而 而", has led his department to intercept in the north.

On June 16th and 18th, Chen Changhao, a military political commissar of the four aspects, turned out to the central government twice, and proposed to ask Zhang Guozhang to be the secretary of the Military Commission.

By July 10, the Red Army had entered the Mao Lai area according to the plan, approaching Songpan, but the Red Four Army has been still undergoing soldiers.

The soldiers on the battlefield were expensive. If Chiang Kai -shek knew the intention of the Red Army to go north and sent Hu Zongnan to block, then the plan of the entire Songpan battle would fall.

In this context, the Central Electric Electric Electricity Zhang Guozhang: "The principle of the sub -line is quickly north, and the early scriptures are determined ... the ministries can really advance quickly, do not delay, and order the enemy to occupy the opportunity."

Seeing that Zhang Guozhang was still still, Zhang Wentian had to propose to the central government that Zhang Guozhang came to serve as the Red Army General Political Commissar, and Xu Xiangqian and Chen Changhao served as the command and political commissar of the former enemy forces. At this time, Zhang Guozhang began to swing in the north to enter the north to implement the plan to attack Song Pan.

However, the four -way army quickly appeared in the case of severe grain shortage of various troops. They could not reach the predetermined location, while Hu Zongnan quickly led his department to enter Songpan. In this way, the plan of the Songpan battle can only be forced to cancel.

Hu Zongnan's agile actions once again shaken Zhang Guo's determination to north. In order to unify his thinking, the Central Government held a sandwom conference again on August 6.

Zhang Wentian reiterated the importance of the north plan set by the Lianghekou conference at the Shawo Conference, and emphasized the importance of fighting northwest and relying on the Soviet Union.

Mao Zedong also focused on the issue of the Soviet Union. He said that the northwest is the "the weakest part of the ruling class", "the Soviet Union has a great influence in this region", "geographically close to the Soviet Union, political help in politics, military military, and military "Aircraft artillery" is also conducive to frustrating Chiang Kai -shek's fortress tactics.

He believes that at present, Gansu should be strived for first, and then sent troops to Xinjiang to "build a flying airport and repair arsenal."

And Zhang Guozhang and others believe that we should put our responsibilities on ourselves regardless of whether the Soviet Union aid or not or not; do not consider the ethnic minorities on the west as a difficulty and so on.

At this time, Zhang Guozhang had obviously changed his mind and did not agree with the plan to go north, but because he did not take the majority in the central government, the Shawo meeting passed Zhang Wentian's report. Soon after, the central government held a Maoer Gai conference again. This meeting officially determined the specific steps of the north to fight. Zhang Guozhang could not change the central government's decision, facilitating his position and identity, and the deployment of the central government in all kinds of constraints.

At the end of August, the Central Command of the right Army exceeded the bag and successfully opened up the passage of the north to Gannan. However, Zhang Guozhang was delayed for reasons for "lack of grain" and "big river water".

On September 3rd, he simply ordered to let the left army leave the original northward route and move west to the Aba area. On September 8th, Zhang Guozheng crossed the central government and directly commanded Xu Qianqian to the right of the right army and Chen Changhao, a political commissar Chen Changhao, and asked them to lead the right army to turn to the south.

After learning about Zhang Guozhang's actions, the joint name Xu Xiangqian and Chen Changhao sent a telegram to Zhang Guozhang, persuading him to stay in the place where it was not long. The development of Ningxia and Xinjiang is far better than the development of Xikang.

After receiving the co -branded telegram, Zhang Guozhang still insisted on his original plan, saying that Sichuan's enemies (than Hu Zongnan) were easy to fight. He successfully convinced Chen Changhao, and Chen Changhao decided to execute Zhang Guozhang's order from the south.

In this case, the central government can only leave the right army and lead the Red Army's main forces to go north overnight. It can be said that in early September 1935, the Red Army experienced the most thrilling page in its history.

However, at this time, the Red Army was far from being out of danger, and the future was still uncertain.

When the central government went north alone, only the main force of the Red Army -one or three troops (that is, the Red One Army and the Red Three Army). It was adapted into 6 groups, and they were actually only equivalent to 6 camps. With such a small force, it is obviously unable to complete the original task of establishing Sichuan -Shaanxi -Gansu or Gannan base in the north.

Peng Dehuai estimated at the time that one of our groups could only deal with Chiang Kai -shek's camp. In other words, the six regiments of the Red Army at that time were only enough to fight with the two regiments of Chiang Kai -shek.

In this case, Mao Zedong proposed the idea of ​​north to the border of Sumeng. He says:

"After the first and fourth areas, the army should be created in Shaanxi and Gansu. But now it is different. Now there are only the main force of the army -the first and third armies, so you should understand this problem. Guidance and help, rectifying the recuperation, expanding the team ... It is wrong to completely refuse to ask for people. I think it can be asked ... the Chinese revolution is part of the world revolution ... "

This is really a helpless decision. You know, with the current force, if you want to cross the vast area of ​​remote, desolate, and no revolutionary foundation, you will hit Outer Mongolia (at this time they are on the border of Sichuan Gan), and you will definitely experience unimaginable difficulties on the way.

Fortunately, after the fate cares, after entering the Hada Panel of Gannan, we learned from a newspaper that we still have a Soviet area in northern Shaanxi, which can be used as a settlement point. The central government immediately changed the original plan of the Northern Sung -Su Meng border, killed all the way to Ganbei, and then moved to northern Shaanxi, and finally fell.

In August 1935, before and after the Shawo meeting, the Seven Communist Party of China was also held in Moscow. After the meeting, the Communist International immediately assigned Lin Ying (Zhang Hao) to secretly return to China to find the Red Army who was on the north.

Lin Yuying's return to China this time will not only bring a new policy on the united front, but also bring suggestions for the Communist International's efforts to develop to the Northwest.

At this time, the Soviet Union had prepared the preparation of assisting the Red Army. There were two aid routes proposed by the military representative of the Far East Bureau at the time: one was to transport the materials from Xinjiang to western Gansu and let the Red Army receive it to Ganxi; the other was From Outer Mongolia to the Dingyuan Camp (now Ara Sanshan League of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region), the Red Army went to Suiyuan Dingyuan Camp to receive it.

Zhang Wentian was very happy to hear the news brought back by Lin Yuying, and immediately wrote to Mao Zedong and others who was in the front line of the front line. It was suggested that the Red Army quickly prepared to approach Ningxia near Outer Mongolia (the first way to the Soviets).

However, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai and others did not agree with Zhang Wentian. He called back and said that he did not agree with the Red Army to approach Outer Mongolia.

He pointed out that the current primary work of the Red Army is to increase 10,000 people within four months. He believes that the Red Army needs to spend 6 months to prepare and complete these two tasks.

Why did Mao Zedong leave after six months? First of all, the Red Army had suffered enough to leave the base area in the past, and even the danger of leaving the base area. In other words, it is not so urgent to open the international route at this time.

At the military conference held shortly after the central government, Mao Zedong formulated a "three -step" plan for the next operation of the Red Army: first, expand the Red Army in Shaanxi, consolidate strength, and prepare for the eastward. Breaking the main force of Yan Xishan, further expanding the Red Army, and getting communication with the Soviet Union; third, entering Suiyuan to the north, close to the Outer Mongolia and the Anti -Japanese Quan Line. The core ideas of these three steps are: associate the task of opening up the Soviet Union, consolidate and expand the Soviet area. According to Mao Zedong's plan, the Soviet Union was in the third step.

According to Mao Zedong's proposal, the Central Government has expanded the Soviet Area as the central task of opening up the Soviet Union.

On February 20, 1936, the Red Army launched the Campaign of the East Expedition. In the 75 days after that, the Red Army raised 300,000 silver to expand more than 8,000 soldiers.

However, Yan Xishan was also forced to make a helpless decision to "lead the wolf into the room" in this case -he sent a signal to Chiang Kai -shek. Chiang Kai -shek took the opportunity to let Tang Enbo's 30 groups enter Shanxi, and ordered Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng to quickly advance to northern Shaanxi, cutting off the connection between northern Shaanxi and Guanzhong. At this time, the Red Army had only 4 regiments and a few independent camps in northern Shaanxi, and the East Expedition quickly withdrew in northern Shaanxi in May.

During this period, almost everyone had no predictions: Zhang Xueliang and the Central Government established a united front relationship. Subsequently, Yang Hucheng and Gao Guizi also contacted the central government.

In other words, an establishment of a "Northwest University", developing west, entering Suiyuan through Ningxia, and the plan to open up the international route.

On May 8th, Mao Zedong made it clear that in the future, we will take the "Northwest University Joint Plan" with Lanzhou as the base camp as the main task of "fighting the Northwest National Defense Government".

Ten days later, the Central Government formulated the "Western March Battle Plan", which further clarified the development of the whole strength to the west, the camera seized Ningxia, and opened the strategic task of the Soviet Union.

At this time, after a period of development, the Central Red Army already had nearly 20,000 troops, and there was a response from Zhang Xueliang and others outside. The conditions were undoubtedly better than before. However, as the Kuomintang army crossed the Yellow River to enter northern Shaanxi, the Red Army's combat pressure was much greater. How to fight for the four troops still in the southwest has become a very urgent question.

As early as February 1936, Lin Yuying issued a telegram to Zhang Guozhang under the suggestion of the central government, explaining the intention of the Soviet Union, and asked them to try to go north. Since then, the central government has called many times and advised Zhang Guozhang to go north. After Zhang Guozhang's failure in the southwest, under the persuasion of Zhu De, Liu Bocheng, He Long, Xu Xiangqian and others, he finally agreed with the plans of the second and fourth aspects to go north.

After the Red Second and Fourth Army moved north, the Central Army led by Hu Zongnan quickly followed up. In order to prevent being siege, the central government was forced to change the plan to wait until the Yellow River was frozen in December, and the Ningxia campaign was carried out in advance.

On October 3rd, the Four Army's just formally formulated the North Advance Battle Plan was accidentally lost and was obtained by Hu Zong in the south of the army. Zhang Guozhang had to order the Xingye and the Red Army to meet with the Red Army, and moved to the east bank of the Yellow River with the main force of the four aspects to seize the ferry to the ferry to seize the ferry to the ferry to seize the ferry. , Strive to cross the river to avoid positive decisive battles with Hu Zongnan's troops.

By mid -October, the four aspects arrived in the east bank of the Yellow River and were ready to cross the river. Chiang Kai -shek went to Xi'an to supervise the war and asked the national military to gather the Red Army on the east bank of the Yellow River, and never let the Red Army cross the river.

Due to the long journey, the two and four aspects were very tired, and Ren Bishi even reported to the central government. The two aspects were actually basically in a state of losing combat effectiveness. Under the deployment of Chiang Kai -shek, the Kuomintang army launched a fierce attack from the three directions of the east, south, and west to the area where the two and four aspects were located, and quickly occupied the large positions of the two and four aspects.

In this case, Zhu De and Zhang Guozhang had to order the 30th Army of the Fourth Army to cross the river immediately, and the 9th Army followed up. Soon after, the front line of the Four Army also passed the river.

After crossing the river, the Central Government required the 30th Army to occupy Yongdeng, and the 9th Army prepared to attack the far -reaching camp and connect the Soviet Union. However, Xu Xiangqian and Chen Changhao believed that it was difficult for the troops of the 9th Army and One Army to seize the Dingyuan Camp, and Zhu De and Zhang Guozhen suggested that the 31st Army also crossed the river quickly.

Soon after, the central government said to Zhu De and Zhang Guozhen that the current policy is "fighting the enemy first, then attacking Ningxia, otherwise the attack will not be possible." Fight.

In a telegram sent to the Communist International, the central government explained their dilemma at this time: under the joint attack of the 70 regiments of Hu Zongnan, the Red Army had been placed in the danger of north -south pinch, so some Red Army had to cross the river. Order to stop crossing the river and turn around to strike the enemy of chase.

However, on October 30, Hu Zongnan's pioneer troops had arrived in the area of ​​Hedong La Pochi and were ordered to be forced to cross the West to the Red Army who guarded the ferry in Hedong. Subsequently, Hu Zongnan's troops advanced all the way, occupying the river banks near Jingyuan, and the Red Army Hedong and Hexi troops were cut into half.

Under the siege of heavy soldiers, the Red Army of the Hedong crossed the river again, and it was an impossible thing to seize Ningxia.

At this time, the Red Army of Hedong, including the Red Army, the Red Errifying Army, and the 4th Army of the Fourth Fourth Army. It turned out that when there was only the Red Army, the central government had felt the difficulty of development in Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxin.

Xu Xiangqian recorded a telegram sent by him in the memory: (Shaanxi -Gansu and Ningxin) Each county in all counties, there are many mountains, the ditch is deep, the water is loose, there are fewer people, and the transportation is inconvenient. The total population is only more than 400,000, and the Red Army in the Soviet Union has exceeded 30,000. The products are generally poor. Except for Xiaomi, wheat and miscellaneous grains are lacking, and the army cannot be provided for a long time.

They are compressed in barren narrow areas, and it is bound to be difficult to persist for a long time.

In this context, on November 13, Mao Zedong proposed that now he should consider mobilizing all the Red Army to go south, and then enter Shanxi in the east according to the situation, or go south to Henan and Hubei to prepare for one year on the outside long distance. Finally Try to return to the northwest. In other words, in order to survive, the Red Army had to conduct a second Long March.

On November 15th, after the central government notified the Red Army's order to the Red Army south to Zhu De, Zhang Guozhang, Peng Dehuai, Zhang Xueliang and others, Zhang Xueliang persuaded the Red Army to stay in place and "survived for one or two months".

As a result, the central government has implemented the implementation of the new plan, ordering Li Fuchun, Li Weihan and others to raise only one month of military food. At the same time, the Central Government Order the West Army (consisting of the Red 5, 9, and 30 Army, and the cavalry division, the women's independent group, etc., a total of 21,800 people) stopped westward, stayed in Ganxi to establish a base, and keep returning to the Yellow River to return to the Yellow River Possibilities and restraining the enemy of Ganbei.

What is the change of the Northwest situation referred to by Zhang Xueliang? At that time, Chiang Kai -shek intends to fight the Japanese army in Suiyuan. Zhang Xueliang repeatedly advised Jiang to lead the Northeast Army to the Suiyuan to participate in the Anti -Japanese War and oppose to continue to the Communist Party in the Northwest. Zhang Xueliang repeatedly persuaded invalid, and finally launched the Xi'an Incident that shocked China and foreign countries on December 12.

After the Xi'an Incident, the second cooperation between the KMT and the Communist Party was basically achieved, and the Red Army settled in the northwest, and the plan to go south to the Mainland was naturally canceled.

There are several directions after crossing the river. The first is to return to the Yellow River to meet with the large troops; the second is the Dingyuan Camp in the Suiyuan area to the north to accept the military assistance of the Soviet Union; the third is to go west Xinjiang, accepting the aid of the Soviet Union; the fourth is to stop building the Ganxi base in place to respond to the Hedong Red Army.

Among them, Huidu Yellow River and the large army are theoretically possible, but this means that it cannot receive Soviet assistance.

At this time, Xiangbei to Dingyuan Camp was no longer possible, because in May, the Japanese army instigated the German king to lead the pseudo -Mongolian army into Suiyuan many times. By mid -October, the pseudo -Mongolian army had repeatedly had another many times with Suiyuan Fu Zuoyi. The troops conflict. The Soviet Union did not want to intensify the conflict of the Japanese army. On November 3, it was generated to the Central Committee and pointed out that the line of Dingyuan Camp has not been able to do it. "We are studying the method of providing assistance through Xinjiang."

In other words, only the west to Xinjiang is still left in the west, and two directions are left in place.

Because I was worried that the Western Army went to Xinjiang too early, the Soviet Union was "ready", the Central Government turned out to the West Army on November 18, ordered them to stop the westward entry, stay in Ganxi to establish a base, and keep the possibility of returning to the Yellow River. Capitter Ganbei enemy forces.

Xu Qian recalled that Chen Changhao was "confident and energetic" for the establishment of a base for building a base, but he was "puzzled." Because the battle of Gulang a few days ago, the 9th Army had lost more than 2,000 people, and the 9th Army was injured. The 5th Army was weak, and it was actually less than one division.

At that time, Chen Changhao believed that "the Ma Jiajun was basically defeated by us" and believed that staying in place to build a base was not a problem. And they have no work foundation here, and they do not understand the people's conditions, so it is difficult to stand up for a long time and deal with the enemy.

At this time, Li Xiannian's plan to stay in place to build a base area was also very dissatisfied. He came to the headquarters to Chen Changhao, "This is not east, west, west, how can you be beaten? , I want to play the pioneer to the west. "In exchange, it was only Chen Changhao's sentence:" What do you know? Try! "

It was not until December 6 that the central government received a specific reply from the Communist International's assistance on Xinjiang aid, so the Central Committee notified the West Army to advance west. However, just a few days later, the Xi'an Incident broke out. He Yingqin led the department to reach Tongguan, and the "Xi'an Battle" was immediately touched. In order to ensure the safety of the rear of Xi'an, the central government and Zhang Xueliang proposed to hope that the West Army can return east to perform the restraint of the Ma Jiajun and Mao Bingwen, which responded to the Hedong troops.

The Western Army immediately discussed the East Progress. Most people believed that the eastward advancement was more difficult, because the main force of the Ma Jiajun was concentrated on the east, and the West Army's eastward movement was bound to start a decisive battle with Ma Jiajun, and abandoned the Hexi Corridor. It is also not conducive to opening the Soviet Union in the future.

Xu Xiangqian believes that this situation should be reported to the central government in truth, but at the same time, it should also be prepared to eastward. After receiving the response from the central government, the West Route Army's call back clearly stated that "resolutely execute the central government's decision and prepare to return to the east."

But just when the West Route Army was preparing to return to the east, the Xi'an Incident was resolved peacefully. Since the situation has eased, the primary task of the West Army has become the Soviet Union. At the end of December, the Western Army entered west again according to the central instructions.

After the Ma Jiajun found that the West Army advanced, he mobilized his strength to pursue. At this time, in January 37, Zhang Xueliang was deducted from Jiang back to Nanjing. Chiang Kai -shek mobilized 40 divisions to force Xi'an, and the situation in Hedong became nervous. At this time, the Western Army was required to stop westward and establish bases in Ganzhou and Suzhou. The Western Army hopes that the central government can send the 4th Army and the 31st Army to support them and fight with them with them, but the situation in Hedong cannot tolerate the central government to support them.

The Western Army executed the order and stopped in Linze and Gaotai area. From January 16, the central government continued to call, instructing the West Army to prepare eastward. However, as Ma Jiajun captured Gaotai, whether it was eastward, westward, or stopped in place, it was actually impossible.

The West Army, this glorious troops eventually stopped in the Hexi Corridor forever.

Xu Xiangqian wrote in his memoirs in his later years:

"(West Army) The entire army's commander is in the outer position of the lone army. In order to complete the combat task given by the central government, the white blade, the snowstorm, generous tragedy, and the death of the Chinese industry and peasants. ""

"The Western Army's order and instructions from the end to the end. Under the conditions of extreme difficulties, the majority of the soldiers were stubborn and struggling for almost 5 months. In terms of strategic role, it has a strong role in responding to the Hedong Red Army and the friendly forces, and it has an indelible contribution to the formation of the Xi'an Incident and the formation of the formation of the National Anti -Japanese National United Front. "

After the Western Army failed, the residue department was divided into three detachments, including Wang Shusheng, Zhang Rong, and Li Xiannian each led a breakout. Finally, only Li Xiannian's detachment moved to the snow for more than 40 days in the snow, and after all the hardships, he overcome it. All kinds of difficulties finally arrived in Xinjiang Xingxingxia.

At that time, Chen Yun, Teng Daiyuan and others were responsible for Li Xiannian's department in Xingxingxia. With the suggestion of the Soviet Minister, the troops of the hundreds of people were compiled into a "recruited camp". Car, armored vehicles, artillery, radio, air force flight and maintenance, intelligence, military medicine and other majors. They eventually became special technical talents in our army.

The failure of the Western Army was a huge and difficult loss in the history of our army. Due to the failure of the Western Army, the Soviet Union had to hand over a large number of prepared weapons to Sheng Shicai's troops. According to the memories of Teng Daiyuan in the article "Reminiscence of the Soviet Union to Welcome to the Western Army", before Chen Yun went to Xinjiang, Stalin had specially met him, saying what the Red Army wanted, and the Soviet Union could be satisfied (supplies of more than a thousand tons), At least 90 tanks and 90 artillery can be provided in heavy weapons. If the West Army really receives these equipment, what will the development of the war situation?

Xu Xiangqian said: "That is not only the issue of the situation in Hedong, but also a positive impact on the entire anti -Japanese war. The Eighth Route Army will not only compile three divisions. Packing him for troops ... "