The true history of Tang Seng: and he is not sworn king Li Shimin

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The true history of Tang Seng: and he is not sworn king Li Shimin

2017-01-13 16:37:10 865 ℃

"Journey to the west" is the only Chinese four masterpiece in a ghost story, the book in the middle of the Ming Dynasty Novels, since its inception in Chinese and widely spread throughout the world, have been translated into many languages, the popularity of more than three other masterpiece. The book describes several typical characters: Sun Wukong, magic wit and humor, honest, love Shuadian little tricks of the pig, honest, diligent sand monk, defying hardship, to strike, but can not help but also some unreasonable Tang Seng is almost known to every family. "Havoc" "three strikes" by three palm leaf fan "and other stories, especially for people familiar with.

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The novel "journey to the west" describes the monk mentoring four road after 99 to eighty-one conquer evildoers, and finally obtain the real story from the Western Buddha there. Because the history is really a Farmington Xuan Zang Tang Dynasty monk went to India to learn, "West" occupies an important position in the history of Buddhism China. Therefore, some people will inevitably confuse the characters in the novel with the real characters. In fact, the myth novel "journey to the west" is based on Xuan Zang from the story, but the Xuan Zang described in the book have been deified, for almost all of the plot is fiction from it, as Xuan Zang's three disciples monkey, pig, the sand monk also is fictional.

True monk road although not encountered but also the history of what demons and ghosts, extremely dangerous.

Why become a monk?

In Wu Chengen's novel "journey to the west" in the Tang's birth has a legendary experience: Tang's parents was a schemer in the boat, the monk also almost was born after them, thanks to the mother secretly put him in the tub along the river to drift away, only temporary retention of life. The little monk in float Jinshan Temple to be saved by the dairy faming monk, named after the adult, whose name is Xuan Zang, from the Buddha and forged indissoluble bound.

The truth of the birth process is still a mystery, when and where he was born, there is no conclusion. Generally, the Xuan Zang in the Sui Dynasty two years (602 years), was born in Luozhou Goushi county (now Yanshi County, Henan province), before becoming a monk named Chen Mingyi, Xuan Zang is his monastic name.

Then, when Xuan Zang was born or what abnormal signs? "In the Da Ci'en Temple Tripitaka master biography", had such a story: the master at birth, his mother was a white mage to her family, the master said: "in order to seek law, so to the west." The white mage is. Although this is just a legend, but Xuanzang child's performance is different.

Another argument is that the master is born Xuanzang parents in their old age, his father was around fifty. His son, let his parents very cherish. Xuan Zang childhood clever precocious, recite thousand gifted with an extraordinary retentive memory, diary.

Xuan Zang is the master of Buddhism wizards, so how did he become? "Records of pilgrimage to the west", Xuan Zang is the seat of the Tathagata Jinchan elders reincarnation, embark on the journey to the west is decreed by fate. In the "Tang Monk master Xuan Zang" and "miracle Temple Tripitaka master biography", will explain the motivation for Xuan Zang to become a Buddha in Chongxin. In contrast, "Dao Xuan in the Tang imperial continuation Eminent Monk Biography Jionji Xuanzang biography" recorded in the release is quite subtle, which refers to "less suffering from poor cool" four characters, is a teenager because Xuanzang seems to imply that the predicament of life become a nun.

According to the "continuation of monks" records, Xuan Zang's family began well, grandfather and father are the intellectual father Chen Huiceng be a brilliant man of wide learning, the magistrate, the mother is sui governor history song Qinzhi female, master Xuan Zang is fourth. The mother of Xuan Zang was five years old when he died before the age of eight, his father was old and sick and so it caused resign in return, Xuan Zang was exhausted situation.

Xuan Zang's brother, a monk, Farmington Long Jie, Luoyang Land Temple, Xuan Zang often followed him to study the Buddhist scriptures. The monk Xuanzang also at the age of thirteen. Adult Xuan Zang walked around the country visiting monk. Hugh, Tao Hui has to deep learning through many eminent Buddhist scriptures, deep attainments.

So, who is the long journey scriptures? What is the real purpose of his West to learn from? In the novel is to say: the Avalokiteshvara surface law in Tang held, asked him if he talks big multiplication. Tang Sengzheng could not learn Mahayana at home, very humbly to ask Buddha, Bodhisattva to direct him to take the Mahayana Buddhist life. So he took the initiative to Tang Taizong volunteered, embarked on a long road westbound.

However, the real situation is: in the Chinese history, as early as before Xuanzang there are a lot of people pilgrimage to the west, these stories allow Xuanzang longing. The Eastern Jin Dynasty monk Faxian's success and written by "Buddhist records", more directly inspired Xuan Zang to obtain Buddhist classics determination. Another important reason is Xuan Zang West, Xuan Zang found in the Buddhist process, when Buddhist interpretations of the same classic there is a huge difference, this ambiguity cannot unity and coordination for the development of Buddhism is obvious danger.

Tang Wude nine years (626 years), Xuan Zang met in India from the Baltic monk in Changan he is quite Mitra, India, Tuo Temple Buddhist authority silabhadra disciple, can take the size of the classic one hundred thousand song memorized. Xuan Zang heard the news to personally to consult the monk of India. Xuan Zang heard him say silabhadra well versed in hundreds of Buddhist classics, and is Nalan Tuo Temple lectures, and legislation for westbound determination.

A real obstacle to the West

Read the "journey to the west" people know that the biggest obstacle to the monk from the journey to the West from demons and ghosts. In the novel, Tang is appointed by Tang Taizong to go to the west. Before his departure, Tang Taizong himself will die clearance to monk, but also with his sworn brothers, very supportive of him. However, the real Xuan Zang in the west at the beginning, the main obstacle is from the court.

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The early period of the Tang Dynasty, the initial state, boundary instability, people are not allowed to cross the border. Zhenguan the first year (627 years), he often and often application "over" (i.e. pass, in the novel, die clearance) to the westbound method, but has not been approved by the emperor. This does not discourage Xuanzang westbound Buddhist thought, he decided to look for opportunities to the west. According to the regulations of the time, the viscosity is heavier than the viscosity of the mainland border pass punishment, so his decision is very dangerous. Zhenguan three years (629 years), Changan suffered the disaster, the government allowed people to find their way out, Xuanzang took the opportunity to mix victims smuggling exit. That year, Xuan Zang was just twenty-seven years old. From that day on, he set foot on an unknown road.

True Xuanzang has firm courage and extraordinary courage, and complete novels of Tang different timid and overcautious.

Xuan Zang's journey to the west, although there is no 99 of the eighty-one difficult, but also a crisis, many times was almost caught, but he can finally smooth clearance.

Xuan Zang arrived in Liangzhou (now the Gansu Wuwei border), lived for more than a month, as saying the local monks of the altar, very popular. Liangzhou is a metropolis in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu, which is an important city on the silk road. At that time, in order to prevent the intrusion of Turks Khan, Liangzhou governor Li Daliang received the imperial decree: the border blockade, prohibited personnel westbound. When Xuan Zang is going to continue to the west, Liangzhou off guard soldiers can't cool switch release, had first reported Li Daliang. Li Daliang know Xuanzang's reputation, let his men to convey his orders: no pilgrimage to the west, immediately returned to beijing.

Xuan Zang suddenly caught in a dilemma. Perhaps there is no way out of the way, Liangzhou, there is a monk called Hui Wei to help him. Hui Wei is the Hexi area of the Buddhist leader, very powerful. Hui Wei learned that Li Daliang's cap, decided to help Xuan Zang. He sent Hui Lin, the two disciple was escorted out secretly. During the day and defense is very strict, not out, so they find a deeper midnight Nobody down the rope to sneak out of the city.

Xuan Zang said the two monks escorted Hui Lin, along the way, a few days after the night to go, brave the wind and dew, reach Guazhou (now Anxi). Tokgo of Guazhou Cishi respect Buddhism, master came to hear Xuan Zang, hospitality. The Liangzhou governor Li Daliang was soon interrupted with the document. They have doubts about the identity of. Li Chang, an official, gave the document to Mr Xuan Zang in private, and asked, "is this the master," said Mr. Xuan Zang, hesitating to answer. Li Chang said: "please tell me the truth, if you are, I think of you." Xuan Zang had to tell the truth. Know the truth of the Li Chang moved Xuan action and spirit, when the plane tore up the documents Xuanzang, let him leave as soon as possible. After he left the Guazhou, in order to avoid the government's questioning, dare not openly for road, it must be on the road, so as not to get lost, but always there is danger of soldiers.

Although Xuan Zang in Guazhou before, also encountered difficulties, but basically is a smooth road. From the beginning until Yiwu Guazhou, (now Xinjiang Hami) between the nine hundred mile journey, is the most Xuanzang westbound difficult.

The natural characteristics of Guazhou is the biggest desert and gale. Say goodbye to Xuan Zang Lee Chang, this is very bad. First of all, when he came riding a dead horse, two monks from Liangzhou also left him, plus hard, no one is willing to take him to lead the way, Xuanzang was a piece of worry. At this time, there is a Renshi Hu pan Tuo willing to walk with him. But this is not true with Hu Road, after entering the desert, because of fear, Xuanzang left, back. Helpless, Xuan Zang had a personal crustily skin slipped through five Fengsui, entered the eight hundred largest desert - Mo Heyan moraine desert. In the passage, he was almost shot by the guards. After entering the desert, although there is no threat to the officers and men, but from the nature of the more dangerous terrorist. The unique phenomenon of mirage in the desert, like a ghostly shadow, always haunt Xuan Zang, and shrouded the desert from him and coerced from time to time. At this time, only the water bag and unfortunately dropped on the ground, sprinkle water to the last drop. Xuan Zang thought of retreat, and really retreated. He walked back more than and 10 miles, but eventually turned back and went west. Five days later, in the absence of water and lost the case, Xuan Zang miraculously arrived out of the desert, western the first station of Yiwu, after several days, the Gao Changguo (now Xinjiang Turpan County).

Xuan Zang met again in the Gaochang domestic block.

The king Qu Wentai heard Xuan Zang coming, sent to greet him and Xuan Zang become sworn brothers. He hoped to use his kindness to keep the knowledgeable monk at his side. Xuan Zang west road again blocked him with a hunger strike to his determination westbound. On the fourth day, he has been very weak, Ju Wentai agreed to let him go, but also provides rich material hard to imagine. Prior to departure, koji Wentai request Xuanzang back from India high pass country, keep three years. Also asked to go preaching a month later, Xuanzang promised 11.

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Leave the Gaochang, Xuanzang had their first learn from the team, a total of thirty people. The team only existed for a short period of time, followed by a large avalanche and altitude sickness took away the lives of most people, only two disciples and Chi Yi survived.

631 years, he through more than and 20 countries, finally set foot on the land of India, to see the nalanda.

Since then, he in the world's first Buddhist University, began a more than and 10 year study. During this period, in a national debate conference held on Harsha, fame, Xuan Zang since then, Xuan Zang in India famous, and no one can.

641 years, he left Harsha ready to return, he decided to walk along the Silk Road North line, after a high country back to Changan. According to him and bowed Wentai agreed, Xuanzang originally to Gaochang state for three years, but in the east the way that Gao Wang Juwentai is dead, this agreement failed to achieve. Two years later, Xuan Zang returned to China by the official and folk warm welcome.

Disciple and Bai Longma

The myth of the novel, Xuan Zang not only broke the four disciples on the road: Sun Wukong, Zhu Bajie and Shaseng, little white dragon, with Guanyin Sambo: Jin bat cassock, nine ring Xizhang, three gold hoop, and the golden Yuci etc.. The way for the Royal Dragon, how the power and prestige, but the reality of the monk is not so lucky. Not only is not lucky, it is unfortunate.

Xuan Zang road to help get a lot of people, but not the apprentice, if must find a disciple of words, Hu Renshi pan Tuo barely one, he is the only active please Xuan Zang as he ordained.

From the above analysis shows that the reality of the monk at first, only one person, walk fifty thousand miles to reach the western regions. A local called Hui Wei monk Xuanzang was very sympathetic, Hui Lin sent his disciples, they escorted him to the night to go west, Guazhou (today's Gansu Province, Anxi County East), two monks on the back. Buy a horse in Xuan Zang Guazhou, but no one is cited. At this time Renshi Hu pan Tuo to please Xuan Zang as he ordained, and volunteered to be the guide to Xuan Zang. Some scholars believe that the pan Tuo stone is the embodiment of "journey to the west" in Sun Wukong. Shi pan Tuo was is the first disciple received, and identity is a wizard, and the identity of Sun Wukong very well. And since the pan Tuo stone Xuanzang tonsure, pan Tuo stone the hu man became a monk monk Sun Wukong and Hu Hu, commonly known as the monkey is very close in pronunciation, may be the result of changes in the spread process, it is not impossible. But the man didn't go through the same way as Sun Wukong did, and he was gone.

From this moment, Xuan Zang was left alone, and in front of him was a vast desert. In the desert, he lost, this is a very terrible thing, did not think his last Disasters pile up on one another., water bag has been knocked over. After four days and five nights did not drop after the torture, he was dying, the devout Buddhist meditation Guanyin lying in the desert. For Xuanzang, he just kept Guanyin spiritual pillar of life, really help him out of the predicament is a purplish red rosinante. Obviously, this is a rich travel experience horse, it brought Xuan Zang to a next spring. Compared with the handsome white horse, this is not the prototype.

Xuan Zang in the west to see who?

In "journey to the west" in the Tang monk, to reach the destination is the Western Tianzhu big Leiyin temple, see is Buddha. But in reality, a long journey of destination no more no Buddha Leiyin temple. The real Buddha Shakya Muni, born in sixth Century, and at the age of eighty and a long journey is nirvana, things have been in the middle of sixth Century, separated by thousands of years, of course, to see where he tathagata.

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Xuan Zang was going to make all the Buddhists infinite longing Buddhist shrine (Nalanda in India Bihar bombat that East Pakistan Prince Gong Cun), it was India Buddhism's highest academic institution, this size by simultaneously, mainly to mahayana. When Xuan Zang arrived here by greet the pomp and a novel, Nalanda Temple monks have heard of Xuan Zang against King Kong, mission to meet the four elders, more than two hundred monks and more than 1000 tanyue holding building cover flowers coming to lead, in the public praise on Xuan Zang welcomed the nalanda.

Xuan Zang to Nalanda, is the abbot of the master of noble character and high prestige silabhadra temple. At this time, silabhadra has more than 100 years old, is said to be left waiting for Shou Xuan, showing his respect for his abnormal. After Xuan Zang in the Nalanda university to study for five years, and traveling, traveling in dozens of countries, with an open mind to ask teacher. Then return to Nalanda, learning to his teacher gave a report by silabhadra appreciation.

Tang Zhenguan sixteen years (642 years), India, north ring king held Buddhism debate conference in kannauj, please Xuan Zang on the main, participants have five Indian eighteen kings, the size of three thousand by two thousand people and externalists Buddhist scholars. Then we can easily speak Xuanzang, ask questions, but no one can stop him. The debate made him a shake five India, and was honored as the "Mahayana Mahayana day", was honored as the "liberation day of hinayana". Harsha Youjian invited Xuan Zang to once every five years, which lasted seventy-five days of the ceremony. After the meeting, he decided to leave.

After Xuan Zang's return to the news spread, Harsha Qianfang tried to retain him, kamarupa country Jiumoluowang said, as long as he remained in India, for he built one hundred temples. However, these favorable treatment did not shake his determination to return home.

Grand home

In the novels of Tang GUI Tang after a brief, directly by the Buddha under the seat of the diamond drove escort home auspicious clouds. Only mentioned four back to Datang, by the unprecedented meeting.

In reality, his return journey is indeed smooth, and escort, but not a fairy, but by several countries of the king in a relay escort home. Zhenguan nineteen years (645 years) twenty-five January, Xuanzang returned to Changan to meet the parade is unprecedented, "said the popular Ben Ying, inclination of strike", and whether to meet, so that the capital market has stopped. Xuan Zang returned to Changan for second days, in the street south Suzaku to showcase his Buddhist statues brought from India.

"Journey to the west end, said Tang master the book back to Datang, and by the king back to the west, to a few people were granted the Tathagata position. The truth is, after Xuan Zang returned home, Tang Taizong had to let him take the Regents but declined to be the master, his thoughts are in the translation back to the book.

Most of the time after Xuan Zang's return to the translation work, he has been translated into the Buddhist Sutra of the 75 volumes, both the number of translation, or quality, are unprecedented in the 1335. He also creatively invented new translations. The previous translation method called old translation, translation and meaning to the old as the representative of the old translator Kumarajiva, mostly foreigners, these people were not proficient in Chinese, or too much emphasis on literal translation, literal translation, often make Chinese difficult to understand. Xuan Zang is a good solution to these problems, he is fluent in Sanskrit, and proficient in Chinese, the translation of the classic without losing the original purpose, but also smooth, easy to read Chinese.

After Xuan Zang returned home also wrote an important work, is the "Buddhist records", the book records the social history of West Asia, South Asia the majority of countries in the region, the area and the situation at that time, some of the information in this book is Xuan Zang, there is no other book, therefore, it not only makes people open the vision, also provides a number of Historical Archaeology in India. Almost all of the books on the ancient India issue now refer to the contents of the book.

Lin Tak first year (664 years), a Buddhist master passed away. In that day there are about one million people buried Xuanzang, funeral, more than 30 thousand people in the grave. After his death, the master sent to where the remains, remains a mystery.