Zhang Jiadong: The American Asia -Pacific Union system is changing significantly

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Zhang Jiadong: The American Asia -Pacific Union system is changing significantly

2022-05-14 12:23:17 6 ℃

The United States -ASEAN Summit was held in Washington from the 12th to 13th. In addition, a week later, the US President Biden will also visit Japan and South Korea and participate in the "Safety Dialogue" mechanism of the "Sifang Safety Dialogue" mechanism in Tokyo. Many media said that after nearly three months of the outbreak of the Russian and Ukraine conflict, the Bayeon government was in Turn attention to Asia Pacific, especially to increase the allies and partners of the region. During the Trump period, the United States played the banner of "U.S. Priority" to show the trend of de -alliance. After President Biden came to power, Washington re -emphasized the construction of the alliance system. Especially in Asia Pacific, the United States has invested great energy to try to consolidate the traditional alliance system and build a new alliance relationship network.

The United States' alliance system in the Asia -Pacific region has shown two more obvious changes: First, from the alliance system centered on geopolitics to the alliance system based on values. During the Cold War, the United States took the Soviet Union as its highest goal, contacted all possible countries, and established an alliance system that spans the boundaries of ideology and based on geopolitical forms. After the end of the Cold War, the United States once prevailed in "economic and trade decision theory", and believed that economic and trade cooperation could surpass traditional geopolitics and values ​​differences and build a globalization system. Trump's "U.S. Priority Theory" is actually a variant of "decision -making theory". But after Biden came to power, the United States turned to build an alliance system based on values.

Second, from the United States -centered Level Alliance system, to multi -center, multi -form, multi -level network -style alliance system. Since President Biden came to power, the United States has become more diverse in forming an alliance system. The United States has developed from the leaders of the League system to leaders, key minorities, and behind -the -scenes triple characters.

Based on this, the United States tries to build a multi -level, multi -field system in the Asia -Pacific region. This Asia -Pacific new alliance system mainly has the following characteristics:

The first is "divided levels". This is actually an inherent feature of the American Asia -Pacific Alliance system. The US Asia -Pacific League system consists of three levels: core allies, allies and strategic partners. The core ally refers to the "Anglo -Saxon Group", the main carrier is Opus Alliance and the "Five Eye Alliance". Britain, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada not only have conventional alliance treaties with the United States, but also have the consistency of religious culture and values, as well as super alliance relationships in intelligence and military. Allies are the main strategic starts of the American Asia -Pacific League system. Japan, South Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines have the existing alliance treaties in the United States, and they are converging in terms of values. Strategic partnership is the peripheral support for the US Asia -Pacific Alliance system. The United States and India, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, and Vietnam have different strategic partnerships. In this type, India is the most special. The United States has equal emphasis on India to attract and prevent. On the one hand, it is committed to developing strategic partnerships with India, and even trying to promote India to become regional leadership countries.

The second is "joint network". The United States tries to assault the Asia -Pacific Alliance system and promote many new cooperation systems that spans the boundaries of the alliance. Through this decentralized, multi -center alliance network, the United States hopes to enhance its strategic elasticity and sustainability. "Indo -Pacific Strategy" is an important strategic concept of the United States. Through this new concept, the United States is trying to connect the ocean country in the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean, with Japan as the main strategic base point, and India as the main target to form an elastic checks and balances of territorial powers. The "Quartet Safety Dialogue" mechanism is an important starting point for the United States. Under this mechanism framework, several "2+2" dialogue mechanisms and trilogy cooperation mechanisms for bilateral defense diplomacy have also been formed. Japan and Australia signed the "Mutual Access Agreement" in January this year to push the relationship between the two countries to the altitude of the quasi -alliance.

The third is "cross -region". Traditionally, the United States' alliance system in Asia Pacific and the cross -Atlantic system are independent. In this way, the security affairs of the Asia -Pacific and Europe must pass through Washington, and the United States can easily maintain its strategic axis position. On the one hand, the United States is working hard to form a "three ocean linkage" pattern, integrate the Confederate system of the Atlantic, Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, and promote NATO Asia Pacific. In April of this year, NATO held a foreign minister meeting. In the past 12 years, the strategic direction and action guide for the first time in the past 12 years, and for the first time, we will focus on the "Chinese factors". At this meeting, Japan, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand were invited to the meeting of NATO Foreign Ministers. On May 5th, South Korea officially joined the NATO network defense center. This is the first time the agency has expanded members to countries outside Europe, which means that South Korea has joined NATO's network security alliance system.

On the other hand, the United States also strives to promote bilateral military cooperation between NATO member states and the Asia -Pacific allies. Britain and France have begun cruise activities in the Western Pacific region. Not long ago, Britain and Japan also reached an agreement on the signing of the "Mutual Access Agreement" on a "historic". This is the third similar agreement signed by Japan and the first similar agreement signed by European countries.

The fourth is "cross -domain". The traditional American alliance system mainly focuses on the "hard security" fields such as politics and military. Now, the United States has also strived to establish an alliance or quasi -alliance system in the "soft safety" field. At the multilateral level, the United States tries to promote the "Indo -Pacific Economic Framework" to make up for the loss of economic and trade leadership due to exit TPP. In some more micro areas, the United States and its allies are also active. "Blue Dot Network", chip square alliance, vaccine initiative, and mutual recognition of vaccine passport agreement, etc., involve infrastructure construction, key industrial chain supply chain, and disease prevention and control. The European Union is also actively playing its own economic advantages. Last June, the EU -the United States Trade and Technology Commission was established. In April this year, the "EU -India Trade and Technology Special Committee" was established. These all show that the United States is trying to build a huge cross -domain consultation and cooperation system. Finally, it is worth noting that as the Russian -Ukraine conflict continues, the United States may extend from the geopolitical goals of the Russian region and international influence to the values ​​that change Russia's political system. Correspondingly, the US -Pacific Alliance system based on values ​​also has the possibility of establishing a wider value -of -values ​​alliance system. (The author is a professor at the American Research Center of Fudan University)