The weekend reading foreign media headlines published Chinese think-tank article, exposing the United States in the South China Sea lies (in English)2016-07-31 23:05:33 319 ℃
The English version of this article published in July 27th, "foreign scholars" magazine official website
Author Wang Wen executive dean of Department of Renmin University of China Chongyang Institute of finance, Department of National People's Congress Chongyang researcher Chen Xiaochen. The English version of this article published in July 27th, "foreign scholars" magazine official website.
The arbitration case in the South China Sea triggered an unprecedented unanimous opposition from the Chinese domestic public. And, according to reports, according to the data provided by China, a total of 66 countries around the world in the South China Sea dispute in support of China's position. However, this figure also sparked controversy, especially in the United states.
According to a brief study of our team, we find that at least 70 countries support China's position on the South China Sea on a variety of occasions. We believe that the reason for this controversy is different from the definition of "China's position". However，In any case, the definition of the position of these countries, they are reflected in their psychological state - to avoid war, to show the real world of mainstream public opinion is the conflict in the South China Sea anxiety, hope that the South China Sea and the world peace.To this end, we should seize every opportunity to break through zero sum game, to maintain peace in the South China Sea, to seek economic cooperation in the Asia Pacific, with economic and financial means bigger cake".
How many countries support China's position?
Without doubt，Strong opposition to arbitration in China's domestic social media shows the support of the Chinese government's position on the Chinese government.Moreover, China's position has been understood and welcomed by other countries. According to the information provided by the Chinese government and the media, a total of nearly 100 political parties from more than 60 countries expressed support for China's position. According to "China Daily" reported that 66 countries have expressed support for China's position.
However, this has been questioned by the U.S. media and think tanks. There are think of the U.S. think tank, only 10 countries. We have also received such a question email.
Digital difference is so great, we Renmin University of China Chong Financial Research Institute of the Ministry of research team -- must be through their own research to verify. We conducted a massive search network, to find out the original data sources, including the official statement, diplomatic documents, conversations and media reports. We also retrieved China's foreign related database, Xinhua news agency platform and multimedia database, our own news database, including related data from Bloomberg and Reuters.
Strikingly, we found that 70 countries expressed support for China's position, which is more than the Chinese media said. We have included the list of these countries and the date of their position in the appendix. According to our global network of information, there are other countries in the private support; we only calculate the publicly expressed support for the country. Our team is also likely to miss some of the countries that support it.
Why is the number difference so big?
Among them a reason is obvious: some support for the voice and not use English to express, but the use of Chinese, French, Spanish, Arabic, Swahili, Khmer language or other languages. As a result, some people in the English speaking world did not find these support voices.
More important is that we believe that,The essence of China's position has not been understood by the American media and think tanks.In our view, China's position can be interpreted as follows four:
(a) China does not participate in the arbitration, does not accept, does not recognize and does not enforce the arbitral tribunal's ruling.
(b) China has always insisted on a peaceful way to resolve the dispute over the South China sea.
(c) China adheres to the disputes are settled by way of dialogue, maintaining peace and stability in the South China Sea, with the provisions of the Declaration on the conduct of parties in the South China Sea related direct negotiations to resolve the dispute, and China will continue to jointly safeguard peace and stability in the region and the ASEAN countries.
(d) the provisional arbitration tribunal is neither part of the international standing tribunal, nor is it part of the International Court of justice. It has no jurisdiction over the core territorial disputes of the arbitration case. The arbitration case itself is full of flaws. Therefore, the ruling is not legally binding, it does not mean that international law.
It must be noted that support for any of the above views is considered to support China's position. On the contrary, the public recognition of the legitimacy of the arbitration tribunal, that China should recognize and enforce the ruling of the country is opposed to China's position.
From this point of view, according to our research, there are at least 70 countries from the above four angles, in a unilateral, bilateral or multilateral way to China's position expressed support. They are all welcome to settle the dispute in a peaceful way. The unilateral arbitration in Philippines in fact violated its commitment to take the path of dialogue and negotiations. In these countries, there are a number of publicly supported China does not accept the position of arbitration. But it's just a part of "China's position". American media and think tanks are just narrowing and distorting China's position.
In short, most countries on the South China Sea dispute position can be divided into three kinds:
The first, to Japan and so on, to support the position of Philippines, that China should comply with and implement the arbitration".This is a country with a very small number of countries. China Daily in the figure marked out 5, but our team only confirmed 3: Japan, Australia and the United states. Vietnam and the United Kingdom in the picture are not in the country against China's position (according to our definition). According to Japanese media reports, Japan's Asia Europe conference held in Ulan Bator, the South China Sea issue will be listed as the issue of the South China Sea, but in addition to Philippines, there is no other country to respond to.
Second, firmly support China does not accept the position of arbitration, such as Pakistan, Kampuchea and some African countries.These countries are much more than the first. For example, reported on June 20, Cambodia's national TV station of a public speech on the Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen revealed some foreign countries that are believed to be in Japan, in the arbitration to ASEAN countries applied diplomatic pressure. He also expressed his opposition to the arbitration. On July 12, Pakistani Foreign Ministry official website released a statement to the media, the neighboring country of China reiterated to China according to the United Nations Convention on the law of the sea "article 298 the exclusion statement of support attitude. In African countries, Kenya publicly stated on its foreign ministry website on July 15th to respect China's exclusion of the 298th article of the Convention. Gambia, another West African coastal state, through its national television and radio stations clearly expressed the arbitral tribunal of the South China Sea delimitation without jurisdiction, thus supporting China's position.
Finally, a lot of countries support China "based on the Declaration on the conduct of parties in the South China Sea, through consultations and negotiations to resolve the dispute," the position, they are regarded as third categories.Adding second classes and third classes together, we found a total of 70 countries, but there may be missing. According to our global network of think tanks, there are dozens of countries also hold this attitude, but under certain pressure and not or dare not express. We have not included this part in the 70 countries.
Therefore, our main research found that the Chinese government to make the "at least 66 countries support China's position" statement is standing; in fact, we have found a team of more than 4. Another research achievement is that, although the second and third types of China's position may be the focus is not the same, they are welcome to the above four points expressed by China's position. Taking into account the Chinese government's adherence to the peaceful negotiations to resolve the dispute, the countries that hold these two views can agree to settle the dispute peacefully. Further more，Most countries do not want to express a strong attitude to China or the United States, which shows the anxiety of conflict in these countries: This is the psychological and real problems behind the support list.
"Position" is the world's anxiety about the conflict in the world
We believe that the above facts behind, reflecting the current world in the South China Sea issue on the consensus of peace.And in some countries the attitude but dare not speak in public, reflecting people all over the world on the South China Sea may conflict anxiety, exists between the US and China "new cold war" may feel anxious, had to in between China and the United States "choose sides station" feel anxious.From this point of view, said that support for China's national only 10, not only to the "China's position" of the narrowing and distortion, but also did not recognize the position of other countries. Whether 10 or 70, the world's truly mainstream public opinion - peace and conflict and war of anxiety is the real topic.
In the past couple of years, rising international pattern of turbulence and conflict factors, some concerns social unrest and mass violence to return to the stage and also fears among the great powers do not trust each other if not handled properly, will lead to a new "cold war" and "wars".
Asia Pacific region has been called the "Cold War Museum", the region's geopolitical and traditional security issues have not been resolved, and even in recent years, rising. In particular, the United States to return to Asia, Asia Pacific rebalancing since tensions in the region continue to upgrade.
The South China Sea is the most intense conflict in the recent Sino US relations.However, in the South China Sea issue, some countries find themselves caught in a dilemma: not only to lose the support of China's economy, but also worried that the U.S. military can not be guaranteed. There are some countries, worried that their regional organizations because of the South China Sea issue and split.
In addition to the previously mentioned Kampuchea, we also noted that Singapore and Thailand also issued a statement in the arbitration, not involved in the South China Sea dispute, called for the maintenance of peace in the South China Sea, peaceful settlement of disputes. In the South China Sea issue, ASEAN has not formed a consensus. This reflects that even ASEAN, most of the countries to avoid the choice of the edge between China and the u.s.".
We also note that a large number of countries in Africa and the Middle East to support China's position on the South China Sea issue, called for direct negotiations to resolve the issue of peace in the country. This is not surprising given the recent security situation in the Middle East and Africa, as well as their own colonial history.
While rising in the South China Sea, extremism in the Middle East and Africa has become more active. On July 6, Washington, D.C., an internal exchange, George Washington University Professor Amitai Etzioni remind we, the United States in the Middle East and Africa more actively blow terrorism and extremism, South China Sea's presence to maintain credibility in the allies and do not need to bear with the risk of conflict in China -- China's stance on the war on terror and the convergence.
Take a look at the July 14th nice tragedy, and then look at the casualties in Kabul, not to mention the continuing turmoil in the Middle East, you may agree with our conclusions:China and the United States should join hands to fight the common enemy: international terrorism and extremism, rather than focusing on the "zero sum game" of the South China Sea.
Breakthrough zero sum game to seek cooperation in Asia Pacific
When the former Chinese State Councilor Dai Bingguo on July 5 in Washington, D.C., held in our Double Ninth National People's Congress and the Carnegie China us think tank, the South China Sea issue dialogue, said the outcome of the arbitration in the South China Sea just a piece of paper ", we almost forgot the keynote of his speech is the South China Sea to be" cool ". Indeed, no matter how civil public opinion, the case of the South China Sea arbitration fuse point --7 12 days have passed, the parties are evaluating the next step of the game, to imagine a more long-term pattern. As mentioned before,The world's mainstream public opinion is still peaceful, whether the parties to the South China Sea dispute is willing to, the dispute will eventually be resolved peacefully, cooperation and win-win situation will be the future mainstream.
In fact, Philippines is also working to maintain peace in the South China sea. The new president of Philippines, Duthel Te, in the ruling released after the show to show a low-key, restrained and cooperative attitude. According to reports, the former president of Philippines Ramos - is also a friend of our authors - will serve as special envoy to visit china. All of these show that peace and stability are still the common interests of all parties in the "post arbitration" era, which provides the basis for solving the problem.
In the United States is also the case. As Jeffrey Bader at of the Brookings Institution, a China policy report said, although China and the United States in the South China Sea issue there are differences, but in the global governance level, China is more and more important stakeholders, China and the United States there are many consensus. Especially in the economic field. This year's G20 summit will be held in Hangzhou, China, which will be an opportunity for China to drive the global economic recovery. Why can not in the South China Sea also reached a cooperation?
The English version of this article published in July 27th, "foreign scholars" magazine official website
In fact, it's a good sign. We are very pleased to see the United States Navy Admiral John Richardson's successful visit to China in July 17th, and will have a fruitful consultation with Wu Shengli. We hope this visit will become the "arbitration" new era of Sino US military exchanges.
The South China Sea area can realize multi - party cooperation. As the author said in the dialogue, the biggest threat to fishermen around the South China Sea is not China, not the United States, but the typhoon. The parties, of course, including China and the United States, can cooperate in the construction of meteorological stations, data sharing, typhoon warning and climate change joint research. In the core military areas, China and the United States has also been a cooperative mechanism, China has repeatedly participated in the Pacific Rim exercise, this paper writing when there is a Chinese fleet in Hawaii and the United States Naval collaborative exercise. It's time for us to cool the tension and start the existing military communication system.
We should also put on the agenda of cooperative development and economic cooperation in a wider area. Not long ago, Philippines's new government Du said, hope and common development of the South China Sea resources Chinese. The Philippines has some non controversial marine sovereignty, but the lack of technical and financial limits its development in the sea, and China has the marine resources development technology and funds, the prospect of such a people recall former Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in meeting with the former leaders of the Philippines to the South China Sea issue put forward "shelving disputes and joint development".
In the end, as we mentioned in the previous article,The South China Sea issue will not obstruct the economic and financial cooperation between China and asean.The 21st century Maritime Silk Road initiative and Mekong River Lancang River mechanism "has just started, it depicts a more diverse than that of FTA, more flexible and open win-win vision, ASEAN countries can from cooperation to obtain much-needed manufacturing, infrastructure and gold financial investment and financial infrastructure". Moreover, the Asian infrastructure investment bank (AIIB) is a more inclusive and feasible organization. Philippines is the founding country of the organization. Of course, we also welcome Japan and the United States to join the Asian investment bank and profit.
In the "China's position" behind many of the position, the South China Sea and the entire Asia Pacific peace is the mainstream public opinion in the world. China, the United States and other countries should work together to develop together, concentrate on joint anti-terrorism, strengthen economic and financial cooperation, and eventually bring the global economy out of the depression and imbalance. (Institute of finance, Renmin University of China Chongyang intern researcher Chang Yudi, Double Ninth National People's Congress research assistant Yang and Simon week, intern SuYue and Dong A of this contribution.)
Access to the 70 countries to support China's South China Sea position
The following is the English version:
Supports China in the Who South China Sea and Why
Wang Wen and Chen Xiaochen By
The Diplomat Published: 2016-7-27 Source:
The South China Sea arbitration case has elicited almost unanimous public opposition in China. Besides this, it has been reported that China 66 countries worldwide have endorsed's position on the South China Sea. Yet that figure also caused controversy, especially in the United States.
According to our team s research we have ", found at least 70 countries supporting China s position on various occasions." We find that the reason for the controversy over the figure comes down to different definitions on "China" s position. "But no matter how it is defined, the psychology behind these statements is a desire to avoid taking sides between China and the United States, showing the reality of a fundamental global consensus on peace and wide-spread anxiety toward the potential for conflict in the South China Sea. Thus, we should take every opportunity to go beyond the" zero-sum game "in order to maintain peace in the South China Sea, to seek Asia-Pacific economic cooperation. And to make the" cake "bigger using EC And financial means. onomic
Many countries support China s South China Sea position How?
There is no doubt that Chinese almost unanimously support their government to 's official position on the South China Sea, shown by the firestorm of social media comments soon after the award. moreover, China' s position is also welcomed and understood by other countries. According to the Chinese government and media, nearly 100 parties from more than 60 countries declared their support for China's position on the South China Sea issue. China Daily counted 66 countries, as shown in the map below.
The figure, however, encountered doubts from American media and think; the Asia maritime transparency initiative argued that the real number was only ten. We personally also received emails was similar doubts.
Considering such a huge gap in the count, our research team at the International Studies Department of Chongyang Institute for Financial Studies, Renmin University of China (RDCY), sought to verify on our own by conducting an independent count. We explored the issue by extensively searching the Internet, and then looked for original sources including media reports, official statements, diplomatic documents, and talking points. We also searched the Chinese foreign affairs database Xinhua s news and, "multimedia database, and our news citation system with data from various sources such as Bloomberg and Reuters to verify.
Strikingly, we identified 71 countries that have expressed their support for China 's position, even more than reported by Chinese media. In addition. The League of Arab States and Shanghai Cooperation Organization are also in line with China. (we have listed the countries and sourced all of the statements, with the date of issue, in the appendix below). It is said that others privately expressed support to China according to our global network, but we only counted the countries that went on. It is also possible that our team may have miss some countries that are supporting China.
Is there such a big gap in the? Number Why?
One reason is quite with some of these statements of support are not available in English. They are expressed and available in Chinese, French, Spanish, Arabic, Swahili, Khmer, or other languages. Therefore, some analysts in the English-speaking world may have merely failed to find them.
More importantly, though, the discrepancy has something to do with the essence of "China 's position." simply put, we suppose most American media and think tanks have not yet understood what "China' s position". In our view, China 's position on the South China Sea issue can be interpreted as Example
Does not participate in the arbitration 1.China nor, accept recognize, or, implement the award.
Will adhere to peaceful 2.China negotiations and settlements of the South China Sea dispute.
3.While disputes should be settled by the parties directly concerned in accordance with the Declaration on the conduct of parties in the South China Sea (DOC), China will work with ASEAN countries to maintain peace and stability in this region.
4. The temporally-established (AD HOC) arbitral tribunal for is a neither a part of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) nor the International Court of Justice (ICJ). It does not have jurisdiction over the conformity disputes, which is the core of the arbitration. the arbitration itself is so. Thus, the award is not legally-binding, nor representing international law.
To directly support any of those components is to support China 's position. On the contrary, those countries that openly endorse the arbitral tribunal as affiliated to PCA and assert China should recognize and implement the award are China' s position.
In this regard, at least 70 countries, based on our research, endorse China 's position in various angles of the four components above, and they did so in various their unilaterally, bilaterally, or multilaterally. all of them welcome peaceful negotiations to settle the disputes. in addition, we should bear in mind that
Philippines' ex-parte arbitration violates its own commitment to peaceful dialogue and negotiation. Among these countries, some expressed their public and firm support for China 's stance of non-acceptance of the arbitration. Nonetheless, non-acceptance is only part of China' s. American media and think tanks who use this alone for the implication of their counts misinterpreted of China 's position.
Speaking most, countries attitudes' toward the South China Sea issue can fall into three categories. Generally
Counties in the first category, represented by Japan, oppose China s position by supporting the 'Philippines' stance while insisting China should recognize and implement the result of the arbitration, which is claimed to officially represent the PCA. This opinion is rare. China Daily mapped five in its report, but our team can only identify three: Japan, Australia and, the United States. Vietnam and the United Kingdom, though represented on the map, do not meet the definition of opposing China directly. In this circumstance, although Japan indeed raised the issue at the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) in Ulaanbaatar, it was echoed by no country except the Philippines itself, according to Japanese media such as Japan Today The, Japan Times, a The Japan News. nd
The second group includes countries that explicitly expressed their firm support to China on the arbitration, such as Pakistan, Cambodia and, some African countries. This group is bigger than the first one, but still limited. For example, in a public speech broadcast on TVK Cambodia s state-owned television, "network on, June 20, Prime Minister Hun Sen revealed diplomatic pressure over the South China Sea from certain country outside the region widely believed to refer" - to Japan - and expressed his objection to the arbitration. In a press release found on the official website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan on July 12 the Chinese neighbor reiterated, its support for China on its statement of optional exception in Light of article 298 of the United Nations Convention on the law of the sea (UNCLOS). Among African countries, Kenya issued a statement on June 15, also on its MFA website, declaring its respect for China 's right of optional exception under UNCLOS article 298. Gambia, another coastal country in West Africa, has stated its support in the South China Sea through the Gambia radio and Television Service (grts) of China' s position on the arbitration by clearly saying the arbitral tribunal has no jurisdiction over daedt.
Last, many countries, categorized as the third group, support China 's position in terms of resolving the disputes through consultations and negotiations while following the declarations on the conduct of parties in the South China Sea (DOC). Combining the second and the third groups, we have found 71 countries, with probably some still missing. Our global think tank network and foreign embassies in Beijing told us some other countries also hold similar attitudes, but have not openly expressed their position due to some "pressure." we did not include them in our count.
Therefore, our key finding is that the claim by Chinese officials that at least 66 countries support China 's position is verified and solid; in fact, we found five more countries. Although the second and third groups as outlined above may have different stresses on China' s position, they all welcome at least one of the four components. Considering China 's official position on the peace negotiations. These two types of opinions was the path of peace talks.
Further, the fact that most countries do not show a hardline stance toward either in China or the United States illustrates their anxiety about conflicts. this psychological factor is the fundamental issue behind the rally of support.
Due to WeChat word limit, failed to post the full text of the English, you can click to read the original view.
(welcome attention NPC Chongyang: @ NPC Chongyang, Sina micro-blog WeChat public number: rdcy2013)
A search for "Congress Chongyang" or "rdcy2013" search quickly click on concern, sharing of financial information.
Renmin University of China Chong Finance Research Institute (Double Ninth National People's Congress) was established on January 19, 2013, is Shanghai Chongyang Investment Management Co., Ltd. chairman qiuguogen Mr. to his alma mater donated 2 million yuan of major projects funded.
As a new think tank with Chinese characteristics, the Double Ninth National People's Congress to feel the pulse of the financial, academic study, pay close attention to the reality, suggestions country, to serve the public. Double Ninth National People's Congress hired from more than 10 countries 89 former politicians, bankers, well-known scholars as a senior researcher, think tanks and more than 30 countries to carry out substantive cooperation.
At present, the NPC Chongyang China was recognized as the official G20 think tank Summit (T20), China Finance Association jointly led think-tank green financial Specialized Committee Secretariat, "Belt and Road Initiative" Chinese think-tank alliance executive director, Chinese - Official Education in Iran to build a "The Belt and Road" of China led think-tank. In 2014, Double Ninth National People's Congress for two consecutive years was chosen into the launched by the University of Pennsylvania, an internationally recognized degree highest "global think-tank report" world's top think tank top 150 "(only seven Chinese think tank for the finalists).
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