The current situation and development recommendations of China's helicopter industry2021-12-02 12:12:41 59 ℃
Wu Ximing ("Aviation Science and Technology" invited editorial committee, chief expert of the aviation industry), Zhang Guanglin, Milongwei
1. China Aviation Research Institute
2, China's aviation industry development research
This article summarizes the initiatives of Europe and the United States in the development, technology innovation and development of the helicopter market, the promotion of new supplier system construction, industrialization layout, and the advantages of these initiatives formed in technology, products and services. Through domestic helicopter market analysis, study the unfavorable status of domestic helicopters in market competition, summarize the reason, is a serious consequence of our long-term insufficient attention to the helicopter industry, in basic technical research, key technical breakthrough, model series development, industrialization There is a serious shortage in planning and support policy development and implementation, this paper makes recommendations from national and industry-level, develop top-level planning and design, planning overall development and layout.
Helicopter industry; development policy; system construction; model development
Helicopters play an important role in national construction
my country's unique natural environment and current social development status, relative to other countries, helicopters play a major role in my country's national defense and national economic construction. my country's country is long, the geographical environment is complicated, and the side defense patrols and the mission of guards, the plateau and mountains have many mountains. The rivers are vertical and horizontal. The natural disasters are frequent, and the Guangxi forest and grassland also need to inspect and protect. In national construction and social development, my country faces problems such as maintaining social stability, hitting terrorist activities, shrinking the economic gap between the East and Western parties, while need to meet the wishes of the broad masses of high-tech products to be more close to daily life, so from national defense Construction, anti-terrorism, stable to rescue disaster relief, emergency rescue, to the agricultural and forestry operation, geological exploration, and tourism, flight training, and helicopter applications have penetrated into society.
my country's helicopter market is huge
According to the forecast of China Aviation Industry Development Research Center, by 2027, China's civilian helicopter will reach more than 3,500, only the market capacity of helicopter production and sales links reached 14.4 billion US dollars, and according to the proportion of input production, it is calculated. Nearly 10,000 markets will be shaited, and the growth of 1% of its sales will drive 0.714% of national economic growth.
The helicopter industry has a powerful industry driving ability
The helicopter industry chain is long, including upstream and downstream industries, covering almost all industrial categories, integrating nearly 100 science and more technologies. Helicopter industry development requires technical support from all walks of life, and this is also an opportunity to promote the development of related industrial industries. Using the top 100 market size of the helicopter industry, with the development of helicopter industry, it can drive related industry technological innovation and realize industrial transformation and upgrading.
Helicopter has good military and civilian general features
The helicopter is based on platform research and development. It can achieve specific functions through modification modifications, so he has a good replication from the platform development technology perspective. The versatility of the helicopter application field is performed in a rescue disaster relief, and the performance of military transport helicopters in the rescue disaster relief action is enough to explain everything. As a strong weapon for maintaining social stability, combating crimes, is the best model for military and civilians. Therefore, the development of the helicopter industry will have become a new high point in the development of military and civilians in my country.
This paper analyzes the development status of the domestic and foreign helicopter industry, summarizes the initiatives of Europe and the United States in the development, technological innovation development, product promotion of new, supplier system construction, industrialization layout, etc., and analyzes the development status and problems of my country's helicopter industry. Summary of the development of domestic helicopter industry.
1. World Helicopter Industry Development Status
1.1 Development Necessity
As of the end of 2019, the global helicopter is more than 54,000, including about 32,000 civil helicopters, and the military helicopter is approximately 22,000. However, the global distribution of civil helicopters is extremely uneven. It has approximately 12,000 civil helicopters in North America. Europe has approximately 7,000 household helicopters, and the number is about 59% of the total number of civilian helicopters.
Figure 1 World Helicopter Market Distribution
Fig.1 World Helicopter Market Distribution
Among the global active 240,000 military helicopters, the United States has 5,809, accounting for 26.47% of the global military fleet; Russia is 1572, accounting for 7.14% of the global military fleet. These two countries and the United Kingdom, France, Germany and other seven military helicopter baffles jointly formed a "first group" of the world military helicopter equipment, 11,275, total equipment, total equipment, total equipment 51.25% of the fleet.
From 2015, the number of private helicopters in world civil helicopters is always around 1000, of which 976 civil helicopter production in 2018, with a total output value of $ 3.66 billion. The number of piston helicopters is fell, and the delivery volume is 819 in 2019, down 16.3%.
1.2 World Helicopter Stage Three Fortune, and the show suddenly chased
At present, nearly 20 countries in the world can produce helicopters, helicopters have become the leading industry in Western countries, is an important field of US, Europe and Russian technology and economic competition. Japan, South Korea, India, Brazil and Poland also have collected helicopter industries as a 21st century strategic industry and compete to accelerate. The United States is currently the world's largest helicopter producer and use, with the world's largest helicopter market and Sikosky, Bell, Boeing three helicopter manufacturers. However, in recent years, the United States has received global leadership in helicopter technology from Europe 's strong challenges. The European helicopter industry is developed, especially in the development, production and service field of civilian helicopters in the world. In 2019, in the world civil and armed market, Airbus helicopter market share is as high as 54%, and the Leonardo helicopter market share It is 23%. In various aspects such as civilian helicopter technology, Europe has surpassed the US trend and has previously explicitly proposed its aviation industry to make its aviation industry. Since the economic crisis in the 1990s, the production and export volume of helicopters continued to decline, but the Russian helicopter manufacturing has achieved certain growth, and many military helicopters have made progress, and civil products are also available. Development.
At present, major helicopter manufacturers are in accordance with their own different business strategies to meet fierce market competition. Airbus helicopter companies have successfully successfully developed production lines and covers the world through regional subsidiaries and partnerships. Leonardo has invested a lot of funds for new product research and development, while strengthening risk cooperation. Bell Helicopter Company will focus on product improvement and development and is committed to user use maintenance guarantees. Boeing Helicopter Corporation focuses on a very successful military model. Sikoski has an advantage in the military market, and has successfully developed a corresponding model in the civil market for specific areas and gains income in the part market. Robinson has an advantage in the piston helicopter market and is entering the field of light single scroll helicopters through research and development. Russian Helicopter companies continue to integrate their design, production, sales and after-sales service systems and have begun to select product development.
1.3 World Helicopter technology innovation is constantly changing, realizing cross-generation
The current helicopter is in the development stage of continuous technological innovation, and market demand is constantly promoting the progress of helicopter technology. Currently, conventional configuration helicopters have begun to develop from the third generation of products to the fourth-generation product, and most of the products that are put on the market after the 1990s belong to this class. The latest models include the H160 and Bell 525 helicopters of the Space Helicopter Company (Anti-Birage). The former will automatically control and intelligent technology to the ultimate, the latter will become the world's first civilian helicopter, At the same time, the fifth generation of newly-type rotor unit technology has accelerated with high-speed, and the AW609 tilting rotor fracture work has entered the final sprint phase. In addition, some light small unmanned helicopter products have also been put on the market.
Figure 2 Modern helicopter technical characteristics decomposition
Fig.2 Modern Helicopter Technology Features Decomposition
1.4 helicopter manufacturers accelerate product system construction
In order to occupy the strength of the helicopter market, the world-renowned helicopter manufacturers have established product system advantages, and they have focused on product series development, and they will continue to introduce new products and speed up new products.
Bell Helicopter Company is one of the best helicopter manufacturers in the United States and the world, its product system is complete, helicopter tonnage from 1T to 8T, including maximum takeoff weight (mass) of 27400kg V-22 tilting rotor, near 20 Model of rotor aircraft.
Sino-70 "Black Eagle" helicopter is known from 794kg to 19T, with more than ten helicopter product models.
After years of development, Airbus helicopter has been developed from 1T to 11T, the latest H160 helicopter is a representative of advanced civil helicopters, showing powerful strength of Airbus helicopter.
Leonardo Helicopter has successfully opened the world's helicopter market with AW series helicopters, which is a model of systemization construction and brand management.
Russia relies on its unique Soviet helicopter industrial system, established low-cost, high-efficiency brand effects, its card series and rice series helicopters occupying advantages in the international military helicopter market, Mi-26 helicopter is a world record of 56T to take off weight, The world demonstrates the super power of the Russian helicopter industry.
1.5 Supplier system construction speeds up, industrial advantage
As the birthplace of modern aviation, Europe and the United States has a very sound production and supplier system. Well-known suppliers include Rockwell Collins, USA, General Electric, Honeywell, Pratt & Whitney, and European Safran Group, Thales Group, etc., can provide engineering, hydraulic systems, power systems, advanced All products such as avionics; in addition to the Belgian Soli, United States, USA, USA, Northern United States, USA, USA, USA, USA, Mitsubishi Heavy Industry; Fasteners of the United States B / E Aerospace, etc.. The powerful supplier group is a guarantee that the European and American helicopter industry is growing and standing on the peak of the world's helicopter industry. 1.6 Improve customer service system, upgrade industrial layout
Contemporary Airlines have not yet retainable service to users, but extends to include technical support, financial services, use maintenance, training, flight, and ground information. Airbus Helicopter Company Improves Airlines Order Program, Order Tracking, Inventory Management, and Near Service, Establishing Avospays and Distribution Centers to optimize the distribution of aviation materials and distribution centers to optimize the distribution of aviation materials and distribution centers. Sikosky Helicopter has developed more than 1,000 certified supplier information management systems, establishing component exchange projects, establishing the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) component support, and its Sikorsky360 team management program brings together OEM's special analysis process and modern Data management technology allows customers to serve from passive reactions to active support. Leonardo Helicopter has established a wide range of maintenance center network OEM repair services, Parts Protection Agreement (CPA), Complete Overhaul and Materials (COMP), Global Support (GSP), etc., and established in Shanghai's self-trade zone Covers its full range of helicopter bonders, providing guarantees for the company's helicopters operated in China. Russian Helicopter Corporation has established a after-sales service center in South Africa to provide payment services for helicopter customers in African countries. The Russian Federal Government encourages cooperative development of light helicopters in the national plan, China Yitong Group and Russian helicopter holding company have signed an overseas machine production assembly project, Shenzhen, Shanghai, Chengdu, Qingdao and other places to explore the Russian helicopter holding company Establishing a repair center, these initiatives have shown the determination and will of Russian Helicopter Holdings to establish a global service system.
World helicopter manufacturers have improved the quality of service systems, improved the quality of service, improve industrial layout, and increase chips for the world's helicopter market.
2. my country's helicopter industry development status and problems
2.1 National Development Status
(1) Social and economic environment
my country is the world's first population big country. Based on the huge population base and the third country of the world, my country has also surpassed other countries in social and economic construction. By the end of 2019, my country's highway highway reached 14.96 × 104km, high voltage transmission line 132.54 × 104 km, oil pipeline and natural gas pipeline more than 15 × 104 km. During the development of the country, the economic situation in the east and coastal areas is better than the western region, and the economic advantages are obvious, but considering that the broad people in the western region are widely distributed, the natural resources are widely distributed, and the economic development trend of the western region is imperative. In addition, accompanied by the gradual deep and expanded and expanded economic construction of "all the way" in my country, strengthening economic zone construction, safeguarding national interests, and ensuring the safety of national life and property has become another important topic in front of our country.
(2) Natural environment
my country's land area is about 960 × 104km2, and the land border is about 2.2 × 104km, and the coastline (including island shoreline) is about 3.26 × 104km. my country's forest area is about 2 × 108HA, the grassland area is nearly 4 × 108ha, my country's total length of 43 × 104km, which creates more variable in my country, the geographical environment is complex, the river is cross-complicated, the natural environment of the lake star. In addition, there are two-thirds in my country, the plateau, secondary plateau, mountain terrain, from the protection of the natural environment, economic construction should reduce the damage to the natural environment, considering the impact of complex geographic environment on traffic, should develop flexible Variable three-dimensional transportation system.
(3) Living environment
The world's situation is changing to make the survival environment around my country suffer huge pressure. Foreign stability in China, China, Japan, Korean Peninsula, Donghai / South China Sea, etc. Factors are more complicated.
From the development of national construction and social development, to the western region, from overcoming the adverse effects of the natural environment, to establish a three-dimensional transportation system, from the external survival environment, to the internal security system, in order to safeguard national security, social stability, economic prosperity my country needs more powerful helicopter industry support in military equipment development, public security power construction, emergency rescue capacity construction, navigation industry construction. With its unique flight, the helicopter industry will better serve the national construction. 2.2 my country's helicopter industry development course
my country's helicopter industry was founded in the mid-1950s. In October 1956, it started production of 5 helicopters from the Soviet Iron-4 helicopter pattern data, and opened the development process of China's helicopter industry. Subsequently, the direct 8 and straight 9 helicopters were introduced, and the direct 11 helicopters were developed. China's helicopter industry has always adhered to the "one-machine multi-purpose, series of development" and "main development-oriented, actively carrying out international cooperation", and has developed dozens of models from existing modifications, serving land, sea, empty Three Army, Social Welfare and National Economic Construction. Especially in the development and production of direct 10 armed helicopters and a type of transport helicopter, my country has the ability to develop third-generation helicopters, and establish the fourth-generation helicopter development capabilities, laying the technology and material foundation of industrialization development, formation The situation of leaping development.
2.3 Helicopter equipment
For a long time, due to the weak foundation, the low-altitude null domain control is strict, my country's helicopter equipment is still in the infancy, and the plane is small. As of the end of 2019, my country's civilian helicopter was 1837, with an average of 0.90 per million, with only 53 domestic helicopters, accounting for less than 4.3%. A large number of market share is preempting by Europe and American manufacturers. The weakness of the domestic helicopter industry has created a small domestic civil helicopter in China, and the domestic helicopter has almost no embarrassment in the field of civil helicopter.
Since the reform and opening up, the national economic construction has developed rapidly, the infrastructure construction is huge, the entire society has experienced the earth-shaking change, but the helicopter industry that should play an important role during this time has developed slowly, especially in the civil helicopter field. Get substantive breakthroughs. In order to complete the national accelerated industrial upgrading transformation, the level of secondary countries in 2050 must accelerate the development of helicopter industry, based on helicopter technology development, product development and market development, promote the upgrade of helicopter industries.
2.4 Technical System Construction
World helicopter technology comes from Europe and America, my country has always learned and track European and American advanced helicopter technology. In the past decade, my country's helicopter technology has evacted significantly, and it has basically formatic formation of the technical foundation and industrial development of the production of contemporary helicopters. We have mastered helicopter design and optimization, pneumatic, dynamics, structural design and other helicopter design technology. Technology development, including intelligent rotor, composite helicopter, helicopter electric technology, high-speed helicopter, etc., maintain advancement of my country's helicopter technology. my country's helicopter technical system has basically formed a generation of generations, developing a generation, producing a good development momentum.
However, my country's investment in helicopter basic technology is not perfect for exploration of the basic principles of helicopters. Many theories cannot be verified and continuously developed, and the construction of technical system is significantly lagging behind Europe and the United States. At the same time, my country's military helicopter model has slowed slowly. It is not urgent for helicopter technology. It leads to hysteresis and backwardness of technology development. Innovative ability, and cannot support new models. This loop reciprocates my country's helicopter industry is slow, heroic helicopters in competition The market lacks advantage, and the allegation of helicopter military equipment is a major weakness in the construction of defense. Therefore, accelerating the development of helicopter technology is an important part of promoting the development of my country's helicopter industry and building defense modernization.
2.5 Construction of product system
After decades of development, my country's helicopter industry has formed a relatively reasonable product structure. 2T, 4T, 7T, 10T, 13T and other platforms have completed designing, and multiple models developed on this basis enters bulk production and deliver different users. The AC series civil helicopter enters the private machine market, and the 7T AC352 helicopter developed with Europe is actively evolving.
However, the number of helicopter models and maximum take-off weight distribution (see Figure 3) can be seen that there is a huge gap in the construction of my country's helicopter product system and Europe and the United States, which is far from the number of models and maximum takeoff weight. The lag of product system construction is a comprehensive embodiment of my country's helicopter technology development and the lag in the development of helicopter applications. my country's helicopter product system construction needs to speed up, through the development and product development of the market, accelerate the pace of helicopter industry development, change my country's helicopter industry backward Passive situation.
Figure 3 World main helicopter manufacturer products maximum takeoff weight wrapper
Fig.3 The world's leading supplier of building systems helicopter manufacturer's product maximum takeoff weight envelope2.6
Our military helicopters followed the helicopter industry R & D and manufacturing system, relying on China Helicopter Research Institute, Harbin Aircraft Industry Group Co., Ltd. and Changhe Aircraft Industry Group Co., Ltd., set up a factory for the aviation industry supporting various industry support helicopter supplier system including a complete industrial system technology research, product development, manufacturing, testing and production, the main body of the helicopter industry in my country.
However, from the construction of helicopter supplier system abroad, my country's helicopter supplier is still in the initial stages of development, especially in terms of supporting civil helicopter, its technical capacity, product quality, market share are at a disadvantage, unable to supply world-class providers to compete. Interests tied up with domestic suppliers also in domestic helicopter barely survive in the competition situation, domestic helicopter technology is not strong, product development lags behind domestic suppliers but also to the lack of development opportunities. Strengthen supplier system to model driven technology development, it is to enhance the overall level of domestic suppliers only way, is the basis for the development of the helicopter industry and protection.
2.7 Customer Services and Operations
Our helicopter service responsible for the helicopter manufacturer, to provide independent full service protection. China has a certain scale helicopter manufacturer mainly Harbin Aircraft Industry Group Co., Ltd. and Changhe Aircraft Industry Group Co., Ltd., the two companies have established its own sales service system, give protection to the user's helicopter operations through the presence of service personnel . This model can ensure a good state during helicopter operations, service protection in place, rapid response, easy operational problems generated in the process resolved quickly. However, this model also caused the helicopter manufacturer service protection is difficult, especially for a small number of purchases, distribution of a wide range of circumstances, for service cost and effort will greatly increase. The United States, Europe and Russia in practice part of the gradual convergence of service protection, through the establishment of an integrated regional service centers and service sites, divided into service areas, a reasonable allocation of human and material resources, reduce service and warehousing pressure, at the same time ensure good service users.
Operators directly involved in the market competition, the survival of the state of business operations affect the direction of the helicopter industry. By the end of 2019, my country's general aviation business license to obtain a total of 478 companies, the number of general airport certification up to 246, year-round navigation flight of 112.5 × 104h, the main business scope includes oil services, flight training, power line patrol, forest fire prevention and so on. But the overall capacity of the helicopter navigation market is still weak, there is an order of magnitude compared to the huge gap between the United States and Europe, which limits the development of the helicopter industry. So open up helicopter applications, relaxing operational constraints, enabling them to operating companies, it is an important way to open the door of the helicopter industry.
3. The development of domestic helicopter industry recommendations
Although our helicopter industry after decades of development, but in all aspects of technology systems, products, systems, customer service systems, and other system vendors have many deficiencies. According to economics point of view after the American's first Treasury Secretary Hamilton and Germany Liszt, my country's helicopter industry is still a naive industry, its foundation and weak competitiveness, although the time industry appeared earlier, but considering various factors, it is still in the early stages of development, need appropriate protection. Our helicopter industry has a certain basis, industrial framework basically complete, scientific research and management system has been established, the market is opening up and development process, prospects for the future, through policy support, and reasonable industrial layout, promote innovation and development, mining helicopter industrial potential of our country, completion of industrial upgrading, scientific and technological power.
(1) to the healthy development of the helicopter industry as the theme, strengthen top-level design, overall planning, long-term layout, promote coordinated development of the industry
At this stage, the world helicopter giants are directly or jointly build factories in support of the local government, trying to squeeze into the market and occupation of our country by the way. But while focusing on the development of the helicopter industry and pushing many places and institutions, some of the established helicopter companies can only introduction of foreign low-end or phase out the product assembly; some local government promotes and foreign companies working together to build a helicopter joint venture to assembling helicopters occupy the domestic market. These phenomena directly affect the healthy and orderly development of my country's helicopter industry, affecting the development of industry-related businesses, resulting in a huge waste of social resources, adversely affecting the development of the helicopter industry. As a high degree of integration of military and civilian helicopter industry, this industry development trend has also brought risks to our national defense.
Therefore, the state should plan the development of my country's helicopter industry, formulate support policies and fiscal tax policies, establish and effective policy measures, plan development paths, rationalize the industrial layout, and strengthen industry cooperation. Through global co-ordination, reasonable division of labor, strengthen industrial management, promote policy landing, and promote the cooperative development of related industry enterprises while achieving the development of my country's helicopter industry, achieving a healthy interaction, building a healthy sustainable development, and building helicopter industrial advantages. (2) Target the construction of the service, with the development of model series, to achieve helicopter technology breakthrough and innovation
my country's helicopter technology is based on the introduction - digestion - absorption - re-innovation, and finally go to the new stage of development today. However, due to the long-term implementation technology blockade of my country, it has caused the weakly industrial base technology, and there is an insufficient pain point for helicopter basic technology. my country has been greatly improved in the construction of discipline construction and scientific research capacity in recent years, but helicopters act as a real industrial product. If there is no specific model development, it relies on academic research to obtain technology breakthrough and innovation. Today's famous helicopter manufacturer Leonardo Helicopter, in the fierce competition in the helicopter market, has grown to the world's famous helicopter manufacturers through the AW model, and its products have advanced technology, comfort, and safety. Sex, high brand effect. The other helicopter manufacturers in the world are all developed by model development to develop helicopter technology, and promote the helicopter industry to make great strength.
It is recommended that the country has increased from the perspective of military and civilian synergy, and increases the support of helicopter model development and technical prevention. Helicopter technology series development, construction of helicopter basic technology transplantation capacity, and construct a helicopter series development path. At the same time, accelerate the interoperability of military standards and civil standards, and develop sweep obstacles to the helicopter military and civilian cooperation.
(3) Construction of public utility aviation system with domestic helicopters as operating main body, broaden domestic helicopter applications, establish brand image
As a country with many population, complex, natural disasters frequently, with the rapid development of the national economy, the growth of comprehensive national strength and the continuous improvement of the people's living standards, the broad masses have put forward the public services provided by the state. The requirements, the efficient public service system needs to be established. However, most of the domestic civil helicopter markets are products of foreign manufacturers, resulting in the direct cause of this result is where my country's helicopter industry has been developing backwards, and there are unusual situations in technology, products, services. Therefore, by establishing a national public utility aviation system based on domestic helicopters, construction can be used in the ability to rescue public utilities such as rescue, public security law enforcement, medical ambulance, fire protection, and effectively increase the support of domestic helicopters, not only conducive to my country's helicopter industry. Development, while contributing to the construction of my country's efficient public service system.
(4) Accelerate the implementation of the implementation of low-altitude open policies, and develop domestic helicopter preferential policies
As the direct subject of participating in market operations, operators are both direct users of helicopter products, but also the stakeholders of market-oriented operations, and the good and bad of operational environments directly related to operators' survival and development, and affect the development of my country's helicopter industry. . Accelerate the implementation of low-altitude open policies, give operators more flexible and free operational space, increase benefits, expand market capacity, and increase the demand for helicopter products. Through the development of policies, operators who purchase domestic helicopters and participate in operations provide certain financial subsidies. Give policy tilts on the operations of the operations, which can provide greater development space for domestic helicopters, so that domestic helicopters are gradually involved in market competition. In the market, the market competition mode is used to reverse the domestic helicopter upgrade technology, innovate products, and realize the true self-reliance of the helicopter industry.
Helicopter industry is related to national defense safety, social stability, and economic prosperity, is an important industry in the construction of national construction. Throughout the development of world helicopter manufacturers, the development and growth of the helicopter industry are inseparable from the support of the country. From the development of the national level to the development of the helicopter industry, develop roads, clear development direction, is the growth of my country's helicopter industry. only way. With the goal of serving the national construction, with the development of series development, the technical breakthrough and innovation is the entry point, open up the market, accelerate the reform, and escort the development of the domestic helicopter industry. (Source: Air Science Technology)
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