The United States is responsible for the idea, China is responsible for realization, there may be a Chinese drone aircraft carrier that can be curved overtaking2022-01-15 06:05:29 11 ℃
Preface: The second phase of the "Modern Weapon" magazine has an unprecedented picture, a flat deck aircraft carrier / amphibious attack ship, the title is foreign, the title is foreign, and it can have Such a tonnage amphibious attack ship has only a US family, but the United States is now there is no real drone aircraft carrier, according to the US is responsible for imagination, China is responsible for the law, how far is China from this drone bus?
1: Application of American amphibious attack ship
The amphibious attack ship originated from the escort aircraft carrier during World War II, the US Navy reviewed the problems and lack of amphibians, and proposed a helicopter to implement three-dimensional landing model according to the gradual mature helicopter, and a large number of escort aircraft carrier in World War II became The helicopter mother carrier, these helicopter mother ships mainly use helicopter loading infantry to log in to fight, there is no surface amphibious combat platform, it is not a true sense of amphibious attack ship. In the 1970s, the US Navy is based on the use of helicopter aircraft carrier, proposes "super floor line" Landing the battle theory, began to carry the amphibious attack ship that can load mechanized landing boats and helicopters at the same time. This amphibious attack ship will have aerospace functions and amphibious combat functions. The landing initiation is extended from a few kilometers to 60 kilometers, beyond the shore base. The hit range, can be transported in the air in the air within a few hours, but also saved a lot of time, but the armed helicopters and vertical lifting and landing attacks on the ship can provide aviation fire support at any time, which is the essence of the amphibious attack ship.
For a long time, the amphibious attack ship is an exclusive trick in the United States. The main reason is that the United States has a strong navy and helicopter industry. A amphibious attack ship can be equipped with 40 helicopters, including 4 -8-8-frames as an armed helicopter as a landing helicopter. The troops call the air, but the aircraft of the armed helicopter is slow, only anti-tank missile or rockets, unable to carry laser guidance bombs, large-scale solid targets must summon hundreds of kilometers of aircraft carrier carrier, flexibility is poor The American amphibious attack ship also equipped with 6 AV-8B vertical start-down attack machines, the main task of amphibious attack ship or transport the landing personnel, so 80% of the carrier machine is a transport helicopter, which generally carries 9 CH-53D transport helicopters. And 12 CH-46D transport helicopters, or 6 CH-53K heavy helicopters and 12 MV-22 tilting rotor, it can be increased to 16 and 8, and one can transport or more than 100 tons of materials at a time. 4 land battles can be transported within 1.5 hours,
The amphibious attack ship can be infeded as a light aircraft carrier, but because there is no ejector and blocking, it cannot take a fixed-to-plane airplane. If there is no vertical start-down fighter, the US Navy can use slipping 50 meters to take off 0V-10D. The propeller attacks the reconnaissance machine, but this kind of plane is too small, it is not as good as helicopters, so the British "鹞" vertical start and landing fighter is immediately received by the US Navy, and it is considered that its performance is equipped with the Marine Team Equipment A-4 Attack Machine. It can take a long time in the "Tarava" amphibious attack ship, so the United States has purchased 102, called AV-8A. The US Navy also bought production power, and its own production equipment is more advanced AV-8B, there are After the AV-8B vertical start-down attack machine, the US Navy has been equipped with 20 in the amphibious attack ship, which is directly a light aircraft carrier, but the AV-8B vertical start-down attack machine cannot be in the speed and combat radius. Compared to the fighter, the United States specially developed vertical / short lifting F-35B when developing the F-35 fighter, to replace the AV-8B and F / A-18C / D fighters of the Marine Team, the final purchase 350,
Although the F-35B is poor performance, it is still very obvious as a 4-generation technology advantage that has stealth capabilities. The US amphibious attack ship carries 20 hours of operational capacity to reach 30% to 35% of the nuclear power aircraft carrier, basically lightweight The aircraft carrier uses, although the US Navy has 11 large aircraft carriers, but due to the need for timed maintenance, maintenance, only 5 ~ 6 boats can be put into operations at the same time, the amphibious attack ship can make up for the shortage of the aircraft carrier when necessary, 2 amphibious attacks The number of ship carriers is basically equivalent to 1 aircraft carrier, and the cost is much lower. Some low intensity military operations are more cost-effective to dispatch heavy aircraft carriers, but the amphibious attack ship is equipped with a lot of F-35B fighters. A big problem, because the 40,000 ton of amphibious attack ship has vehicle cabin, dock, cargo cabin and personnel cabin, the cabin area is only 2,000 square meters, and half of the same tonnage aircraft carrier is not allowed to stop the aircraft. On the large flight deck, otherwise the cabbage can only load 8-10 frames. In addition, the American amphibious attack ship can only carry 1200 tons of aviation fuel and 300 tons of ammunition, only 20 F-35b fighters are dispatched 100 frames, one day 30 sets of calculations can only be supported for three days, cannot be able to dispatch 120 to 150 heavy aircraft carriers per day,
Two: Application of US X-47B drones
Compared to the F-35B fighter, some large and medium-sized drones are more suitable for the upper amphibious attack ship. The current US Navy does not have a large-scale landing of operational demand, the support of the F-35B fighter is not large, and the drone is wide, no need Pilots, do not consider casualties, very suitable for combat in high threats, US drone technology is also the world leader, but the development of shipborne drones is slow, the US Navy has developed QH-50 in the 1960s. The carrier is unmanned, but the technology is not ideal, with more than half crashed, and the US Navy has also developed the "fire scout" carrier unmanned helicopter, but the carrier unmanned helicopter has not attacked the ability. With the US Navy's future fleet structure blueprints incorporate unmanned weapons into the fleet structure, the United States has also developed revolutionary X-47B drones, X-47B drones are absolute star arms, in the background of Sino-US competition Next, the ultra-long combat radius and stealth capabilities of the X-47B drone 1500 nautical miles were regarded as the US Navy as a magic weapon against the Chinese anti-ship ballistic missile. The X-47B drone combat radius is 2.5 times that of the F-35C fighter. Aircraft carrier launched an attack outside the anti-ship ballistic missile species, which greatly reduced the danger. Because the airline can be called, there is more operational performance, thus improving the operational performance, the US Navy hopes that the X-47B drones are flooded at every corner of the aircraft carrier, serving as scout, blow, warning, electronics Battle, even with fighter air combat, although the X-47B drone is temporarily unable to implement air combat missions, but the implementation of blow and reconnaissance tasks are not a problem. At present, the US Navy carrier is equipped with 6 carrier squadrons, and each squadron 4 ~ 12 aircraft, The X-47B drone can replace two FA-18 "Hornet" fighters, EA-18G "roaring" electronic attack aircraft squadron, "dead god" drone at a high-end time of up to 50 hours can replace E- 2D early warning machine squadron, 6 "Death" drones, 3000 nautical miles in the range of more than 150 hours,
If each aircraft carrier is equipped with 18 X-47B drones, the previous aircraft carrier will dispatch a batch fighter to send 64,000 ~ 80000 pound bomb, 18 X-47B drones can be delivered 81,000 pound bombs, equivalent to adding 1 A fighter squadron, making the US aircraft carrier combat power increased by 1.5 times, and the attack power of 9 aircraft carriers is equivalent to 13 aircraft carrier without X-47B drones, and the X-47B drones are invasive, cost-effectiveness More sightly, if it is installed on the amphibious attack ship, let the aircraft carrier more F-35C fighters, then the United States is equivalent to adding 6 aircraft carrier, achieving the improvement of combat capabilities with lower cost, but many American new weapons Like the fate, the X-47B carrier unmanned attack machine originally owned by the expectation is only the following, the reason is that the United States has been afraid, and the money is too bad and lack of money. Plus the technology's maturity, only 60 In order to save the X-47B drone, the US Navy has made a MQ-25A carrier oil machine to reduce investment, even though this is no longer, no next, the MQ-25A carrier oil machine is trial after 2016 There is no signs of development. The US Navy no longer seeks to restore the X-47B drone.
Three: China version of X-47B drone
In 2019, the first 075 amphibious attack ship in China, the 075 amphibious attack ship and the US Navy's amphibious attack ship have a strong helicopter to carry capacity and huge loading capacity. The straight-through deck set up 5 to 6 Down point, the ship speed can increase 2 10-ton helicopter once, the cabin area is nearly 3,000 square meters, only 500 square meters smaller than the "Liaoning" aircraft carrier, enough to park 20 large fighters, actually park 20 images Straight-8 large helicopter or 30 straight-20 medium helicopters, 075 amphibious attack ship also features vehicle cabins, dock tanks, cargo cabins, but the 075 amphibious attack ship has lacks vertical / short-distance tightening fighters, only Can be used in the helicopter mother carrier, the development of vertical / short-range fighters is not easy, and the Chinese navy demand is just a bit number, and it is impossible to buy a large number of purchases in the F-35 fighter. The procurement cost is very high, it is obviously high-input project, developing X-47B drones, such shipborne large and medium-sized unmanned unmanned unmanned unmanned unmanned unmanned, and will bypass technical complex vertical / short-range fighters, and improve amphibious. Attacker's blowing ability,
In fact, "Jian" drone, "Jian" drone, "Jian" drone, "Jian" drone, is designed by Shenyang Aircraft Design Institute, and the first flight in 2013, The same is a non-ferry-free time-free arms, "Jian" drone adopts the wing blended non-tail flying wing stealth layout, the machine carries the airport, the landing gear cabin has been invisible, built-in The pop-up can be equipped with a bomb. The earliest "Sword" drone has loaded a Russian RD-93-type engine, and the tail spout is directly exposed. However, this is just a prototype testing machine, mainly for verification software. , Data chain, control system, accurate tracking and stealth ability, China's research is faster than the United States, when the X-47B is still in the verification machine, "Jian" drone will become an attack 11 drone, officially served, Attack 11 drone layout is very compact, the machine is less than 10 meters, and the wings is 14 meters. After the wing is folded, only 7 meters, the takeoff weight is 10 tons, and the internal batter can carry a ton of guidance bomb, which has a largest thrust for 8 tons of domestic vortex 13-type engine, flight speed 0.85 Mach, Lift 10000 Mi, the operation radius is 1200 kilometers, which can cover the second island chain through the aircraft carrier, although it is limited by the body and bulb size limit, the 11-dron weapon is lacking, but the 250-500 kg of bomb can be destroyed most of the ground The problem, the problem of insufficient load capacity can increase the outbound frame, because the drone has no human pilot fatigue problem, the dispatching frame is not the upper limit, if the attack is 3 hours, then 1 unmanned attack machine can More than 6 times, the number of bullets reached 6 tons, the basics were more than the 15 fighters, and the farther the attack is, the larger the advantage, the Chinese navy's existing aircraft carrier can only carry 24 歼 -15 fighters, and deduct the aircraft carrier After the fighter, the number of fighters that can be implemented is far less, and if there is a bibbit attack ship carrying 30 ~ 40 attacks 11 drones, 20 airborne missiles can be dispatched at a time of the aircraft carrier formation. Attack 11 drone, an attack wave can projection 40 anti-ship missiles, enough to form a saturation crackdown that cannot be resistant, if the air support task is performed, if calculated at 80%, can be dispatched for 30 Each carrying 6 to 8 small caliber guidance missiles, a total of 180 ~ 240 goals, this combat capacity is that eight vertical / short-range fighters cannot match.
Although the attack 11 drone is not as good as vertical / short-distance, it can be flying for 4 hours from the distance of 800 ~ 1000 kilometers, this time is 8-10 times the -15 fighter, with US AGM -158C Remote anti-ship missile range calculation Implementation interception, if the patrol distance is expanded to 800 kilometers, the 歼 -15 fighter can only stay for 40 minutes, and if you don't interrupted 2 two-machine formation patrol, the existing slip type aircraft carrier cannot meet the requirements, if the amphibious attack ship is carried 30 attack 11 drones, you can maintain a 24-hour patrol formation in three directions. When you enter the warning line in the B-1B remote strategy bomber, you can use the 2 ~ 4 霹雳 10 close-off air missiles. Interception, chaos the opponent's combat deployment, and can also alleviate the problem of insufficient existing aircraft carrier fighters to a certain extent to a valuable second interception time of 歼 -15 fighters patrolled at 300 ~ 400 kilometers.
If there is no warning machine for long air, you can provide the fleet to the fleet of 10 ~ 15 minutes of ultrasonic missile low-altitude attack warning time or 40 minutes Gaoyu speed missile warning time, basically eliminate the possibility of low-altitude attack, show in 2016 The "wind shadow" drone weight reached 4 tons, the aircraft was less than 10 meters, the wings show was 18 meters, the flight speed was 600 kilometers / hour, the limit was more than 15,000 meters, the left time was 15 hours, the wing hangs The radar surveillance system, the electronic war system, the communication interference system, "the wind shadow" drone development, considering the carrier model, use the body's anti-corrosion, reinforce the landing and fuselage, than the original "cloud shadow" The human machine has a ton, which has become a shipped drone may be very big. 3-5 times the early warning machine, with 2-3 frames of 500 kilometers away from the aircraft carrier, greatly improve the water defense capabilities of the water-noodle ship formation, in all, in all, in China's current strength, attack 11 drone and "The wind shadow" drone carrier is not too much difficult, and if the amphibious attack casing is more simple.
4: 076 amphibious attack ship
Now that the Chinese Navy has two 075 amphibious attack ships, but the quantity is obviously insufficient, and there are 12 ships behind the United States. China has at least 6 to 8 amphibious attack ships to meet the Chinese navy's amphibious combat scale. After the first batch of 075 amphibious attack ships, China can fully master the construction technology of amphibious attack ship, the second batch of 076 amphibious attack ship should have a new design concept, that is, a large fixed-wing ship drone The main carrier, the 076 amphibious attack ship drain is 50,000 tons, and the length and width of the ship have increased, the deck has sufficient space to install electromagnetic ejection and blocking device. Since the attack 11 drone is only ten tons, than 24 tons The 歼 -15 fighter is much more, as long as the 50-meter electromagnetic ejube can meet the takeoff requirements, the electromagnetic dassers are smaller than those of the traditional steam bullers, self-light, sustainable, and a steam bullet is 600 tons. With a length of 100 meters, the ejection efficiency is only 5% -7%, and each eradication should consume 2 tons of fresh water. From the closure to stand for more than 10 hours, the eradic life is only 2500 times, and each eradication is 500 times to maintain 3 days. 3 days Maintenance personnel account for 20% of the aircraft carrier, while the electromagnetic ejector weight is only 300 tons, the volume is only one-third, no complex system, the life is as high as more than 10,000 times, from closing to stand for more than ten minutes, The ejection efficiency is as high as 60%, nor does it require fresh water. It can easily draw 160 times or even 230 times a day, and one shot is taken as much as $ 8, which is ten times more than the steam bulk. In short, the electromagnetic ejector is overwhelmed by the steam bulk. The advantage, but powerful performance requires strong national level support, complexity and technical difficulty far more expectations. The electromagnetic ejector of the "Ford"-level aircraft carrier exposes a lot of problems in the test stage, directly leading to the "Ford" It is unable to serve, China's electromagnetic bulk is developed in 2008, started testing in 2013. In 2016, the 歼 -15 carrier fighter succeeded in the echo test, and the technical breakthrough of electromagnetic dilm is also caused a new generation of aircraft carrier. Some major modifications were rare, and the steam bulge, the 076 amphibious attack cassette is not more difficult.
076 amphibious attack ship's ship island design and radar electronic equipment completely different from the 075-type amphibious attack ship with simple radar electronics, with a "comprehensive radio mast" with S / X double-band radar as the core of the 055 destroyer. The 076 amphibious attack ship has a combat ship ship that has an aviation commanding capacity as a 003 aircraft carrier, plus electromagnetic ejection and attack 11 drone shot, indicating the operational model of the 076 amphibious attack ship will be based on air operations, becoming Amphibian attack ship, in summary, the 076 amphibious attack ship will be an unprecedented drone aircraft carrier, in the use of flexibility, cost, efficiency, and overall combat capabilities will be better than the US amphibious attack ship, use Less investment greatly enhances the China Navy's air blowing ability, it is likely to bring historic changes to the Chinese navy battle. At present, the 076 amphibious attack ship is still in the development stage. The first ship is likely to be in 2025, at any time 003 Aircraft carrier also enters the service stage. At the time, the main battle of the 055 destroyer, 003 aircraft carrier, 076 drone, and the core of the new generation of China Navy, which greatly enhanced the China Navy's far-sea combat capabilities.
The 076-type amphibious attack ship is only a large number of icebergs in many new Chinese weapons technology. With the continuous improvement of China's military technology, the development of many high-tech weapons in China has achieved corner overtaking, enters the leading stage, the 1980s, is the responsibility of the United States Imagine and manufacture, China is responsible for the mouth, the 21st century, and become the responsibility of the United States, China is responsible for manufacturing, and in a few years, it is impact that China is responsible for the idea and manufacturing, the United States is responsible for fluid.
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