The Great Northern War made Russia's glory but also established many enemies

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The Great Northern War made Russia's glory but also established many enemies

2022-06-23 06:09:09 19 ℃

The Greater Northern War (also known as the Second Northern War) refers to a war conducted by Sweden and the Russian Northern Alliance in 1700 to 1721. Since both the war are the emerging power of Russia and the veteran Sweden, the war, so this war It is destined to have a profound impact on the history of the two countries and even Europe. Russia is the biggest beneficiary of this war.

Although Sweden could not talk about European overlords in the 17th century, it was also one of the first -class powers. In 1617, Sweden forced Russia to sign the "Stolbovo Treaty", thereby occupying all Russia's Baltic Sea out of the sea; next, he seized the major territory of Germany, Denmark, and Norway, and was in northern Europe. But this also caused deep contradictions in Sweden and neighboring countries, especially the ambitious Russia, and laid a foreshadowing for it.

From 1698 to 1699, Russia, Denmark, and Saxon formed an anti -Swedish northern alliance; in February 1700, Denmark attacked Sweden, first provoked the Great Northern War. The war process probably experienced several stages of "Swedish Create the Northern Alliance -the Northern Alliance's disintegration -Sweden invaded Russia -Russia's defeat Sweden -New North Alliance -Sweden's final defeat". After the war Sweden and the Northern Alliance, they signed a peace treaty, and they were called "Nitatt Peace Treaty" with Russia.

The Wagan (now belongs to Russia and Saint Petersburg), Estra (now Estonia), the coastal areas of Rica, Ersell Island (now Satomima) and Dag Island (now Hemuma Island ) Cutting to Russia, Russia returned to Finland and paid 1.5 million rubles in Sweden as compensation.

It can be seen from the Great Northern War that only Russia and Sweden who really have the potential to dominate Nordic: Denmark and other countries have limited development potential and have long declined. Or Russia's position, so from the perspective of the Great Northern War, it is a war that challenges the position of Nordic hegemon.

Great Northern War situation map

After the defeat of Sweden, Russia obtained a large territory along the Baltic Sea, and Russian forces made merger from sea and land to Central Europe and Western Europe, providing the foundation for Russia to further curb the rebound of Sweden and act as European gendarmerie in the future.

The way Russia quickly filled the power of power left after Sweden's failure through defeating Sweden, rapid expansion of the Nordic territory, and strengthening the existence of military existence, thereby digesting and occupying areas, so that it can better play a better role for Russia's further expansion.

The Baltic Fleet had been established before the outbreak of the Greater Northern War. However, before the war, Sweden occupied Russia's direct outlets in the Baltic Sea, and the development of the fleet was severely hit. During the Greater Northern War, the Baltic Fleet participated in many battles (such as attacking the Nortburg Fortress of Sweden in October 1702) and got the long -term Baltic coastline occupied by Russia as its own development base after the war. It turns out that this has a considerable positive impact on the Russian foreign war.

Seven -year war diagram

For example, during the seven -year war, the Baltic fleet blocked the Strait of Ole and prevented the British from entering the Baltic Sea; several times in the Russian war went to the Mediterranean to deal with the Turkish Navy; from 1788 to 1790, Sweden was hit hard in the Russian war. To a certain extent, without the Baltic fleet, there is no success in Russia for the past century; without the victory of the Great Northern War, there is no Russian Baltic fleet.

From this perspective, the Greater Northern War made a powerful Russian Empire.

Sweden was a surrounding enemy before the outbreak of the Greater Northern War, which also caused Sweden to fail in this war to the strengths of the European powers with its own power. After Russia defeated Sweden, which hindered its dominance of Northern Europe, it began to extend its power to Central Europe and Western Europe. Its aggression against Poland was a good example.

However, this also directly leads to the emergence and spread of "terrorist Russia" in Central and Western countries. Russia will face at least long -term hostility, prevention and resentment in Central and Western European countries. This is also the price that Russia must bear.