What skills do you need to work in the future?2021-11-25 14:39:57 16 ℃
Article Author | Marco Dondi, Julia Klier, Frederic Panier, And Jörg Schubert, Cautious
We know that digital technology and artificial intelligence are changing the world. With the emergence of new careers, today's staff need to learn new skills and constantly adapt. We also know that the COVID-19 crisis accelerates this shift. However, we are not very clear about which skills need for future employment.
The study of the McKinsey Global Institute has been investigated with automation, artificial intelligence and robot technology, will lead to unemployment and creation, and infer the type of high-level skill. The future market needs to be artificial and physical skills, and the demand for basic cognitive skills will decline, but the demand for technology, social and emotions, and more advanced cognitive skills will increase.
Government agencies are very hoped to help their professional people in these areas, but if they don't more accurately understand what skills do, it is difficult to develop courses and find the best learning strategy. The professor is not clearly defined.
Therefore, we have conducted some research, hoping that they have the formation of definitions and have the skills required for citizens to work better in the future. This study determined that 56 basic skills that would benefit everyone. At the same time, these studies also show that the degree of proficiency of these skills has been associated with higher employment possibilities, higher income and work satisfaction.
Define the basic skills of professional people
Of course, some work is specialized. But in a labor market that is more automated, digitized, and dynamically developed, no matter which industry or what career is engaged, everyone will benefit from a series of fundamental skills to meet the following three standards:
- Creating the value that exceeds the automation system and intelligent machines
- Work in a digital environment
- Constantly adapt to new work methods and new occupations
We use academic research and McKinsey experience in vocational training to define these basic skills (see Table 1). We start from four summary skills - cognition, numbers, interpersonal relationships, and self-leaders - then identify 13 independent skills groups that belong to different skills. For example, communication and psychological flexibility are two skill groups belonging to the category of a category, and teamwork efficiency is within the scope of interpersonal relationship.
For more accurate, we have identified 56 people who are different from these skills groups (which are capable Deltas). We call them the ability to entries rather than skill, because they are both skills and attitudes. For example, "adaptivity" and "response to uncertainty" are attitudes.
Ability of skills and results
From here, we have conducted two studies. First, we try to measure the extent of the current employee to these 56 capabilities, and we believe that future occupational people need to improve their work ability. Second, we try to measure whether the degree of proficiency of these capabilities has been associated with certain specific results related to the work.
To determine the degree of proficiency, we define an ideal level for these 56 capabilities (see appendix) and then designed a psychological questionnaire to assess the degree of proficiency of respondents relative to this level. 18,000 people from 15 countries completed this online questionnaire and scored from 0 to 100 for each capability (see additional content, "example: Example: Assessment capability item").
The results show that the respondents use the two skills groups of digital category - software use and development and understanding of digital systems - the degree of proficiency in the digital system. They have the proficiency of two skill groups in communication, planning and working methods - they all belong to a category of category - is also lower than the average (see Table 2).
We also inspected whether the degree of proficiency is related to the level of education. Overall, respondents with university degree have higher score more than respondents without university degrees, which is not surprising - changes in respondents on the workplace Prepare better. However, higher levels of education do not mean that the degree of extent to all capabilities will be higher. This connection is suitable for many capabilities in cognitive and digital category. However, for many capabilities that belong to self-leaders and interpersonal relationships, such correlations are not existent, such as "confident" "dealing with uncertainty" "courage and adventure" "coach" "counseling" and " Resolve conflicts. For certain capabilities, the higher the degree of education, the lower the degree of proficiency, and "modest" is such an example. Table 3 lists the ability of proficiency and the highest level of education level correlation. (Some factors are negative.)
Skilled degree on ability
In order to assess the proficiency of each capability item, we give three different sentences, specific behaviors, selection and preferences in different situations. Respondents are asked to choose to the most description of their own sentence, even if there is no or more, it may be related. Each sentence represents the proficiency of different levels. (If you want to learn more about our evaluation method, please refer to the appendix at the end of this article. Efficiency option:
- Option 1: I can easily solve daily problems, but I usually need to seek help when solving complex problems.
- Option 2: I can break a huge problem into several parts and find solutions
- Option 3: I often break the complex problem into several parts, find out the reason, then find solutions
We continue to test whether these capabilities have been helping people work. The survey results show that the higher the degree of proficiency of these capabilities, the higher the ability to find a higher possibility, higher income, and more work satisfaction. However, different capabilities have stronger correlation with these three related results.
In the case of maintaining all variables - including population statistics variables and extent to other capability items - we found that the relationship between several capabilities in employment and self-leaders is the most closely related, ie " Adaptability "" Integrated Information "and" Achievement Guide "(see Table 4, Part 1).
High-income and four skills groups are the most closely related, and the respondents are at the lowest score, these four skills groups are understanding digital systems, software use and development, planning and working methods, communication (the first two belonging to numbers) The category, the latter two belongs to a category of a category).
Exquisite digital technology seems to be specially related to high income: more than one-fifth of the previous five-fifth of the previous five-in-one respondents in digital capabilities is higher than those with relatively proficient degrees. 41%. In the comparison of cognitive ability, this ratio is 30%; this ratio is 24% in the comparison in self-leadership (this ratio is 14% in comparison of interpersonal ability.
That is to say, the four most closely close contact with high-income is: "Develop Work Plan" and "Prospecting the right question", both belong to the category of cognition; "self-confidence", belongs to the self-leading category; "organizational consciousness ", Belongs to interpersonal communication categories. (See Table 4, Part 2)
Work satisfaction is also related to specific capabilities, especially those that belong to self-leadership. In the case where other variables including income are unchanged, "self-motivation and health" "to deal with uncertainty" and "confident" have the greatest impact on respondents' work satisfaction. (See Table 4, Part 3)
It is worth noting that the ability to master the two self-leaders in the three results - "Confidence" and "Coping Uncertainty" - in the most predicative ability The top three are ranked. (See Table 5)
How to help shape education and vocational training
Our findings help define specific skills that occupational people may need in the future work world, and show how proficiency will affect how these skills will affect work-related results, namely employment, income and work satisfaction. This further shows three actions that the Government may wish to take.
01 Reform Education System
Our research shows that the government can consider reviewing and updating courses to pay more attention to these capabilities. Given the correlation between self-leading ability and interpersonal relationship and higher education, it is clear that these soft skills launch better courses are clearly necessary.
The government can also consider further research. Many governments and scholars have begun to define classifications of the skills required for occupational people, but few people can do this. In addition, there are very few people who will conduct such a large number of studies to determine how to develop and evaluate this skill. For example, every capability item in the course needs to be studied to determine the progress and proficiency of progress and proficiency in different age stages, and design and test the training strategy and evaluation model. For different capabilities, the solution may have a big difference. For example, cultivate and evaluate the "self-awareness and self-management" solution will be different from the solution required to "Develop Work Plan" or "Data Analysis".
In addition, government departments can also consider establishing educational research and innovation agencies, providing funding for research, promoting researchers to enter school test innovation solutions, and determine which capabilities apply. They can also provide emerging data and insights to researchers and educators of the private sector.
02 Reform Vocational Training System
Most of our investigates, like most people in society, they are not in the national education system. Therefore, enhancing their ability requires constant vocational training. For respondents who have been out of the national education system, the proportion of the digital competency items is significantly lower, and this also indirectly reduces the opportunity to get higher income.
Professional training courses must also make changes. For example, our research shows that the ability of self-leading categories may be particularly important for employment, but it is usually not included in a vocational training project. In addition, in the process of searching for professional training programs on the Internet, we found that developing a course in the ability to achieve or self-awareness and self-management groups, 20 times less than the courses of training communication capabilities. This blank needs to be filled to fully deal with the unemployment wave caused by COVID-19 popularity. In addition, the specific actions to learn from vocational training include the following:
- Establish an artificial intelligent training project aggregator to attract professional learners and encourage them to learn lifetime. Artificial intelligence algorithm can guide users to determine if they need to improve their skills or update skills for new work, and list candidates for related training programs. In order to develop accurate algorithms, the government needs to collect and organize data on markets on employment and skills, as well as data on training programs. The listed items should include projects that professors and work-related results. Because of employment, self-leading ability is particularly important.
- Find more people 's attention to the ability to pay attention. Some governments offer lifelong learning subsidies to their occupational people, and professional people can participate in training programs within the national integrated bodies. In order to help professional people prepare for future employment, the government can put funds into the project of training and employment. For example, you can only provide an expenditure voucher of a particular project, and funds from the project provider may depend on the employment result of the students or whether to provide a training module containing certain capabilities.
03 Ensuring the cost of the occupational man affords
Most children in the world have the opportunity to receive primary and secondary education, but not all education is high quality, and most people in most countries are not responsible for young children (the best age for cultivating specific thinking and attitude). Early education. In addition, few countries have developed systems that provide high quality training professional opportunities affordable.
Therefore, as the 19th-century industrial revolution expanded the opportunity of people's education, today's technical revolution should also further promote the popularization of education, to ensure universal, high quality, from childhood to retirement period can afford Educational opportunities become easier to get and ensure that the course includes the ability to protect employment opportunities in the future.
Appendix: Definition and Research Method of Capability
Ability item definition table PDF file, you can leave a message directly to the platform: Company - Name - position - mailbox, or add you Guijun (_ssx). After the application is passed, please provide your company's business card, we will send PDF to your email, the following is the sample page.
Translation | christine jiang, erica li
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